Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Integrated Marketing Communication Project for Facebook (Master of Arts Dissertation)

4,719 views

Published on

Dissertation Project for Master of Arts in Marketing Communications. This project is an integrated, multi-channel marketing communications project for Facebook as a social media platform and company itself. The aim of this project was to combat the loss of users as well as retain the existing user base, namely the millenials, in a meaningful way.

Published in: Social Media
  • I've Saved Over $400 On Batteries! I can't believe how simple your reconditioning steps are! My old (and once dead) car batteries, cell phone battery, drill battery, camera battery and tons of other batteries are all reconditioned and working great again! Since starting your program I've saved over $400 on batteries! ♣♣♣ http://ishbv.com/ezbattery/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • How Do Social Media Jobs Pay $35 Per Hour? ♣♣♣ https://tinyurl.com/rbrfd6j
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • D0WNL0AD FULL ▶ ▶ ▶ ▶ http://1url.pw/Ir1iP ◀ ◀ ◀ ◀
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • D0WNL0AD FULL ▶ ▶ ▶ ▶ http://1url.pw/Ir1iP ◀ ◀ ◀ ◀
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Attract Abundance Into Your Life - New musical "Angel tone" calls in your angels to help you manifest abundance and miracles into your life... starting in just minutes per day. Go here to listen now. ★★★ http://ishbv.com/manifmagic/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Integrated Marketing Communication Project for Facebook (Master of Arts Dissertation)

  1. 1. 1 Integrated Marketing Communications Project For FACEBOOK Sayaka Brand W14146916
  2. 2. 2 Table of Contents Executive Summary...........................................................................................................4 1. Introduction....................................................................................................................6 1.1. Macroanalysis .........................................................................................................8 1.1.1. Industry Overview ..............................................................................................8 1.1.2. PESTLE Analysis...............................................................................................9 1.1.3. Porter’s Five Forces.........................................................................................11 1.2. Microanalysis ........................................................................................................13 1.2.1. Facts and Figures ............................................................................................13 1.2.2. Facebook Users by Age 2012 UK ...................................................................13 1.2.3. Financial Performance.....................................................................................15 1.2.4. Revenue Stream according to Sectors ...........................................................15 1.2.5. The Loss of Users............................................................................................17 1.2.6. BCG Matrix ......................................................................................................17 1.2.7. Ansoff Matrix ....................................................................................................18 1.2.8. Morphing into a different product.....................................................................20 1.2.9. Underrated Features........................................................................................22 1.3. SWOT Analysis .....................................................................................................23 1.4. Marketing Activities..............................................................................................24 1.4.1. Public Relations ...............................................................................................24 1.4.2. Advertising .......................................................................................................25 2. Campaign Scope..........................................................................................................28 2.1. The Role of Integrated Marketing Communications in Marketing Management.................................................................................................................28 2.2. Facebook and IMC................................................................................................29 2.3. IMC Performance Objectives...............................................................................31 2.3.1. Business Objective..........................................................................................31 2.3.2. Marketing Objective .........................................................................................31 2.3.3. IMC Objectives.................................................................................................32 2.4. Target Market and Consumer Profile .................................................................32 2.4.1. Age and Social Grade......................................................................................32 2.4.2. Millennials Psychographic Profile....................................................................33 2.4.3. Decision Making Process................................................................................36 2.5. Branding Issues....................................................................................................40 2.5.1.Current Image versus Desired Image ..............................................................41 2.6. Campaign Tools....................................................................................................42 2.6.1. Advertising .......................................................................................................42 2.6.2. Public Relations ...............................................................................................43 2.6.3. Sales Promotion...............................................................................................43 2.6.4. Direct Marketing...............................................................................................44 3. IMC Campaign..............................................................................................................45 3.1. Message Development.........................................................................................45 3.1.1. Campaign Messages.......................................................................................46 3.2. Push Strategy........................................................................................................47 3.2.1. Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing Contest ..............................................47 3.3. Pull Strategy..........................................................................................................51 3.3.1. Advertising .......................................................................................................51 3.3.2. Public Relations ...............................................................................................59 3.4. Vertical Integration...............................................................................................61
  3. 3. 3 3.5. Horizontal Synergy...............................................................................................63 4. Campaign Delivery.......................................................................................................64 4.1. Campaign Budget.................................................................................................64 5. Campaign Proposal Evaluation..................................................................................67 5.1.2. Concept-Testing...............................................................................................67 5.1.3 Copy testing ......................................................................................................67 5.2 Post-testing............................................................................................................68 6. Conclusion....................................................................................................................68 7. References....................................................................................................................70
  4. 4. 4 ExecutiveSummary The aim of this report was to, based on an extensive macro and micro analysis, come up with an integrated marketing communications campaign for Facebook. Having existed for a decade and currently catering to 1.23 billion users, Facebook has risen to be one of the most admired global technology companies. Despite CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s primary motivation being to make an impact on the world by making it more open and connected, he had decided to take his company public in 2012. Since then, it was one of the core concerns for Facebook to postulate a lucrative investment opportunity. Initially failing to find a successful monetization strategy, investor confidence decreased and as a result, share prices plummeted. However, in the last quarter of 2013, Facebook finally found its mobile strategy to bear fruit- increasing income from mobile from 30% to almost 60% of the total revenue. Even though these remarkable numbers sound promising, it drew attention away from the actual problem: the decrease in engagement. Engagement is crucial for Facebook to be able to continue providing highly targetable advertising space. The macro economical analysis has demonstrated that Facebook is still the largest social network, but struggles with the loss of young users. Its main users are Millennials, aged 24-35, known for their love for self-expression on social media platforms. Moreover, the social media industry is facing threats from savvy consumers, whose increasing concerns about data privacy damage the sector. The microanalysis has shed light on an opportunity, which particularly would resonate with its current main millennial users. The advertising revenue from the travel sector is not even in the top 5 revenue sectors for Facebook- even though 52% of people have booked vacations because they were inspired through Facebook pictures of their friends. 95% even indicated that they had used Facebook for travel-related activities prior to booking a holiday. There is no generation that has travelled more than generation Y- hence, it was decided to build the campaign around travel as a core. This will allow to achieve the objective of increasing travel sector advertising revenue to 20% as well as increase engagement on the user side. Even though Facebook is the most advanced and integrated platform out there, it has lost its cool and has started to morph into a different product, mainly for young people to keep in touch with their older relatives. Even though the campaign does not propose to regain youth market share, as those are already covered by corporate
  5. 5. 5 Facebook’s acquisitons of younger-oriented media such as instagram and whatsapp, the brand essence has lost its novelty. What would happen, if we could use 100% of our brain capacity? Much like that question, Facebook has enormous amounts of data stored in the cloud, which is left unaccessed. Therefore, the new brand essence proposes to use the verb “explore”, making the new essence Open. Explore. Connect. The core of the IMC campaign is a contest, where people can submit a 1-minute video of themselves expressing how adventurous and exploratory they are. The video with the most likes will be the winner, getting a prize of a 3-month world travel, blogging for Facebook. The trip will be completely unplanned and will let Facebook’s audience decide where his or her next destination should be. The contest will initially be advertised through outdoors and press adverts as well as a YouTube video. After the winner is determined and the blogging starts, the print and outdoors media will shift towards more functional advertising, to make people aware to maximize their social media potential. Towards the end of the campaign year, Facebook will also have its own stand at the world travel market and host seminars, to really convince the industry players that a significant share of their ad spend should go towards social media, particularly Facebook. A budget of approximately GBP 3mio will be used, resulting in an ROI of 1.65. The budget section will explain further why that number is not a definite one, as the advertising cost was solely calculated for the UK, but the contest will have a global impact. Conclusively, it can be said that Facebook needs to now incentivize customer engagement to extend and monetize their maturity stage to the maximum.
