Chocolate	  CHOCOLATE	  INDUSTRY	  Sayed	  Mohammad	  Naim	  KHALID	            2012	  -­‐	  MARCH	  
Overview(1)  Facts(2)    History of Chocolate(3)    Production of Chocolate(4)    Prejudices and Truth(5)    Chocolate in ...
Facts(1)  Facts of Consumption(2)  Nutritional Information(3)  Difference between white chocolate and milk     chocolate
Facts of ConsumptionChocolate consumption in kilograms per person and country
Facts of Consumption
Facts(1)  Facts of Consumption(2)  Nutritional Information(3)  Difference between white chocolate and milk   chocolate
Nutritional Informationh>p://www.cacaoweb.net/nutriJon.html	  
Cocoa	  Bu>er	  is	  made	  of	  Triglycerides	              TripalmiJn	  
Cocoa	  Bu>er	  ComposiJon	  •  PalmiJc	  acid	  (~25%)	      –  C16:0	  	  16	  carbon	  saturated	  fa>y	  acid	  •  Ste...
Cocoa	  Bu>er	  Crystals	         Proposed	  structures	  
Melts	  in	  Your	  Mouth	  	  (Not	  in	  Your	  Hand)	                          Chocolate	  Matrix	                     ...
Facts(1)  Facts of Consumption(2)  Nutritional Information(3)  Difference between white    chocolate and milk chocolate
Difference between                white and milk chocolate          White chocolate                           Milk chocola...
Some	  brands	  in	  big	                 consumers	       Belgium	             Germany	             France	     Switzerla...
Belgium	  •  Renowned	  for	  their	  rich	  chocolate	  tradiJons,	     Belgium	  commands	  the	  market	  in	  high	  q...
The	  Netherlands	  •  The	  Netherlands	  hold	  such	  tradiJons	  in	  chocolate	     manufacturing	  that	  currently,...
Germany	  •  Germany	  ranks	  as	  one	  of	  the	  largest	     consumers	  of	  chocolate	  in	  Europe.	             L...
Austria	  •  Austria	  is	  more	  renowned	  for	  their	  paJsserie	     than	  their	  chocolates.	  	  The	  Vienna	  ...
Italy	  •  Italians	  prefer	  chocolates	  that	  are	  sweet	  or	     nu>y	  in	  flavor.	  	  Italian	  chocolaJers	  a...
Switzerland	  •  The	  Swiss	  are	  responsible	  for	  three	  of	  the	  greatest	     impacts	  on	  modern	  chocolat...
France	  •  France	  is	  unique	  from	  other	  European	     countries	  in	  that	  fact	  that	  they	  boast	  small...
Great	  Britain	  •  Great	  Britain	  has	  undergone	  a	  transformaJon	     since	  the	  creaJon	  of	  the	  Chocola...
America	  •  Like	  the	  BriJsh,	  American	  prefer	  sweet	  milk	     chocolates.	  	  The	  industry	  is	  dominated...
Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday...
History of Chocolate(1)  Where does Cocoa come from?(2)  Chocolate in Europe – Some Dates
Where does Cocoa come                  from?•  First people who made chocolate were the Mayas and   the Aztecs•  They dran...
History of Chocolate(1)  Where does Cocoa come from?(2)  Chocolate in Europe – Some Dates
Chocolate in Europe -           Some Dates1528: Hernán Cortéz returned to Spain with  cocoa beans and the formula for the ...
Chocolate in Europe -              Some Dates1674: The first solid chocolate in a stick form had  been soldEnd of 17th cen...
Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday...
Cocoa growing countries
Cocoa Beans - The Raw      Material
Machinery	  used	  in	  chocolate	                       company	  1.     Pre-­‐Drying	  machine	  2.     Winnowing	  /	  ...
General	  producJon	      flowchart	  
Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production               Step 1: cocoa beans
HarvesJng	  •  Harvest	  takes	  place	  twice	  a	     year	  from	  November	  to	  January	     and	  May	  to	  July.	...
FermentaJon	  	  •  First,	  the	  beans	  and	  pulp	  are	  laid	     in	  fermentaJon	  boxes.	  	  •  The	  process	  ...
Drying	  	  •  Amer	  fermentaJon,	  the	     beans	  sJll	  contain	  too	  much	     water	  to	  be	  turned	  into	   ...
Cocoa Beans - RoastingRoasJng	  takes	  place	  at	  210	  F	  for	  10-­‐115	  minutes.	  	  RoasJng	  sterilizes	  the	 ...
Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production               Step 1: cocoa beans               Step 2: shell and nibs
Winnowing	  •  Winnowing	  is	  the	     process	  of	  taking	  the	     shells	  off	  of	  the	  beans.	  •  	  	  •  Wh...
Nibs, Shell and Liquor
Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production               Step 1: cocoa beans               Step 2: shell and nibs               S...
GrindingThe	  nibs	  are	  then	  ground,	  either	  by	  machine	  or	  between	  two	  stones.	  A	  liquid	  mass	  cal...
Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production               Step 1: cocoa beans               Step 2: shell and               nibs  ...
Conching	  	  •  Conching	  is	  the	  process	  of	  mixing	     the	  cocoa	  mass	  (not	  yet	  chocolate).	  	  •  It...
Tempering	  	  •  The	  next	  step	  is	     tempering.	  The	  chocolate	     is	  slowly	  heated	  and	     cooled	  a...
Crystal	  Forms	  of	  Cocoa	  Bu>er	      Chocolate	  Tempering	                                                         ...
Chocolate	  Bloom	   Tempered	                                                      Bloomed	                   Thermal	  a...
Chocolate +              +               
Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday...
Prejudices and Truth(1) Table of Prejudices and Truth(2)  Advantages of plain, dark chocolate
Table of Prejudices and Truth*	  	              *cheap mass-produced chocolate   # plain, dark chocolate
Table of Prejudices and Truth      Prejudice           Reason                    Truthmigraine          large doses of tyr...
Table of Prejudices and Truth          Prejudice            Reason                    Truthmigraine               large do...
Table of Prejudices                          and Truth          Prejudice               Reason                    Truthmig...
Table of Prejudices and                               Truth          Prejudice              Reason                    Trut...
Table of Prejudices and                          Truth          Prejudice              Reason                        Truth...
Table of Prejudices and                       Truth          Prejudice              Reason                        Truthmig...
Prejudices and Truth(1)  Table of Prejudices and Truth(2)  Advantages of plain, dark    chocolate
Advantages of plain,              dark chocolateSupports antioxidant effects   Prevention of clogged                      ...
Chocolate in everyday life(1)  Chocolate in media  1.1 advertising  1.2 films(2)  Quotation about Chocolate
Chocolate	  Fashion	  Show	  Chocolate	  Show	  New	  York,	  November	  8,	  2005	  
Quotations about                  Chocolate•  Chemically speaking, chocolate really is the world’s perfect  food. (Michael...
Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday...
Bibliography•  DELANDRE	  FABIEN.	  ().	  FABRICATION	  DU	  CHOCOLAT.	  h>p://vietech2.free.fr/   choco1.pdf	  (02,22,201...
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Chocolate production

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Chocolate Production (farm to table concept)

Chocolate production

  1. 1. Chocolate  CHOCOLATE  INDUSTRY  Sayed  Mohammad  Naim  KHALID   2012  -­‐  MARCH  
  2. 2. Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday life(6)  Bibliography
  3. 3. Facts(1)  Facts of Consumption(2)  Nutritional Information(3)  Difference between white chocolate and milk chocolate
  4. 4. Facts of ConsumptionChocolate consumption in kilograms per person and country
  5. 5. Facts of Consumption
  6. 6. Facts(1)  Facts of Consumption(2)  Nutritional Information(3)  Difference between white chocolate and milk chocolate
  7. 7. Nutritional Informationh>p://www.cacaoweb.net/nutriJon.html  
  8. 8. Cocoa  Bu>er  is  made  of  Triglycerides   TripalmiJn  
  9. 9. Cocoa  Bu>er  ComposiJon  •  PalmiJc  acid  (~25%)   –  C16:0    16  carbon  saturated  fa>y  acid  •  Stearic  acid  (~35%)   –  C18:0    18  carbon  saturated  fa>y  acid  •  Oleic  acid  (~35%)   –  C18:1    18  carbon  unsaturated  fa>y  acid   –  One  cis  double  bond  at  C9  •  Primarily  P/StOP/St  and  P/StOO  structures  
  10. 10. Cocoa  Bu>er  Crystals   Proposed  structures  
  11. 11. Melts  in  Your  Mouth    (Not  in  Your  Hand)   Chocolate  Matrix   is  Crystalline  Fat   (Cocoa  Bu>er)  
  12. 12. Facts(1)  Facts of Consumption(2)  Nutritional Information(3)  Difference between white chocolate and milk chocolate
  13. 13. Difference between white and milk chocolate White chocolate Milk chocolate•  Two kinds of white •  by definition: less than chocolate 30% chocolate  not chocolate. •  Milk-chocolate-candy:•  "Real" white chocolate = primarily sugar + spices candy bark with almost no chocolate•  Allergic to cocoa  contains •  Milk chocolate no cocoa. 12 cocoa beans•  Ingrediens (primarily): cocoa •  “Real” chocolate butter, sugar, milk and 99 cocoa beans vanilla, without any cocoa flavoring Strictly speaking: chocolate is any product based 99% on cocoa solid and/or cacao fat
