ARCHITECTURE IN COLD & DRY
India is home to an extraordinary variety
of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in
the south to temperate and alpine in the
Himalayan north, where elevated regions
receive sustained winter snowfall. The
nation's climate is strongly influenced by the
Himalayas and the Thar Desert.
Regions that lie in the cold climate zone are
situated at high altitudes. The temperatures
range between 20–30 ºC in summers; while in
winters, it can range from -3 ºC to 8 ºC, making
it quite chilly.
Avg - 76%
Max - 0%
Min - 0%
km/h ↑ from
NorthwestVisibility: 4 km
Ladakh’s climate is a little
extreme – the summers can get a
little harsh with direct sunlight
falling at such a high altitude and
winters can be really cold, with
temperatures dropping below
Pressure: 1007 mb.
Cloud Cover: 57 %.
5530 whr/sq m/
day at 35°south
Climate data for Leh (1951–1980)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.4 2.1 1.9 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 13.0
January, February and December: One of the coldest
times of the season. The nights are chilling and
temperatures hover around -20°C. Days are still
bearable with 2°C as average temperature.
March and April: March is colder than April.
Temperatures hover between 6°C in the day and -5°C
in the night. April is still better and day temperatures
go up as much as 12°C. There is still the occasional
snowfall that further dips the mercury down.
May, June, July and August: Temperatures are a
pleasant 16°C during the day and a barely manageable
3°C in the night. The breeze still carries the winter
chill and one may feel the bite if sitting in shade for
too long. June is when the mercury really kicks up and
temperatures soar up to 21°C (day).
September, October and November: All through
September, the weather is somewhat similar to that in
May. The days are a lovely 20-22°C and all of Ladakh is
rinsed by ample sunshine. The nights are back to being
bitterly cold the months of October and November that
Ladakh goes back to its gloomy self.
BUILDING WILL HAVE SLOPING ROOF.
WINDOWS WILL HAVE WOODEN PANNEL.
TIMBER PANNELED WALL WILL BE USED INSTEED
OF BRICK OR STONE MASONRY.
THICK WALL WILL BE USED WITH SOUND
BEDROOM WILL BE ON SOUTH WEST OF THE
KITCHEN WILL BE ON SOUTH EAST OF THE
DINNING WILL BE ON THE SOUTH.
BATHROOM WILL BE ON THE NORTH WEST OF
Natural light is important in the house.
Flooring of the house must be of timber .
Noisy place is avoided for building.
Living area should be in the north of the
Utility rooms [washing and domestic works]
should be in the south.
Cross ventilation is very important for
Trees can be planted near windows to block
The sun’s movement through the day and
through the year is one of the most crucial
environmental factors to understand when
designing high performance buildings.
Altitude is the vertical angle the sun makes with the ground plane (0° < alt < 90°).
Azimuth is the horizontal angle between the sun and true north (–180° < azi < 180°, positive in a
clockwise direction from north)
Resist heat loss
Decrease exposed surface area
Increase thermal resistance
Increase thermal capacity
Increase buffer spaces
Decrease air exchange rate
Gable roofs are used in hilly areas, as
these roof types are able to shed snow in
The main used material for roofing in hilly
areas is timber, as it is locally available
Trees which are used for this purpose are:
Vegetation regions are natural
environments that provide the stage
for human activities such as farming,
raising livestock, and producing
timber. Soil, temperature, and
moisture influence the type of
vegetation that thrives naturally in a
region. Vegetation patterns are
identified on the basis of the
ecosystems they support. An
ecosystem is an interdependent
community of plants and animals.
The ecosystem of a region is referred
to as a biome. Biomes are further
divided into forest, grassland,
desert, and tundra.
*chuman existence in many ways. The
world’s food supply depends greatly on
the top six inches of soil (sometimes
called topsoil). Such factors as depth,
texture, and humus content of the soil
determine the type of vegetation that
can be supported in a region. That, in
turn, helps to influence which human
activities may take place there. As you
study the chart below, notice the
relationship of climate to the
characteristics of the soil. Soil
characteristics and climate are major
influences in vegetation regions.