  6. 6. 6 1. Introduction The Internet, more specifically Web 2.0, has dramatically impacted the era we currently live in. The most predominant web-based development of the last decades was marked by the emergence of social media. Not only has social media not been a short-lived trend, but also has proven to be a powerful force that shaped societal behavior completely. The connected world enables information to travel across borders with hardly any obstacles. (Couldry 2012). What used to be a primary motive of creating your identity online (Kabani, 2013). Has reached into new levels, as not only individuals, but also organizations depend on it (Dijk, J. 2012). The injection of social software platforms into companies, also referred to as Enterprise 2.0, helps employees, customers and suppliers to share and organization through Web 2.0 technologies (McAfee, 2006). The industry it had its strongest effect on was the marketing industry. The emergence of social platforms have challenged traditional media tools profusely and forced the industry to gain “earned media” and improve their transparency (Kirby and Marsden 2006) What used to be corporations preaching to helpless consumers on a one-way street has transformed to a two-way feedback culture, allowing firms to gain extremely valuable consumer insight (Kabani 2013; Zarella 2010). The market player who has been the frontrunner for a considerable time is Facebook. However, after a decade since its inception, the market leader has reached a turning point. Despite being the worlds 3rd largest country, Facebook has started to experience a decline in western countries due to saturation of the market (Williams, 2012). In 2013, Facebook was the biggest riser in the Interbrand’s best global brands report (Interbrand 2014; Figure 1). After a tumultuous year and decrease in investor confidence following their IPO in 2012, they have finally managed to turn their performance around in the last quarter of 2013. The successful implementation of an improved mobile strategy has allowed for the latter to account for 59%, as opposed to 30% last year, of its advertising revenue (Oreskovic 2014). Hence, Facebook has thrived at intelligently exploiting big data to provide a meaningful and profitable strategy for its advertisers. However, these remarkable financial figures drew attention away from the main underlying issue; the decrease in user engagement. Facebook will only be able to provide value to its customers as long as its product, namely the users, actively build
  7. 7. 7 their online identity by communicating their preferences, sharing content and the like (Interbrand, 2014). Figure 1, Source:Courtesy of Interbrand.com
  8. 8. 8 1.1. Macroanalysis 1.1.1. Industry Overview The social media industry drives revenue from selling highly targetable advertising space to buyers. The low barriers to entry allow small but innovative companies to gain foot in the market, such as Pinterest. Facebook triumphantly holds the largest share of 54%, followed by Twitter and LinkedIn (Figure 2). Figure 2, Source: (Creativebrandmarketing 2012),Graphic Author’s own Facebook 54% Twitter 15% Linkedin 11% Myspace 2% Flickr 6% Pinterest 1% Tumblr 5% Google Plus 6% UK Social Media Market Share in % Facebook Twitter Linkedin Myspace Flickr Pinterest Tumblr Google Plus
  9. 9. 9 1.1.2. PESTLE Analysis Source Description Implication O/T Importance Polito-Legal  Privacy of Users and User Generated Content  Competition Commission might hinder planned acquisitions  People more reluctant to use social media, or switch to media which only share with a close circle of family/friends such as Snapchat  The government might intervene and tighten privacy regulations, or hinder a merger from happening to protect user data ** Economical  Developing markets and increased connection to the internet provide opportunities  Economic Downturn draws to Social Media advertising for reduced cost  Focus on developing markets with little competition to have first mover advantage  The Economic downturn could portray an opportunity, as firms are looking for more cost-effective ways to advertise ** Social  Preference of Mobile Usage of Social Media  Younger Generation less likely to participate in over sharing  Marketing Savvy Consumers  Millennials still eager to use social platforms  Imperative to find a mobile advertising strategy to monetize that revenue stream  To avoid loss of young users, features must be adjusted to their preferences or other social media acquired to gain youth market share  Promoting transparency and listen to user’s concerns  Advertise relevant topics in context to Millennials to increase engagement *** Technologic al  Ad blocking technology  Embed adverts into newsfeed to avoid being ignored **
  10. 10. 10 Environment al  Increased Energy consumption due to technological requirements  CSR  Promote Corporate Social Responsibility and “green” factors through Public Relations to foster positive brand image  Millennials are very receptive towards cause-related marketing, promote charitable actions, such as the “ALS Ice Bucket Challenge” through social media *
  11. 11. 11 1.1.3. Porter’s Five Forces Porter’s framework was established in 1979 to emphasize the fact that industry competition does not only occur amongst direct rivals. Continuous striving for higher profits goes past the direct industry rivalry as it includes four additional forces (Porter 2008). More specific information regarding competitors is available in Appendix 1. Rivalry amongst competitors – High The constant underlying necessity to innovate in order to stay competitive stipulates a high intensity amongst rivals in the marketplace. Even though market players strive to attract the highest number of users to be able to increase profitability by offering targetable and valuable advertising opportunities, it has to be kept in mind that each of the predominant incumbents have their own distinct features. As a consequence, users sign up for several social networks simultaneously and use each one for its specific purpose- be it a distinct feature, such as Graph Search for Facebook, WeChat to stay in touch with friends from Asia, or LinkedIn to enhance one’s professional network. Therefore, Facebook is not necessarily losing users because it failed to keep up with the competition, but because it has reached its saturation point for some, also known as “platform fatigue” (Waddell 2013). Another indication of a strong rivalry is the “ if you can’t beat them- buy them” strategy that Facebook has adapted with its recent acquisitions of Instagram for USD 1bn and Whatsapp for USD 19bn (Borges 2014; Raice and Ante, 2014). Threat of Substitution – Low Directly feeding into the aforementioned argument, the threat of substitution is low. Within the industry, users rarely convert to a medium to use exclusively, but use various products to satisfy diverse needs. With a perspective for outside the industry, there is no product that could substitute the characteristics social media provides to its users. The only alternative would be to discontinue with the use of social media platforms and turn to more traditional ways of exchanging and sharing information, such as e-mail. Threat of New Entrants – Medium To ensure steady profitability, it is a matter of great interest for incumbents to keep out potential entrants (Porter, 2008). Market players therefore attempt to augment the barriers to entry by reducing the incentives to enter the market. Habitually, what forms a great obstacle for new entrants is the high initial capital investment required to become
  12. 12. 12 established. However, in the online-based environment, costs are a fraction of e.g. physical storefronts and allow startups to gain foot in the market with ease. Especially in the social media industry, it is possible to achieve explosive rates of growth after entry, as demonstrated by incumbents such as Snapchat and Pinterest. Nevertheless, to compete in the league of giant players such as Facebook and Google, a vast amount of capital is needed to build competitive infrastructure. Last but certainly not least is the necessity of highly skilled technological intelligence, which postulates a strong barrier to entry. Given the easy entry due to low cost but high barriers to effectively compete with know-how and infrastructure, the force can be evaluated as medium. Bargaining Power of Suppliers – Medium In the case of this industry, it is quite a unique phenomenon that the user is the supplier. This is due to the fact that users provide the “product”, to which businesses advertise. Even though advertising through Social Media is tremendously targetable and allows for specific fine-tuning, the predominance of ad-blocking technology and the shift to marketing savvy and informed consumers make impair advertising effectiveness (Kirby and Marsden, 2006). As aforementioned, users tend to simultaneously engage with several media with different purposes. It has to also be considered that the primary function of social media is to connect with an audience relevant to the user. If the medium is promising, but has no relevant audience to the user, the incentive to communicate through the latter is significantly compromised. Hence, given the combination of low switching cost, low threat of alternatives but tech-savvy users, the bargaining power of suppliers can be evaluated as medium. Bargaining Power of Buyers- Low Marketing campaigns nowadays very often adapt an integrated approach to allow one medium’s weakness to be counterbalanced by another’s strength (Kitchen et al 2004). Therefore, the buyer, in this case the businesses buying advertising space and information about the users on social media, have an interest to simultaneously use as many channels as possible to reinforce their message to the consumer from different angles. Hence, using a competitor’s space does not signify particular loyalty. Moreover, since Facebook has managed to leverage a profitable mobile strategy, the revenues have almost tripled (72%) to USD 2.5billion in the first financial quarter of 2014, exceeding all analysts’ expectations (Taylor 2014; Alberglotti 1/2014). This illustrates that buyers are heavily reliant on social media advertising and have therefore low bargaining power.