  14. 14. Some  brands  in  big   consumers   Belgium   Germany   France   Switzerland   Austria   Great  Britain  The  Netherlands   Italy   America  
  15. 15. Belgium  •  Renowned  for  their  rich  chocolate  tradiJons,   Belgium  commands  the  market  in  high  quality   chocolates.   Godiva   Nirvana   Charlemagne   Kim’s  Chocolates  LTD  
  16. 16. The  Netherlands  •  The  Netherlands  hold  such  tradiJons  in  chocolate   manufacturing  that  currently,  all  cocoa  and  chocolate   products  are  processed  in  the  Netherlands  and  exported   to  all  other  countries.    This  is  largely  due  to  the  cocoa   press  invented  by  Coenraad  Van  Houten     Van  Houten   Bensdorp   Droste  
  17. 17. Germany  •  Germany  ranks  as  one  of  the  largest   consumers  of  chocolate  in  Europe.   Leysieffer   Feodora   Hachez   Stollwerck  
  18. 18. Austria  •  Austria  is  more  renowned  for  their  paJsserie   than  their  chocolates.    The  Vienna  torte  is  just   one  example  of  the  experJse.   Mirabell   Heindl  
  19. 19. Italy  •  Italians  prefer  chocolates  that  are  sweet  or   nu>y  in  flavor.    Italian  chocolaJers  are   masters  in  packaging  and  presentaJon.   Caffarel   La  Provenzale  
  20. 20. Switzerland  •  The  Swiss  are  responsible  for  three  of  the  greatest   impacts  on  modern  chocolate  processing.    The   invenJon  of  conching,  by  Rodolphe  Lindt,   combined  with  creamy  fondant  produces  the   smooth  silky  texture  we  enjoy  today.    We  can  also   thank  the  Swiss  for  the  creaJon  of  milk  chocolate.   Lindt/Sprungli   Suchard   Toblerone  
  21. 21. France  •  France  is  unique  from  other  European   countries  in  that  fact  that  they  boast  smaller,   more  independent  chocolate  manufacturers,   each  with  their  own  specialJes.   Bonnat   Valrhona  
  22. 22. Great  Britain  •  Great  Britain  has  undergone  a  transformaJon   since  the  creaJon  of  the  Chocolate  Society  in   1990.    A  resurgence  in  the  consumpJon  of   premium  chocolates  has  replaced  the  tradiJonal   old-­‐style  sweet  milk  chocolate.   Bendick’s   Green  &  Black’s   Cadbury  
  23. 23. America  •  Like  the  BriJsh,  American  prefer  sweet  milk   chocolates.    The  industry  is  dominated  by  a  few   companies,  but  like  England,  the  American  pallets   are  changing  to  premium,  hand-­‐made  chocolates.   Dile>ante   Ghirardelli   Gui>ard   Fran’s  Chocolates   Hershey  
  24. 24. Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday life(6)  Bibliography
  25. 25. History of Chocolate(1)  Where does Cocoa come from?(2)  Chocolate in Europe – Some Dates
  26. 26. Where does Cocoa come from?•  First people who made chocolate were the Mayas and the Aztecs•  They drank chocolate as a bitter and spicy beverage called “xocoatl” (“bitter water”)•  Chocolate played an important role in their social and religious life•  It symbolized life and fertility and was also used as medicine•  It was a drink for wealthy and important people (royalty, priests, etc.)•  Cocoa beans were also used as money
  27. 27. History of Chocolate(1)  Where does Cocoa come from?(2)  Chocolate in Europe – Some Dates
  28. 28. Chocolate in Europe - Some Dates1528: Hernán Cortéz returned to Spain with cocoa beans and the formula for the chocolate drink1615: The Spanish princess Anne of Austria married Luis XIII of France, so chocolate came to France1657: A Frenchman opened the first “Chocolate House” in London  became as popular as Coffee Houses
  29. 29. Chocolate in Europe - Some Dates1674: The first solid chocolate in a stick form had been soldEnd of 17th century: chocolate came to Germany  first pralines were made by a German cook  a tax was imposed by Frederick I of Prussia1792: A chocolate factory was opened in Berlin1875: The first milk chocolate was put on the market
  30. 30. Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday life(6)  Bibliography
  31. 31. Cocoa growing countries
  32. 32. Cocoa Beans - The Raw Material
  33. 33. Machinery  used  in  chocolate   company  1.  Pre-­‐Drying  machine  2.  Winnowing  /  Deshelling  machine  3.  RoasJng  &  Cooling  machine  4.  Grinding  machine  5.  TransporJng  such  as  :   1.  Screw  Conveyor     2.  Bucket  Elevator     3.  Fliud  Pump  /  Gear  pump  +  Piping     4.  Dumping  StaJon     5.  AspiraJon  pipe  to  Cyclone  and  Centrifugal  Blower     6.  Plakorm  
  34. 34. General  producJon   flowchart  
  35. 35. Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production Step 1: cocoa beans
  36. 36. HarvesJng  •  Harvest  takes  place  twice  a   year  from  November  to  January   and  May  to  July.    •  The  fruit  is  hand-­‐picked  to   protect  the  trees.    •  Once  harvested  from  the  trees,   the  pods  are  opened  and  their   seeds  are  removed.    
