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COLD AND DRY

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ARCHITECTURE OF COLD AND DRY CLIMATIC ZONE.
A CASE STUDY OF LADAKH. IT DESCRIBES BUILDING HOUSE IN COLD AND DRY CLIMATE.

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COLD AND DRY

  1. 1. ARCHITECTURE IN COLD & DRY REGIONS SUBMITTED BY:- SARTHAK GOYAL SAYAN MUNSHI SHARDUL GARG SHUBHAM KUMAR RADHIKA PURU SHARMA VANSHIKA TYAGI SWATI SHABNAM SUBMITTED TO:- Ar.GAURAV RANA
  2. 2. CLIMATEININDIA India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The nation's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert.
  3. 3. Regions that lie in the cold climate zone are situated at high altitudes. The temperatures range between 20–30 ºC in summers; while in winters, it can range from -3 ºC to 8 ºC, making it quite chilly.
  4. 4. Humidity Avg - 76% Max - 0% Min - 0% Wind: 3 km/h ↑ from NorthwestVisibility: 4 km Ladakh’s climate is a little extreme – the summers can get a little harsh with direct sunlight falling at such a high altitude and winters can be really cold, with temperatures dropping below freezing point. Pressure: 1007 mb. Cloud Cover: 57 %. Solar radiation- 5530 whr/sq m/ day at 35°south facing
  5. 5. Climate data for Leh (1951–1980) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 12.8 (55) 19.4 (66.9) 23.9 (75) 28.9 (84) 34.8 (94.6) 34.0 (93.2) 34.2 (93.6) 30.6 (87.1) 25.6 (78.1) 20.0 (68) 12.8 (55) 34.8 (94.6) Average high °C (°F) −2.0 (28.4) 1.5 (34.7) 6.5 (43.7) 12.3 (54.1) 16.2 (61.2) 21.8 (71.2) 25.0 (77) 25.3 (77.5) 21.7 (71.1) 14.6 (58.3) 7.9 (46.2) 2.3 (36.1) 12.8 (55) Average low °C (°F) −14.4 (6.1) −11.0 (12.2) −5.9 (21.4) −1.1 (30) 3.2 (37.8) 7.4 (45.3) 10.5 (50.9) 10.0 (50) 5.8 (42.4) −1.0 (30.2) −6.7 (19.9) −11.8 (10.8) −1.3 (29.7) Record low °C (°F) −28.3 (−18.9) −26.4 (−15.5) −19.4 (−2.9) −12.8 (9) −4.4 (24.1) −1.1 (30) 0.6 (33.1) 1.5 (34.7) −4.4 (24.1) −8.5 (16.7) −17.5 (0.5) −25.6 (−14.1) −28.3 (−18.9) Average rainfall mm (inches) 9.5 (0.374) 8.1 (0.319) 11.0 (0.433) 9.1 (0.358) 9.0 (0.354) 3.5 (0.138) 15.2 (0.598) 15.4 (0.606) 9.0 (0.354) 7.5 (0.295) 3.6 (0.142) 4.6 (0.181) 105.5 (4.154) Avg. rainy days 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.4 2.1 1.9 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 13.0
  6. 6. January, February and December: One of the coldest times of the season. The nights are chilling and temperatures hover around -20°C. Days are still bearable with 2°C as average temperature. March and April: March is colder than April. Temperatures hover between 6°C in the day and -5°C in the night. April is still better and day temperatures go up as much as 12°C. There is still the occasional snowfall that further dips the mercury down. May, June, July and August: Temperatures are a pleasant 16°C during the day and a barely manageable 3°C in the night. The breeze still carries the winter chill and one may feel the bite if sitting in shade for too long. June is when the mercury really kicks up and temperatures soar up to 21°C (day).
  7. 7. September, October and November: All through September, the weather is somewhat similar to that in May. The days are a lovely 20-22°C and all of Ladakh is rinsed by ample sunshine. The nights are back to being bitterly cold the months of October and November that Ladakh goes back to its gloomy self.
  8. 8. ESSENTIALFEATUREINTHEDESIGNINGOF HOUSE BUILDING WILL HAVE SLOPING ROOF. WINDOWS WILL HAVE WOODEN PANNEL. TIMBER PANNELED WALL WILL BE USED INSTEED OF BRICK OR STONE MASONRY. THICK WALL WILL BE USED WITH SOUND INSULATION. BEDROOM WILL BE ON SOUTH WEST OF THE BUILDING. KITCHEN WILL BE ON SOUTH EAST OF THE HOUSE. DINNING WILL BE ON THE SOUTH. BATHROOM WILL BE ON THE NORTH WEST OF THE HOUSE.
  9. 9. ESSENTIALFEATUREINTHEDESIGNINGOF HOUSE Natural light is important in the house. Flooring of the house must be of timber . Noisy place is avoided for building. Living area should be in the north of the building. Utility rooms [washing and domestic works] should be in the south. Cross ventilation is very important for healthy living. Trees can be planted near windows to block cold air.
  10. 10. The sun’s movement through the day and through the year is one of the most crucial environmental factors to understand when designing high performance buildings. Altitude is the vertical angle the sun makes with the ground plane (0° < alt < 90°). Azimuth is the horizontal angle between the sun and true north (–180° < azi < 180°, positive in a clockwise direction from north)
  11. 11. Resist heat loss Decrease exposed surface area Increase thermal resistance Increase thermal capacity Increase buffer spaces Decrease air exchange rate Increase absorptivity.
  12. 12. Gable roofs are used in hilly areas, as these roof types are able to shed snow in hilly areas. The main used material for roofing in hilly areas is timber, as it is locally available from trees. Trees which are used for this purpose are: cedar.
  13. 13. Vegetation regions are natural environments that provide the stage for human activities such as farming, raising livestock, and producing timber. Soil, temperature, and moisture influence the type of vegetation that thrives naturally in a region. Vegetation patterns are identified on the basis of the ecosystems they support. An ecosystem is an interdependent community of plants and animals. The ecosystem of a region is referred to as a biome. Biomes are further divided into forest, grassland, desert, and tundra.
  14. 14. *chuman existence in many ways. The world’s food supply depends greatly on the top six inches of soil (sometimes called topsoil). Such factors as depth, texture, and humus content of the soil determine the type of vegetation that can be supported in a region. That, in turn, helps to influence which human activities may take place there. As you study the chart below, notice the relationship of climate to the characteristics of the soil. Soil characteristics and climate are major influences in vegetation regions.
  15. 15. *WIKIPEDIA.ORG *GOOGLE IMAGES *www.nrel.gov

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