  13. 13. 13 1.2. Microanalysis 1.2.1. Facts and Figures Facebook is a social networking site, which was created Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 in his college dorm room. What intended to be a social networking site exclusively for Harvard students was made available nationwide, then globally, and is one of the most visited websites today (Carlson, 2010). Facebook’s mission is to make the world more open and connected (Facebook 2014) The company celebrated its 10th birthday in February 2014. “The future of Facebook as the central social network in consumers’ lives will be dictated not only by who is on it now, but also who will adopt it in the future. Facebook use has been a habit for the over-25s for the past 10 years, it’s almost beyond a choice, more of a reflex.” (Ollerton 2014) The company now registers 1.23billion monthly users, of which 1billion access the site also via mobile (Sedghi 2014; Figure 3). Figure 3 Source: Courtesyof Facebook In the UK, Facebook has 33million users, of which 24million log onto the page daily and portrays the company’s sixth-biggest market (Halliday 2013). 1.2.2. Facebook Users by Age 2012 UK The largest user group in the UK is aged 25-34, whereas the younger segment of 18-24 year olds only contribute to a small number of 11% or 3.3million (Figure 4). It becomes evident that particularly Generation Y, or Millennials, are making up the largest share of
  14. 14. 14 users. They are known to be particularly active on social media, seeking validation from peers through sharing content (Lee 2013). Figure 4, Author’s own,Source: creativebrandmarketing 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ 5 11 36 30 13 4 1 % Facebook Users by Age 2012 UK Facebook
  15. 15. 15 1.2.3. Financial Performance Figure 5, author’s own,Source: Facebook Annual Report2013,Edwards,2014 As the chart illustrates, Facebook has generated consistent increased revenue over the past 5 years. However, the profit margin was volatile until recently and has only stabilized in 2013. The IPO in 2012 affected profits as it was a tumultuous time financially for the company (Facebook Annual Report 2013). However, as the firm has finally managed to find a profitable revenue stream from their mobile operations, they were able to increase mobile revenue from 30% to 59%, making mobile income their largest source of income (Edwards, 2014). Since its further expansion into mobile through What’sApp, the outlook on profits for 2014 is promising. 1.2.4. Revenue Streamaccording to Sectors This chart illustrates the five largest income sectors for Facebook’s advertising revenue stream. It becomes evident that the travel sector is behind at 6% (Figure 6, Lillie 2012) Despite Millennials being the generations that travels more than any other, and location and rating/review services available, this sector could has upward potential (O’ Neill 2013). Facebook has been recruiting for travel sales representatives in particular as it is trying to increase spend from the travel industry to compete with its current biggest spenders such as Financial or Retail (FMCG) (O’Reilly 2013). A study conducted by 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 2014 Q1 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 1458 7872 5089 3711 1974 777 219 1500 53 1000 606 22915% 19% 1% 27% 31% 29% Facebook Financial Performance 2009-2013 in USD mn Revenue Net income Profit Margin
  16. 16. 16 Sparkler Research Agency demonstrated that there are five stages of taking a holiday, on which Facebook has an influence over: dreaming, planning, booking, experiencing and reflecting. 52% claimed that the dreaming stage was induced by browsing on Facebook, and even 95% of participants indicated that they use Facebook for travel related activities prior to booking a holiday. (O’Reilly 2013) Andy Pang, Facebook ‘s UK measurement solutions group lead, told Marketing Week it is hoped the study will aid companies in the travel industry realise that Facebook should form a distinct share of their advertising spend. He said: “A lot of travel marketing is about using search as the main mechanism but that mainly falls at the buying and planning stages. This is about reminding them that Facebook is present throughout the five stages of travel. [At the dreaming, experiencing and reflecting stage] friends and family in pictures adds so much more weight than a picture of an empty beach in a glossy brochure.” (O’Reily 2013) Figure 6 Author’s own,Source:(Lillie 2012 TGB Digital) 18% 15% 13% 13% 9% 32% Top Five Advertising Sectors Facebook Finance Food and Drink Retail Games Entertainment Others
  17. 17. 17 1.2.5. The Loss of Users Despite Facebook’s promising growth and increased profitability over the past decade, it is feared that the platform itself has reached its saturation point. In the UK alone, Facebook lost 600’000 users in 2013, which equals to a 2% decline (Benjamin 2013). Moreover, a Princeton study conducted by Cannarella and Spechler(2014) has revealed that Facebook is expected to lose 80% of its users by 2017. This research compared epidemiological models to explain user adoption and abandonment of online social networks, hence comparing Facebook to an infectious disease, from which people will recover once it reaches a critical mass of “infected” users. This research consequently attracted a lot of controversy, but has a vast number of sources agreeing with it when it comes to its saturation point in the market, as it has “lost its cool”. The initial extreme exclusivity it was under made the platform very desirable. “Facebook is no longer where we flirt with college classmates and spend hours posting photos. That use-case became nearly impossible when Facebook stopped being exclusively for college students and opened up to everyone. Inevitably, younger cousins and aunts and uncles and parents got on the platform. It started feeling more like a family reunion photo site than a hot social network.” (Crook 2014) The younger generation therefore gravitates towards Snapchat, Instagram and What’sApp, which all have maintained a spark of cool by refraining from ubiquity but focusing on their trade mark feature (Knighton 2013). 1.2.6. BCG Matrix Figure 7, Author’s own
  18. 18. 18 When applied to the BCG Framework, it becomes evident that Facebook is a “Cash Cow”- as it currently holds highest market share, but only sluggishly grows its user base or even experiences declines in Europe (Figure 7). Figure 8 demonstrates Facebook’s stage in the product lifecycle, placing it at its maturity stage. Figure 8, Source: Payambarpour 1.2.7. Ansoff Matrix Throughout the decade of its activeness, Facebook widely lead the market with its innovations. Figure 9 below illustrates that Facebook has well diversified into all strategies of growth of the Ansoff matrix. The initial years, its small market of solely Ivy League students was penetrated until in 2006, where the firm adapted a market development strategy, where anyone above the age of 13 was allowed on board. Since the product is reaching maturity in western regions of the world, Facebook is looking into further developing its emerging markets intensively (Marshall 2014). To improve user experience and aid the creation of one’s online identity, the firm also adapted a product development strategy by continuously adding new features such as walls, likes, news feeds, graph search and the like (Facebook 2014). Especially since going public in 2012, the company found itself on a bumpy road until finally succeeding at exploiting its mobile strategy. Its main source of income is paid-for-advertising of brands, since it offers a vastly targetable platform. The firm recently started to reduce organic reach of brand pages to encourage paid-for ads and sponsoring of posts (Hoffmann, 2014).
  19. 19. 19 Facebook as a corporation is performing very well and has been following an aggressive acquisition and diversification strategy to spread its portfolio amongst various technology industries. A key advantage of the nature of Facebook’s business is that new “products” are intangible and cost a fraction of a usual research and development for a physical product. Given the lack of these types of expenses, the company is in possession of vast amounts of cash (Stone 2014) In addition to the recent acquisitions of Instagram and What’sApp, Facebook has also taken ownership of Oculus Rift, a virtual reality technology company, and ProtoGeo Oy, a company that produces a fitness tracking app called moves (Alberglotti 2/2014). Facebook is heading to compete with Google on the battle of who is pioneering the future (Stone 2014). Diversification strengthens a company’s position in the market place as it spreads risk into different sectors and extends the company’s existence in case one sector underperforms. In the case of Facebook, as a platform, however, the unrelated acquisitions will not be able to directly extend its growth or maturity stage in the life cycle. Figure 9: Ansoff Matrix, Author’s own If all the growth strategies have been fully exploited and the maturity stage extended to its maximum potential, it is natural to slowly mature with the market. However, Facebook is still the world’s largest and most integrated social network. This IMC campaign will
  20. 20. 20 allow the platform to maximize its capabilities for its existing users to significantly delay its expiry date. 1.2.8. Morphing into a different product According to a recent study, older teenagers perceived Facebook as “not just on the slide, but basically dead and buried” Simpler social networks, such as Twitter, Snapchat, Instagram and WhatsApp have started to take its place. The continuous loss of young users is attributed to the fact that it has been regarded as “uncool” and profiles purely kept alive to keep in touch with older relatives (Sparkes 2013). “What appears to be the most seminal moment in a young person’s decision to leave Facebook was surely that dreaded day your mum sends you a friend request” (Miller, 2013). Professor Daniel Miller of University College London, who conducted an extensive anthropological study on social media behavior, says: “This year marked the start of what looks likely to be a sustained decline of what had been the most pervasive of all social networking sites. Young people are turning away in their droves and adopting other social networks instead, while the worst people of all, their parents, continue to use the service.” (Miller, 2013) The chart below (Figure 10) illustrates the decrease of users from younger age groups since 2011, whereas the 25+ segments have augmented. Figure 10 Source: Courtesyof Statista.com As aforementioned, as a response to increasing loss and disinterest of younger users, Facebook has acquired competitors, such as Instagram and WhatsApp, to gain media market share of younger users. The figure below illustrates that in the UK, the largest user group falls into that of people aged 25-34, whereas the age group up to 24 years old only make up less than half of the latter.