  37. 37. FermentaJon    •  First,  the  beans  and  pulp  are  laid   in  fermentaJon  boxes.    •  The  process  of  fermentaJon   produces  heat  requiring  the   beans  to  be  sJrred.    •  At  the  end  of  the  5-­‐day   fermentaJon  process,  the  beans   become  brown,  bi>erness   subsides  and  the  flavor  develops.    
  38. 38. Drying    •  Amer  fermentaJon,  the   beans  sJll  contain  too  much   water  to  be  turned  into   chocolate.    •  The  beans  are  spread  out  in   the  sunshine  to  dry.  Most   beans  are  sun-­‐dried  for  up   to  14  days.    •  Amer  drying,  the  beans  are   inspected  and  separated.    
  39. 39. Cocoa Beans - RoastingRoasJng  takes  place  at  210  F  for  10-­‐115  minutes.    RoasJng  sterilizes  the  beans,  enhances  flavor,  and  makes  the  next  step  much  easier.  
  40. 40. Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production Step 1: cocoa beans Step 2: shell and nibs
  41. 41. Winnowing  •  Winnowing  is  the   process  of  taking  the   shells  off  of  the  beans.  •     •  What  is  lem  over  is  the   “nib,”  the  most  desired   part  of  the  bean.    
  42. 42. Nibs, Shell and Liquor
  43. 43. Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production Step 1: cocoa beans Step 2: shell and nibs Step 3: cocoa powder
  44. 44. GrindingThe  nibs  are  then  ground,  either  by  machine  or  between  two  stones.  A  liquid  mass  called  cocoa  liquor  is  produced.  With  more  grinding  and  the  addiJon  of  sugar,  chocolate  is  made.  
  45. 45. Flow Diagram ofChocolate Production Step 1: cocoa beans Step 2: shell and nibs Step 3: cocoa powder Step 4: plain chocolate
  46. 46. Conching    •  Conching  is  the  process  of  mixing   the  cocoa  mass  (not  yet  chocolate).    •  It  is  conJnuously  mixed  at  a  certain   temperature  to  develop  flavor,   remove  moisture  and  break  down   large  pieces.  This  can  take  hours  to   days,  depending  on  the  desired   outcome.    •  The  finest  chocolates  are  conched   for  5  days.    
  47. 47. Tempering    •  The  next  step  is   tempering.  The  chocolate   is  slowly  heated  and   cooled  allowing  the  cocoa   mass  to  solidify  and   stabilize.    •  Without  tempering,  the   chocolate  would  separate   and  would  not  harden   well.    
