Tannenbaum defines HRIS as a technology-based system used toacquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, and distributepertinent information regarding an organization’s human resources.Kovach defined HRIS as a systematic procedure forcollecting, storing, maintaining, retrieving, and validating data needed byorganization about its human resources, personnel activities, andorganization unit characteristics. Furthermore, HRIS shape anintegration between human resource management (HRM) andInformation Technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particularbasic HR activities and processes with the information technology field. Asis the case with any complex organizational information system, an HRIS isnot limited to the computer hardware and software applications thatcomprise the technical part of the system it also includes thepeople, policies, procedures, and data required to manage the HR function(Hendrickson, 2003).
The function of Human Resources departments is generally administrative and commonto all organizations. Organizations may have formalized selection, evaluation, andpayroll processes. Efficient and effective management of "Human Capital"progressed to an increasingly imperative and complex process. The HR functionconsists of tracking existing employee data which traditionally includes personalhistories, skills, capabilities, accomplishments and salary. To reduce the manualworkload of these administrative activities, organizations began to electronicallyautomate many of these processes by introducing specialized Human ResourceManagement Systems. HR executives rely on internal or external IT professionals todevelop and maintain an integrated HRMS. Before the client–server architecture evolvedin the late 1980s, many HR automation processes were relegated to mainframe computersthat could handle large amounts of data transactions. In consequence of the high capitalinvestment necessary to buy or program proprietary software, these internally-developedHRMS were limited to organizations that possessed a large amount of capital. The adventof client–server, Application Service Provider, and Software as a Service SaaS or HumanResource Management Systems enabled increasingly higher administrative control ofsuch systems. Currently
DATA INPUT OUTPUT MAINTENENCE• The input • The • The HRIS then function enters maintenance process the personal function output, make information updates and the necessary into the HRIS adds new data calculations to the database and then after data have format the been entered presentation in into the a way that information could be system. understood.
Thus, for the HR professional there is an increasing reliance on the HRISto fulfil even the most elementary job tasks. As human capital plays alarger role in competitive advantage, functional managers expect theHRIS to provide functionality to meet the unit’s goals and objectives.Moreover, managers rely on the HRIS’s capabilities to provide superiordata collection and analysis, especially for performance appraisal andperformance management. Additionally, it also includes skilltesting, assessment and development, résumé processing, recruitmentand retention, team and project management, and managementdevelopment. Finally, the individual employees become end users ofmany HRIS applications. The increased complexity of employee benefitoptions and the corresponding need to monitor and modify categoryselections more frequently has increased the awareness of HRISfunctionality among employees. Web-based access and self-serviceoptions have simplified the modification process and enhanced theusability of many benefit options and administration alternative for mostemployees.
Integrating the technologies of HR Increased Efficiency Increased Effectiveness
The developments in Information Technology havedramatically affected traditional HR functionswith nearly every HR function(example, compensation, staffing, and training)experiencing some sort of reengineering of itsprocesses. However, this process of change hascreated significant challenges for HR professionalsresulting in the transformation of traditionalprocesses into on-line processes.
Rapid computing technology has allowed moretransactions to occur with fewer fixed resources.Typical examples are payroll, flexible benefitsadministration, and health benefits processing.Though technologies of early mainframesprovided significant efficiencies in these areas, thedifference is that the record processing efficienciesthat were once only available to large firms are nowreadily available to any organization size
Most often, as with processes, computer technology is designed toimprove effectiveness either by in terms of the accuracy of informationor by using the technology to simplify the process. This is especially thecase where large data sets require reconciliation. However, onerousmanual reconciliation processes may be executed faster, but also withnear perfect accuracy using automated systems. For instance, pensionand profit sharing applications, benefits administration, and employeeactivities are just to mention but a few. Using computer technology inthese processes ensures accurate results and offer substantialsimplification and timeliness over manual processing.Consequently, the vast majority of HR functions have had some degreeof automation applied in order to gain both efficiency andeffectiveness.
HRIS is an effective and efficient catalyst forintegrating human resource management andInformation Technology. This was common with allthe various definitions of HRIS. HRIS as a systemsupport HR functional applications such as employeeselection and placement, payroll, pension and benefitsmanagement, intake and training projections just tomention but a few.