  21. 21. 21 Instagram has grown its user base at a rate of 23% in 2013 to 90.77million. More importantly, Instagram has one of the largest shares of an active user base of 16-24 year olds (Mander 2014) The company’s most recent acquisition, WhatsApp, has been growing at a remarkably rapid rate, still acquiring 1million new users daily. Moreover, it took WhatsApp only 4 years to reach 450million users (see Figure 11), whilst not spending a penny on marketing thanks to its viral success (The Economist, 2014). In addition to gaining more share of the younger users market, this partnership will help Facebook to further establish their presence in the messaging sector (Gaudin 2014). Figure 11, Source: The economist Since Facebook has implemented its strategy to acquire younger users through different media, it is now crucial to maximize the potential of existing users.
  22. 22. 22 1.2.9. Underrated Features Since Facebook’s omnipresence has made the platform very mainstream, the company needs to drive away from this image and emphasize its almost unknown features, which should give the company competitive advantage over other market players. A year ago, the firm injected a powerful search engine, graph search, into their platform. However, it has not been able to use its full potential, not for the advertiser nor user, yet (Joseph, 2014). Having suffered from “quality content problem”, where Newsfeeds were cluttered in irrelevant information, the organization now relies on machine learning to provide the customized content for the individual user. Based on history and memory thereof, the platform chooses from over 1500 possible posts and selects those relevant to past social media behavior (Oremus, 2014). It also has recently launched “nearby friends”, which allows users with the enabled feature to see who is the nearby area. Whilst Google is very mainstream, it does not suffer from platform fatigue, because it provides useful features people enjoy using. Facebook could follow this pathway if the attention was drawn to the availability of these features, through an integrated marketing communications campaign.
  23. 23. 23 1.3. SWOT Analysis The SWOT analysis (Figure 12) will derive the individual components from the previous analysis. The main weaknesses of Facebook do not necessarily lie in the assumption that its features are not competitive. On the contrary, it is more the lack of awareness due to absent advertising. The greatest strength, next to almost unlimited financial resources due to the intangible product nature, is the corporate structure and the extreme concentration of knowledge and passion. This allows them to mobilize new ideas easily onto the market as the corporate construct supports it. Hence, to combat the threat of decline in engagement and data privacy activists, the corporate resources, financial and technical, should be employed. In order to capture opportunities to adapt to more youth-relevant needs, a marketing campaign needs to rectify the previously deficient advertising to raise awareness. Figure 12: SWOT Analysis, Author’s Own
  24. 24. 24 1.4. Marketing Activities 1.4.1. Public Relations In terms of its own marketing communications, Facebook primarily uses public relations through their own online newsroom to communicate important information concerning the platform, as well as on a corporate level, with its different publics (Newsroom.fb.com 2014). According to Grunig and Hunt (1984)’s four models of public relations, the latter falls into the category of public information. It is referred to as the “in-house journalist”, who practices a one-way communication strategy, as he releases news releases and the like to distribute organizational information. On a corporate level, Facebook makes use of all the 4 models to communicate with its stakeholders as shown in these examples in figure 13. Figure 13: Author’s own,adapted from Grunig (1984) However, it has to be considered that an average user will not necessarily come in contact with this touch point, unless he or she were looking for specific information. The channel most likely to resonate on an informal level with its users is Facebook’s own Facebook page. With 163 million likes and the power to maximize their own organic reach, it can be regarded as an effective tool to influence the audience’s attitude.
  25. 25. 25 Despite the lack of marketing communication activities up until now, Facebook was able to grow into an enormous network solely relying on word of mouth endorsement. However, as the recent changes have demonstrated, it does not suffice if long-term customer loyalty is desired. 1.4.2. Advertising In 2012, Facebook launched its first advertisement to celebrate the acquisition of 1billion users. In this ad, the company compared itself to chairs, as “things that people use to get together so they can open up and connect. Chairs are for people, and that is why chairs are like Facebook.’’ The advert did not resonate particularly well with the public and was a base for many parodies (Starke, 2012). Mashable’s editor-in-chief Lance Ulanoff said “It was created to celebrate the social media platform’s 1 billion active monthly users and my takeaway is that Facebook is an empty chair”. He further highlighted that the ad used confusing analogies, that there was an absence of technology but an overabundance of vagueness that spoilt an otherwise beautifully shot commercial (Consunji 2012). The commercial ran in 13 countries including America, the UK, Japan and Indonesia. Figure 14 Source: Courtesyof Facebook
  26. 26. 26 The company has since launched numerous friendship-themed short video adverts and picture adverts on their own Facebook page, which are also available on their own YouTube channel (Figure 14-17). Figure 15, Courtesy of YouTube Figure16:Source: Courtesyof Facebook
  27. 27. 27 Figure 17 Courtesyof Facebook Moreover, the recently launched “Nearby Friends” feature was solely advertised through their newsroom, which an average user will not actively engage with (Figure 18). Figure 18, Courtesy of Facebook
  28. 28. 28 Facebook features “Facebook stories”, which asks users to submit their extraordinary story that involves Facebook as a platform of communication. It is heavily reliant on viral aspects than pushing their products further. (Figure 19) Figure 19, Courtesy of Facebook So far, Facebook spread through word of mouth and a small amount of PR activities. However, as it is nearing its saturation point and struggles to attract younger users on board, it is time to rethink the marketing strategy. 2. CampaignScope 2.1. The Role of Integrated Marketing Communications in Marketing Management The past decade has witnessed a continuous transformation of opinions regarding the implementation of integrated marketing communications (IMC). Initially, the focus lied on integrating all elements of the promotional mix to make messages appear and sound the same to all customers exposed (Eagle et all 2007). IMC has since grown into a practice beyond working with adverts communicating one single message and one unifying brand, but are now much more personalized, relationship-based, interactive, customer- oriented- purposefully designed to influence behavior and consequently change attitudes (De Pelsmacker et all 2010). Kilatchko (2008) suggests that the impact of IMC cannot be regarded solely as a communications process, but needs to be considered an audience- driven management process, as the customer’s influence is steering the direction at the core of the campaign. Today’s marketing communications world is particularly
  29. 29. 29 challenged by media proliferation, audience fragmentation and consumer empowerment. On the one hand, audience and media fragmentation aids targeted marketing by providing various channels that reach a specific consumer. On the other, it reduces its effectiveness if the chosen channel fails to capture the desired consumer. This is precisely why the integrated marketing approach has emerged as a concept; instead of suffocating under media fragmentation, it uses the dispersion to its advantage. To enhance the primary advertising message and to reach out to their desired specific consumers, marketers use tools such as promotions, sponsorships and public relations in addition (O'Guinn, Allen and Semenik, 2012). Therefore, integrated marketing communications (IMC) campaigns cater to the needs of today’s fragmented audience and media. As previously mentioned, it is critiqued that IMC uses mass marketing channels and sends a unified message across all traditional and non-traditional media. Further, it is said to face strong barriers, such as restriction in creativity and unaccommodating organizational structures, which encumber success (De Pelsmacker, Geuens and Bergh, 2010). However, the combination of the efforts of each medium has a greater impact all together than a message wandering through a single channel. Moreover, IMC is essentially used to allow one medium's weakness to be counterbalanced by another’s strength, synergized components to support each other and create grander effect (Kitchen et all 2004). Contrary to common belief, a successful IMC strategy does not signify that an organization should work only with a single message and one unifying brand. More realistically, an integrated method encourages marketers to implement a strategy with multiple targets and allows them to attain integration of different communication messages, functions and brand within one organization. Consequently, IMC has the potential to profoundly transform the meaning of marketing communications and might even be the succeeding step in the evolution of marketing. (Dewhirst and Davis, 2005, Kilatchko, 2005, Grove, Carlson and Dorsch, 2002, Lee, 2002, Phelps and Johnson 1996) 2.2. Facebook and IMC “To date, the Facebook user community has grown virally with users inviting their friends to connect with them, supported by internal efforts to stimulate user awareness and interest.“(Facebook Annual Report 2013) To date, Facebook has heavily relied on earned media and bits of advertising efforts. In comparison to its main competitor, Google, Facebook’s global ad spend with $117 million in 2013, seems incredibly small to 21 billion (Figure 20). Considering the different
  30. 30. 30 size and nature of both businesses, this chart does not provide enough insight into the allocation of funds for advertising. Figure 20: Author’s own,Source: Google Annual Report2013, Facebook Annual Report 2013 When the advertising spend is put into context with the company’s revenue (Figure 21), it becomes visible how much of its total revenue the companies are dedicating towards advertising. Where Facebook’s $117 million are just about 1.49% of its total revenue (after cost), Google’s $21 billion make up 37% of their ad spend. As previously mentioned, Facebook has been relying on its community to grow its user base virally, with a certain amount of internal efforts that have stimulated user awareness and interest.