  48. 48. Crystal  Forms  of  Cocoa  Bu>er   Chocolate  Tempering   Tempered  chocolate   Cocoa  bu>er  is  a  polymorphic  fat    It  can  form  six  different  crystal  structures  with  different   melJng  points  and  properJes  
  49. 49. Chocolate  Bloom   Tempered   Bloomed   Thermal  abuse  melts  form  V  crystals  Liquid  fat  migrates  to  the  surface  where  it  crystallizes  into  unappeJzing  small,  polymorphic  crystals  of  arbitrary  form  
  50. 50. Chocolate + + 
  51. 51. Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday life(6)  Bibliography
  52. 52. Prejudices and Truth(1) Table of Prejudices and Truth(2)  Advantages of plain, dark chocolate
  53. 53. Table of Prejudices and Truth*     *cheap mass-produced chocolate # plain, dark chocolate
  54. 54. Table of Prejudices and Truth Prejudice Reason Truthmigraine large doses of tyramine only small quantity
  55. 55. Table of Prejudices and Truth Prejudice Reason Truthmigraine large doses of tyramine only small quantityobesity sugar * a lot of sugar # less sugar  no correlation *cheap, mass-produced chocolate # dark chocolate (> 70%)
  56. 56. Table of Prejudices and Truth Prejudice Reason Truthmigraine large doses of tyramine only small quantityobesity sugar * a lot of sugar # less sugar  no correlationacne no correlation between acne and chocolate proved *cheap, mass-produced chocolate # dark chocolate (> 70%)
  57. 57. Table of Prejudices and Truth Prejudice Reason Truthmigraine large doses of tyramine only small quantityobesity sugar * a lot of sugar # less sugar  no correlationacne no correlation between acne and chocolate provedtooth decay Tannin counteracts *lot of tannins enzyme  caries # calcium and fluoride  fortification *cheap, mass-produced chocolate # dark chocolate (> 70%)
  58. 58. Table of Prejudices and Truth Prejudice Reason Truthmigraine large doses of tyramine only small quantityobesity sugar * a lot of sugar # less sugar  no correlationacne no correlation between acne and chocolate provedtooth decay Tannin counteracts *lot of tannins enzyme  caries # calcium and fluoride  fortificationallergy allergy is rare (exception: traces of nuts) *cheap, mass-produced chocolate # dark chocolate (> 70%)
  59. 59. Table of Prejudices and Truth Prejudice Reason Truthmigraine large doses of tyramine only small quantityobesity sugar * a lot of sugar # less sugar  no correlationacne no correlation between acne and chocolate provedtooth decay Tannin counteracts *lot of tannins enzyme  caries # calcium and fluoride  fortificationallergy allergy is rare (exception: traces of nuts)addiction no evidence proved (only delight and desire) *cheap, mass-produced chocolate # dark chocolate (> 70%)
  60. 60. Prejudices and Truth(1)  Table of Prejudices and Truth(2)  Advantages of plain, dark chocolate
  61. 61. Advantages of plain, dark chocolateSupports antioxidant effects Prevention of clogged arteries and heart attacksMood enhancer Raises serotonin and (aphrodisiac) releases endorphinsRich of magnesium Prevent women of violent mood, heart disease and hypertensionCholesterol free Cholesterol furs up arteries
  62. 62. Chocolate in everyday life(1)  Chocolate in media 1.1 advertising 1.2 films(2)  Quotation about Chocolate
  63. 63. Chocolate  Fashion  Show  Chocolate  Show  New  York,  November  8,  2005  
  64. 64. Quotations about Chocolate•  Chemically speaking, chocolate really is the world’s perfect food. (Michael Levine, nutrition researcher)•  I have this theory that chocolate slows down the aging process. It may not be true, but do I dare take the chance? (unknown)•  I never met a chocolate I didn’t like. (Deanna Troi in “Star Trek”)•  Simply put … everybody has a price, mine is chocolate! (unknown)
  65. 65. Overview(1)  Facts(2)  History of Chocolate(3)  Production of Chocolate(4)  Prejudices and Truth(5)  Chocolate in everyday life(6)  Bibliography
  66. 66. Bibliography•  DELANDRE  FABIEN.  ().  FABRICATION  DU  CHOCOLAT.  h>p://vietech2.free.fr/ choco1.pdf  (02,22,2012)  •  h>p://www.rainforest-­‐alliance.org/sites/default/files/site-­‐documents/ educaJon/documents/cocoa_slideshow.pdf  (22,02,2012)  •  h>p://www.cacaoweb.net/manufacturing-­‐chocolate.html  (22,03,2012)  •  h>p://www.cacaoweb.net/nutriJon.html  (22,03,2012)  •  h>p://www.li>leford.com/images/08_techinfo/Technifaxes/Food/ 10_Chocolate%20Processing-­‐New%20Efficiency%20In%20Chocolate %20Refining%20and%20Processing.pdf  (01,01,2012)  •  h>p://www.allchocolate.com/understanding/how_chocolate_is_made/ at_factory.aspx  (22,03,2012)  •  h>p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chocolate  

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