  31. 31. 31 Figure 21: Author’s own,Source: Google Annual Report2013, Facebook Annual Report 2013 To counteract the current issues, it is time Facebook invested more in to advertising, as it is the tool that has the power to persuade an audience (O'Guinn et al 2012). Given the previous analysis, it can be concluded that Facebook has reached the stage where a reliance solely on word-of-mouth is not sufficient to keep up the engagement levels of their users. Moreover, the tools used only include public relations and advertising. To reach out to users and create synergy through their campaign, the firm needs to consider joining forces with other IMC tools such as direct marketing and sales promotions. 2.3. IMC Performance Objectives 2.3.1. Business Objective  To continue to provide highly relevant, precisely targetable advertising space to customers (brands) on both mobile and desktop  Increase revenue from particularly from the travel sector from 6% to 20% 2.3.2. Marketing Objective  Retain existing users by providing them with value through meaningful and relevant features  Stimulate Travel Advertising Sector Revenue  To increase user engagement (frequency of use) by 30% of existing users aged 24-35, with a spillover of 6 years below and above o Likes on branded and friends posts
  32. 32. 32 o Comments on branded and friends posts o Uploading of content: photos, videos, articles, status updates o Reviews on restaurants and places o More completed basic data on user profiles 2.3.3. IMC Objectives Through this particular IMC campaign, the aforementioned business and marketing objectives shall be reached.  To augment interest, buzz, earned media and engagement through a promotional direct marketing (social media) campaign featuring a contest  To increase top-of-mind awareness of integrated features using functional explanatory as well as emotional elements in advertising and direct marketing  To improve Facebook’s likeability and popularity by highlighting usefulness through public relations  To increase advertising revenue from the travel sector which particularly responds with millennials 2.4. Target Market and Consumer Profile 2.4.1. Age and Social Grade Facebook has just passed 1.23 billion monthly active users, 945 million mobile users, and 757 million daily users (Protalinski, 2014). Provided there is no country-wide censorship, the platform is basically available to absolutely anyone with internet access. This is why this social medium is so extraordinarily valuable to business users, as they can pick and tailor a very precise target to expose their advertisements to. Since Facebook users have vastly diversified psychographic profiles, this campaign will primarily use age as a parameter for the campaign. Using the current user profile according to age (Figure 22), this IMC campaign will target millennials, more specifically 24-35 year old male and females in the UK, with a spillover to younger and older categories. In terms of social grade, Facebook covers all the grades in the UK. However,
  33. 33. 33 the campaign will focus on grades ABC1, as these are most likely to have had the chance to travel and are able to produce the required and desired content. Figure 22: Author’s own,Source: creativebrandmarketing.com 2.4.2. Millennials Psychographic Profile Psychographic segmentation differentiates and combines consumers with regards to their psychological dimensions, such as values, lifestyles, attitudes, interests and opinions (Mullen and Johnson 1990). This type of segmentation is usually used when purchasing behavior is associated with the lifestyle or personality of consumers (Jobber 1995). The campaign will use a combination of functional and emotional attributes through their communication channels to appeal to an audience as large as possible. However, the contest/prize motivated sales promotion, which will be described later in the campaign strategy, will try to more specifically speak to a type of “millennial personality” that particularly could represent Facebook well. Participation Previously, it was suggested that the firm consider transforming its stakeholder matrix by moving the general public to the key player quadrant, where they can be actively involved in decision making processes. Millennials are ideal candidates to be involved in processes, as they belong to the generation that has overcome the stage of being
  34. 34. 34 passive consumers, but want to actively participate, co-create and be included as partners in the brands they love. The willingness to participate starts already at the product and service design, and stretches through the customer journey and shopper experience. They become most prominent towards the end of the marketing cycle through the usage of tools such as social media. It is even suggested that the illustration of functional and emotional benefits alone will not suffice for a brand to excel since millennial brand fans believe they have a shared interest in the success of the brand (Fromm 2013). Bill George (2009) suggests, “People are their own medium, their own creation. You have to let them in, let consumers move your ideas along. They want to interact. Measure ‘Return on Involvement, not ‘Return on Investment’.” Distrust- Consumer Empowerment With the level of the aforementioned involvement levels, it needs to be highlighted that generation Y consumers are extraordinarily empowered. Especially with the abundance of information available on the Internet, where tech-savvy Millennials can easily access reviews and opinions, firms are challenged to thoroughly work on their transparency. Consumers are now extremely marketing-savvy and choose to trust recommendations of friends or family far more than any company sponsored advertising efforts (Kirby 2006). Therefore, companies targeting this age group have witnessed an increased importance of public relations, as it is imperative to increase earned media to gain credibility and maintain authenticity. It can be argued that Millennials are eager to make most out of their lives- reducing risk through pre-purchase information searches and relying on recommendations of their friends to create a unique experience for themselves. The “Now” Generation- Real Time Information As digital natives, Millennials seek instant gratification – particularly focusing on speed, ease, efficiency and convenience in all their transactions. It is highly important to these consumers that the service they are receiving is flexible and can be tailored and customized according to their individual needs. Moreover, again relating to their tech-savvy nature, they demand information as it occurs. As the first generation to grow up with social media, the urge to access real-time reporting from any location is an integral part of their lives. The sharing of their life activities can be particularly visible when a TV show airs with a hashtag on the corner of the screen, enabling all viewers to participate in discussions about the show on Twitter or Facebook (Lee 2013).
  35. 35. 35 Social Self-Expression With no generation more multi-ethnic than them, Millennials fully embrace the act of self- expression. A study by PewResearch has shown that at least 75% of Millennials have a profile on a social networking site and have created and shared content in video or picture format. Almost 40% have one or more tattoos and 25% have at least one piercing- that is six times more than their older generations (Khan 2010). With 200 or more friends, this generation is known to have the largest amounts of friends or followers on social platforms. There is a fear of missing out if not kept up to date through social media. In addition, they seek validation through ‘likes’ of their posts and photos. A study conducted by BCG illustrates that the majority agree that their lives feel far more enriched if they are connected to people through their social media, which even extends to favouring brands with Facebook pages. Moreover, the aspiration to connect and share experiences with peers exceeds the online bubble- Millennials desire to participate in group activities with people outside their immediate family, much more than their previous generation. They further seek reassurance and validation from their friends and coworkers, whom they shop, dine and travel with. Companies such as restaurants and retailers have capitalized on these habits using location-based services such as Foursquare; since people in groups tend to spend larger amounts of money than if they were by themselves. (Barton, Fromm and Egan, 2012) Social Responsibility Generation Y is known to have an ‘inner hippie’ and are strongly motivated by the thought of making the world a better place. As they were taught to recycle in pre-school, green values have been planted into their value system early on. They feel that working for a good cause is an integral part of life and are concerned with big issues the world is facing (Barton, Fromm and Egan, 2012). Deloitte's Millennial Survey revealed that the world's future leaders are progressively viewing business through the lens of social impact. 52 percent of participants felt that, more than any other part of society, business would achieve the greatest impact in terms of solving society’s biggest issues (Deloitte 2013) Moreover, instead of one-time donations to charities, Millennials volunteer for causes close to their hearts. Traveller - Explorer
  36. 36. 36 There is no generation that has travelled as much as this one (Shellenberg 2013). The prevalent multiethnic nature and intense global migratory of this generation also aids in the process of stimulating travel as people are calling several countries their homes. They are known to be adventurous, letting their holidays fall into place as opposed to planning out details beforehand. They also ask their friends for recommendations and live-report about their travels through their social media channels. Moreover, connecting to their strong feelings about social responsibility, “voluntourism”, where people travel to places to volunteer for social causes, has gained massive popularity (Travel 2.0 Consulting Group, 2008). Psychographic Profile for Facebook’s IMC Campaign Figure 23, Author’s own,adapted from Mullen and Johnson 1990 2.4.3. Decision Making Process The decision making process instigates as the consumer becomes aware of an issue, either through a real need or through a marketing-induced need recognition. Here, the self-concept theory further highlights how the latter is able to manipulate and influence consumers to gain interest in the product. This theory argues that every individual holds beliefs and values regarding its own attributes, the “actual self”, which are continuously compared to an aspirational “ideal self”. Hence, the problem awareness occurs when there is a significant gap between the two selves. The consumer therefore tries to reduce the distance to its aspired self by satisfying the arisen need. Whilst this process happens naturally, it is one of the aims of marketing to uncover hidden needs by introducing consumers to previously unknown opportunities (Solomon, 2010). •Tech-savvy, curious, explorer, traveller •Visionary, entrepreneurial, social Personality •socially responsible, tolerance, environment, social justice •work/life balance, teamrowk, diversity •self-expression,genuine, optimism, •family, personal connections Values •suspicious, trusts peer-reviews more than corporate •Passionate about making a difference, crave change Opinions and Attitudes •Technology/Gadgets •Cultures/Travel/Charity Interests •Educated, medium income, traveller, seek active involvementLifestyles
  37. 37. 37 Figure 24: Author’s Own, Source: Solomon 2010
  38. 38. 38 The decision making process ultimately helps consumers reduce risk pre-purchase. Depending on the level of the involvement of the product, the information search and evaluation of alternatives can be done extensively. Facebook, as a free-of-charge service, could be considered a low-involvement product. Even if one decides to open an account, there is no requirement to neither produce or engage with content, nor give out personal information.  Needs Recognition For social media in general, the needs recognition could be attributed to the snowball effect. As these are communication tools, they can only be as successful if the environment surrounding the potential consumer is actively utilizing the service. The peer pressure of wanting to belong and participate creates a need that has to be met.  Information Search The low-involvement nature of the service does not require an extensive information search before signing up for it. More recently, however, data privacy issues have posed a greater concern for users. Facebook heavily relies on selling data, ranging from personal information to even browsing data, as their main source of income (Morran, 2014). The recent National Security Agency (NSA) scandal in the US, with some claiming Facebook collaborated in providing data to the US government, shed further negative light on the company’s ethics (BBC 2014). When the acquisition of WhatsApp was confirmed, the competing messaging service “Telegram”, well-known for its security- focus, started acquiring users at a rate of 5million a day (Russell, 2014). Savvy consumers therefore pose a threat to increasing usage and engagement, as they are less willing to reveal information. Hence, it is of utmost importance to provide easily accessible and fully transparent information on data privacy.  Evaluation of Alternatives As determined earlier, the desire to communicate with existing users will have the strongest influence on a potential user’s decision. However, besides the transparency and accessibility of terms and conditions, its unique features will facilitate the evaluation of competing services.  Purchase The “purchasing” process is highly facilitated as no money exchanges hands, but only requires little basic information to open an account.  Post-Purchase Evaluation
  39. 39. 39 This is the most crucial part for Facebook to focus on. They have to prove to their users that they are able to continuously provide them with meaningful ways to create value and become an indispensable part of their lives. Figure 25 illustrates post-purchase behavior (Cant 2006), where users evaluate their product or service during its usage. If Facebook fails to provide an incentive to its users to engage with the platform, existing users might dispose the product and gravitate towards another one. The IMC campaign will focus on making users aware of the daily usage possibilities and therefore elicit an increase in engagement and ultimately lead to customer satisfaction, which can spread positive word of mouth and encourage potential users to get on board. Figure 25 the process of problem recognition (Cant2006) .
  40. 40. 40 2.5. Branding Issues The below brand wheel provides an overview of what Facebook as a brand represents. The brand essence, “connect the world”, is closely related to their mission statement of “making the world more open and connected”. Above all the monetary goals, Mark Zuckerberg’s primary motivation is to make a significant impact on the world. Even though people are aware that the platform itself is the most advanced and integrated, its novelty and excitement have vanished after its presence in the market for over 10 years (Miller 2013). However, with the next generation of web knocking on the door, it has never been more important to keep users loyal and interested. Facebook, next to Google, could be a main contributor to the creation of Web 3.0. It is said that the latter will facilitate the use of information e.g. if a movie night out is planned, people will google movie reviews, playtimes, ticket purchasing, restaurants nearby, reviews of the food, etc. Ultimately, one has consulted dozens of websites until a choice can be made. Web 3.0 is speculated to simplify customer experience by using complex search sentences, e.g. “I want to see a funny romantic movie that plays close to Leicester Square London and have Japanese food with ratings above 4 stars nearby before watching the film. What are my options?” (Strickland 2014). Since Facebook’s Graph Search is indexed precisely to provide this type of service, it is crucial to retain its consumer base. The brand essence, “connect the world”, needs to shift to a more active “explore the world”, since Facebook gives one all the tools to do so.
  41. 41. 41 Figure 26 2.5.1.Current Image versus Desired Image Once perceived young, vibrant and innovative, Facebook recently has not been able to shake off its “uncool” image (Sparkes 2013). Through this IMC campaign, the firm needs to shift focus to change the current negative attitude and restore its popularity. This campaign will particularly focus on usefulness, reliability, and ease of use in a relevant context and provoke positive emotions. Most importantly, Facebook needs to position itself as an indispensable tool for Millennials to realise their full potential in life. Figure 27 Attributes Social Medium/Community/Netw ork of Family and Friends Content Creation, Consumption and Sharing w ith Multiple Receivers New s Feed Chat/Communications Tool Accessible through various electronic devices Online Gaming F Logo/Blue themed Benefits Keeping in touch w ith friends/family Have content liked by others Self-expression Keeping up w ith current affairs Obtain information on companies, products and review s Values Convenience (to share/keep in touch w ith many people at once) Community/Belonging Increased Popularity through Self-Expression Makes me feelinspired by observing friends’activities Personality Explorer Outgoing Innovative Social/Friendly Popular Multi cultural Intelligent Brand Essence Connect the World Current Image Uncool, Unexciting Desired Image Helps you to make the most out of your life Explore the World
  42. 42. 42 2.6. Campaign Tools 2.6.1. Advertising An identified company, non-profit organization or individual can define advertising as any paid, non-personal communications through various media. Advertising is an effective integrated marketing communications tool to inform and persuade an audience, regardless of whether a product, a service or an idea is promoted. An advertising campaign consists of a series of ads and other promotional efforts with a shared theme also placed to persuade an audience over a specified period of time. (O’ Guinn et all, 2014) Hence, it is a tool commonly used in promotional activities. Compared to 2011, global advertising spend has risen in most parts of the world except for Europe in 2012. As one of the oldest, most visible and most crucial instrument, large sums of money are spent on research evaluating its role and its effectiveness (De Pelsmacker 2013). However, as previously mentioned, the rise of the active and empowered consumer has tremendously affected the effectiveness of advertising. Especially for Generation Y, where any word of mouth recommendation is heavily preferred over paid corporate advertising, advertisers struggle to convince through solely Advertising. Moreover, media proliferation and audience fragmentation contribute to the reduction of its impact. It is said that “advertising is what you pay for- publicity is what you pray for”. Advertising is used to tell people how great you are, whereas with public relations, others sign your praises (Wynne 2014). Therefore, it is crucial for advertising to be embedded in an integrated marketing communications plan, where its weaknesses can be offset by the strengths of another medium. Even though it might provoke doubtful emotions in its audience, it is still the tool that achieves the most visibility and allows the company to tell a story the way they desire. Since advertising is more visual than language-focused as PR is, it still has a powerful way to communicate emotional attributes to an audience. For Facebook, which has grown its user based virally, it is now time to invest in advertising, to especially increase its visibility and achieve top-of-mind awareness. Advertising will be the most crucial element for the firm, as they need to tell a positively emotional story whilst explaining features visually to make people aware of how to maximize the value they gain through their Facebook usage. Advertising is only effective if it benefits the consumer. Therefore, the message cannot be focused on seller objectives, but has to start from the target consumers motives (Solomon 2010).
  43. 43. 43 2.6.2. Public Relations Public relations traditionally were not accounted for being a part of the marketing communications process, but solely acting as the ‘press agent’, bridging the company’s point of view and the media coverage of the company’s activities (De Pelsmacker 2013). Gradually, it became evident that public relations needed to be embedded as a part of an integrated communications process to achieve and leverage a unified brand image. Essentially, PR is a communications tool, which is used to promote goodwill towards the firm as a whole (Syrgy 1998). As the matrix below (Figure28) further illustrates, the “General Public”, of which users and potential users are a part of, is in the “Meet their Needs”-quadrant. These stakeholders’ needs are habitually met by consultation and engagement. Since their influence power is already on a high level, the aim here should be to increase the interest level to progress those to become key players (Ackermann and Eden 2011). Conclusively, the interest level of the users needs to increase in order to foster engagement- by transforming the general public into a priority, namely a key player. The latter will need to be involved in decision making processes and engaged and consulted with regularly through a two-way symmetric communications model. Figure 28, Author’s own,adapted from Ackermann and Eden, 2011 2.6.3. Sales Promotion
  44. 44. 44 Sales Promotions take on many different shapes, such as coupons, free products and samples, fixed ratios such as buy 1 get 1 free, and many more. It aids to enhance customer experience and communicate the brand personality to customers. Since Facebook does not have in-store products for purchase, the only sales promotion technique that will augment synergy across the entire campaign is “prize” in form of a contest. With the “prize” technique, the benefit for the consumer is determined by whether he wins or not. The advantage thereof lies in the fact that the costs for such campaigns can be pre-calculated and has no variable cost attached depending on the number of participants. Further, a far more valuable benefit can be given to the consumer as the prize, compared to a promotion where the reward is available to anyone (Mullin 2010). This type of random ratio reinforcement scheme, where the participant gambles with the chances of winning, can have a strong persuasive influence (Solomon 2010). 2.6.4. Direct Marketing “The success of direct marketing originates from the corner shopkeepers philosophy of having close and personal contact with customers, knowing everyone’s needs and wants, providing them with the best solution to their problems and giving them excellent after-sales service (De Pelsmacker, 2013).” Since then, however, technology has profoundly transformed this tool, ranging from automation to increased storage capacities for databases and marketing intelligence systems thereof. Thanks to the latter, direct mail, telemarketing and direct response advertising have evolved from being traditional, low profile and pushy techniques to what potentially could be highly sophisticated techniques that could aid in long-term relationship building (Kitchen and Pelsmacker 2004). For this IMC, it is of particular importance to reconnect with the audience- direct marketing here can support an intermediary-free dialogue between the business and its customers. This will form a foundation for building and developing this direct relationship between the organization and its customers. To provide users with meaningful, relevant content, it is imperative that the company is continuously trying to understand its customers better.
  45. 45. 45 3. IMC Campaign 3.1. Message Development Facebook’s skeleton is nothing but a highly complex structure of enormous data. Much like the questions of what would happen if we were able to access the 100% full potential of our brain, Facebook’s data is quite properly indexed but left not to be accessed. In addition to openness and connectivity, the campaign will include the element of “exploration”. In order to elevate its image, which is currently resting on a level which somewhat has lost its novelty long time ago, a new verb, associated with activity and engagement, needs to be introduced. Facebook is primarily used for sharing with many people at once, and to consume picture and video content of friends (Petronzio 2014). Users especially use the platform to share content related to travel as in pictures, location check-ins, “travelling to” status updates (Constine, 2014). Seeing friends’ pictures of beautiful sceneries evokes “travel envy” and intensifies one’s desire to explore that place oneself (Tam 2013). Whilst social media can be seen as a medium that leads to isolation, the ‘Open Explore Connect’ campaign will demonstrate how Facebook could be an indispensable tool to connecting in the real world. Beyond the strapline, there are 3 sub-messages: The campaign will especially be based around travel, as it is an area, which particularly resonates well with Millennials, as demonstrated under 2.4.2. The campaign will aim to create the ultimate exploration guide for the generation Y and really enhance the sense of community whilst increasing interest, awareness and particularly engagement. Facebook will now have the chance to truly demonstrate how web 2.0 can be used to exploit all the available data to make the best out of one’s life. The participatory and active nature of the target group will demonstrate how sharing information will allow for Make the most of life through exploring Friendships invigorate your life Indispensable, Useful, Relevant Companion
  46. 46. 46 the best experiences to be created. Formulating a message needs to solve the following problems:  What to say? (Message content)  How to say it? (Message format)  Who should say it? (Message-source)” (Trehan 2010) The key content of the message is to make yourself and the world a better place through exploration and curiosity. It will be communicated through various channels, especially through the campaign contest, advertising 3.1.1. Campaign Messages There is a slight difference between a tagline and a slogan. A tagline is a distillation of the corporate values and identity into a short and catchy phrase to reinforce the brand essence and highlight the difference between the firm and its competitors. (Schnotz 2014) Tagline:Open. Explore. Connect. Facebook’s Tagline so far has been its ‘Like’ icon , as it appears at the end of every short video they have posted on their own Facebook wall. It is also accompanied by a small sound; similar to it’s messaging notification tone. Since this iconic sign is unmistakably recognizable, it is going to be kept. However, since the campaign is trying to move away from and refresh its old image and draw attention to its true potential, these three words are going to be added: Open - Facebook has had a tremendous impact on global communications as it has visually shortened distances, opened and brought the world closer together. Explore- This is the element that adds novelty to the whole image, whilst the other two component just act as a reminder of Facebook’s potency. As previously mentioned, it will embody the adventure and curiosity resonating with Millennials, unlocking the potential of the tremendous data that is available, but not used most efficiently. Moreover, since this campaign is aiming to increase revenue from the travel sector, the exploration element will also educate and inspire its audience to travel more. Connect- Along with its mission statement of making the world more open and connected, Facebook has truly changed the way in which people connect across the
  47. 47. 47 world. Not only through linking with friends’ profiles but also connecting users to tremendous amounts of data and information, truly underlining the meaning of web 2.0. Campaign Slogan: Unlock the Potential A slogan is very similar to a tagline in terms of being a short, catchy statement surrounding the brand. Its main difference to the tagline is its scope- as the tagline represents Facebook as a company and brand as a whole, the slogan is specifically made for this IMC campaign (Schnotz 2014). Whilst being based around travel, this slogan relates to the aforementioned 3 sub-messages. It was initially considered to use “unlock YOUR potential”. However, the use of “your” will delve too deep into the stage of looking inside “yourself” to find your very own potential. However, this campaign should highlight that we can enhance ourselves by using the environment that surrounds us- which ultimately is uncountable and will go as far as the user is willing to commit to. The use of “the potential” instead of “your potential” demonstrates that the potential is limitless, and therefore is only what you are willing to make of it. The sub-messages will act as an extension of this slogan, emphasizing living life to the fullest, and cherishing friendships, and most importantly, using Facebook as an indispensable tool to achieve these goals. 3.2. Push Strategy Push strategies involve messages that are proactively sent out, bringing the product to the customer. Since there is no tangible product, the sales promotion and direct marketing in this case count as a push strategy, as this effort is actively seeking for users to participate. 3.2.1. Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing Contest Sales promotion and direct marketing are used jointly for this section, as the prize contest is considered a sales promotion tool, whereas it will be held on a social media platform, which elicits direct responses from its participants, counting as direct marketing. This will be the first stage of the IMC campaign. Through Facebook’s Facebook page, users will be encouraged to participate in a contest. The participants are required to upload a 1-minute long video of themselves, expressing their exploratory nature. It is freely up to the user what content to produce, as long as it creatively illustrates the adventurous and exploratory nature of the person. Since self-expression is embraced by
  48. 48. 48 the target audience, it is expected to awaken people’s interest. Users have to use the hashtag #Facebookexplorer when uploading the video to enter the contest. The prize awaiting the candidate with the most likes on his post is a 3 months world trip. (Figure 29) Figure 29 Author’s Own Facebook’s Facebook page has 163million likes. Since it is the company’s own page, they can use maximum organic reach. Reach Response Rate(Notice, Likes, Comments) Conversion Rate(Actual participants) Sales (Winner) Fulfillment and other cost 163 million 25% 40.75 million 0.012% 5000 1 GBP 100’000 The cost listed above of GBP 100’000 includes not only the travel expenses, but also marketing salaries for design and maintenance of the contest. The conversion rate of 0.3% might seem low relative to the amount of people reached out to, however, considering the large workload factor, the numbers are realistic. To make things more interesting, the winner will be employed by Facebook for these 3 months. The core of the travel is that nothing will be planned beforehand- the winner will
  49. 49. 49 have to inquire on Facebook’s Facebook page what his next destination and activities should be. The comment with the most likes will be considered the next destination. Figure 30, Courtesy of Facebook Since the opinions and experiences of millions of people will come together, this contest will unlock the potential of minds working together creating the ultimate millennial travel guide. On top of eliciting high levels of engagement, it will inspire people to travel. As mentioned under 1.2.4., there are five stages to taking a vacation: Dreaming, planning, booking, experiencing and reflecting. 52% of people say Facebook induced their “dreaming” stage, and 95% even said they used Facebook prior to making their travel arrangements (O’Reilly 2013). Now, consumers can become aware of the fact that Facebook is present in all five stages of travel preparation as it is visually put into context. Consumers actively engaging and seeing their suggestions being taken into consideration will add much more meaning and weight to the whole process. Since Facebook has significantly increased their travel sales representatives (Rilley 2013), this
  50. 50. 50 is the ultimate timing and incentive for the travel sector to start investing in Facebook advertising. After the winner returns home and has created his ultimate generation y travel guide, users are able to win the trips he has been on- these will be 15x 2-week vacations for 2 people. Facebook will post small challenges and Instagram contests, again winning based on likes, through which the user’s interest will be kept at a higher level since incentives are provided. The fulfillment cost includes salaries to be paid to sales representatives. Reach Current Travel Revenue/User Current Total Travel Revenue 33 million (UK) £0.07 (6% of total revenue) £2’310’000 Desired Travel Revenue/User Desired Total Travel Revenue 33 million (UK) £0.25 (20% of total revenue) £8’250’000
  51. 51. 51 3.3. Pull Strategy 3.3.1. Advertising Even though the contest is the core of this campaign, the firm is also trying to raise top of mind awareness and foster a favourable attitude towards them. As advertising is powerful in terms of persuading and influencing attitudes, it will target people outside of the Facebook bubble. Creative Brief Who (Target Audience) Millennials aged 24-35 with a spillover of 6y, Social Grades ABC1 Why (Objective)  To increase top-of-mind awareness of functional explanatory as well as emotional elements  Communicate the new brand essence  Foster a favourable attitude towards the brand What (Key Message) Explore + Unlock the potential Where (Channels) London Underground, Newspapers, Magazines, YouTube When (Timing) Over a course of a year, with bursts 1 months prior to the contest How (Execution)  Large billboards in tube stations and small posters on escalators  Inside London Tubes  One-page adverts in free newspapers  YouTube adverts focusing on demonstration of functional elements connected to emotional attributes
  52. 52. 52 3.3.1.1. OutdoorAdvertising London underground billboards are eye-catching and provide a welcoming variety to commuters. More importantly, 74% of underground users are in the social class ABC1 and aged between 18-35 years (Outdoor Media Centre, 2014). The daily traffic of the underground service amounts to 30 million people. Examples of billboards and escalator adverts can be found below(Figure 31-Figure34). Initially, these ads will only be very visual but with very little text. It has deliberately been designed this way to awaken the interest of its audience. A quick response code (QRC), will be embedded in each advert, which can be scanned for more information. Given the lack of previous adverts, people’s interest will be captured and make them keen to find out more. The QRC will also allow for evaluation of and tracking of each outlet. These will allow for measurement of effectiveness geographically and possibly used for future campaigns. Figure 31, Author’s Own
  53. 53. 53 Figure 32, Author’s own Figure 33, Author’s Own
  54. 54. 54 Escalator Advertising As far as underground escalators are concerned, the entire rows of adverts will be reserved to ensure maximum effect. The audience’s interest can be captured at the start, and towards the end of the escalator ride, people will have enough information to associate these adverts with the Facebook brand. Since London underground escalators are fairly long, it will leave enough time for people to scan the QR code. Figure 34, Author’s own
  55. 55. 55 The scanning of the QR code will lead to Facebook’s newsroom/contest page, where all the information regarding the contest is available. Figure 35, Author’s own 3.3.1.2. Newspapers The outdoor advertisements will start one month before the contest officially starts, as a “teaser campaign”. Newspapers should support the impact the outdoor campaigns relating to the contest. In the week, in which the contest starts, a front cover page of the Evening Standard and Metro will be used to announce the contest.
  56. 56. 56 London Evening Standard With a readership of 1’020’000 of ABC1 consumers and the largest share of the age group 25-34 years, an advert in this newspaper will complement the outdoors advertising. The use of the coverpage at the start of the contest ensures maximum exposure. Measurement Delivery Circulation Circulation 887294 Readership Adults 1546000 ABC1 1020000 Figure 36, Source: newsworks.org.uk Metro Target Age 18-44 and a national circulation, a cover page in the metro will reach national awareness. Measurement Delivery Circulation Circulation 3'100'000 Readership Adults 1'382'000 ABC1 953'000 Figure 37, Source: newsworks.org.uk After the contest has closed and the blogging adventure begins, the nature of the adverts will shift from promotional to functional. As buzz and top-of-mind awareness have been created, educational ads should be introduced as long as the consumer’s attention span is still active.
  57. 57. 57 Figure 38, Source: courtesy of Facebook However, these ads will be on a smaller scale and be on the newspaper once a week, on a quarter page. Even though these ads will focus on the functional benefits of Facebook, it is still in line with “Unlock the Potential” slogan. By using the integrated features fully, it should provide the user with the most optimal user experience and facilitate his or her day-to-day life. 3.3.1.4. YouTube YouTube has a unique audience of approximately 10 million and a 26% active reach in the UK (Mediatel, 2014). A Nielsen study has shown that online video ads are more effective than TV adverts as users are forced to watch them- especially if they do not have the option to skip (Keane 2014). .
  58. 58. 58 Figure 39, Source: Nielsen To resonate with the digitally native generation Y, it is proposed to run an approximately 1-minute long video on YouTube. The ad will feature a man or a woman in his/her mid-twenties, travelling to an exotic country, with a heavy focus on spontaneity. The advert will demonstrate how Facebook’s integrated features can be used to maximize the potential of everyday life. The person will be shown asking his friends through posts on his timeline to give him suggestions of which attractions and places to visit, and what activities to pursue. Moreover, the person will also look for restaurants that his friends have liked and rated in his location. The person will also be shown to rate locations and facilities as well as writing his own reviews to share his gained experience. The main character will also use graph search to explore his friends’ pictures and checked-in locations for inspiration. This ad should reflect that through exploring the world and unlocking the potential of the environment that surrounds him, the trip inspires and motivates him to live life to the fullest. Hence, a story combining emotional and explanatory elements.
  59. 59. 59 3.3.2. Public Relations 3.3.2.1. Press Release The week, in which the contest will be launched, it is suggested that Facebook issues a news release. In addition to publishing it on their own newsroom, the release discussing the contest in detail shall be sent to the following online technology and business press:  Financial Times Online  Mashable  Wired  Guardian  BBC  Huffington Post  Buzzfeed Tech  Elite Daily 3.3.2.2. PR Event- WorldTravel Market Even though this campaign is mainly focusing on the B2C aspect of Facebook, its primary corporate objective is to provide its business customers with valuable advertising space. Since the company is aiming to increase revenue from the travel sector, it is proposed that they exhibit their B2B services at the world travel market in November in London. Their stand will provide them with the opportunity to actively approach other firms in the travel industry and actively demonstrate what benefits these had if they used Facebook’s advertising services. In particular, Facebook should hold seminars to illustrate and educate ‘live’ how to best go about social media advertising, engagement and ROI. Even though the event is held in the UK, representatives of countless countries will be present. It will be an opportunity for Media Business Customers
  60. 60. 60 3.3.2.3. Feature Stories To maintain its authenticity through endorsement from third parties, it would be favourable for Facebook to suggest feature stories to the millennial online press. For the latter to be realized, the organization needs to maintain favourable relationships with the press. However, instead of being a passive, Facebook could actively inform its key journalists about its new features and hacks to provide them with interesting content and in return, gain third party positive endorsement. Relationships with Journalists,  EliteDaily  Buzzfeed  Mashable  Wired Upworthy Figure 40, Source: Courtesyof Buzzfeed.com General Public
  61. 61. 61 3.4. Vertical Integration The primary corporate objective of Facebook is to provide B2B advertisers with precisely targetable advertising space, which ultimately increases their return on investment. This is considered the principal objective above all, as the main income stream for Facebook is derived from advertising. However, as the situational analysis has demonstrated, Facebook is struggling to keep up the engagement levels, which are crucial to enhance customer data with facets that allow segmenting and targeting. Moreover, the microanalysis has shown that their current largest user group, Millennials aged 24-35, is the most self-expressive generation on social media and is heavily enticed by wanderlust. However, the travel sector advertising revenue is lagging behind- a huge opportunity for Facebook to tap into that market by leveraging the interest of their current user base. The aim is to increase travel-advertising income from currently 6% to 20% of the total revenue stream. Since the gaining of younger segments is covered by their aggressive merger strategy, the marketing objective is to retain and ‘entertain’ existing users and increase engagement. This reverts back to the corporate objective of obtaining meaningful data from users. Engagement is elicited by providing users with a travel-themed contest, which also resonates with the new brand essence of exploration. The vertical integration of travel and exploration provokes users to actively participate and truly demonstrate the meaning and advantages of Web 2.0, where information exchange can aid to creating the best experiences. The IMC objectives are again closely interlinked to achieve every objective individually on every level. The strengths of each tool are used to offset possible weaknesses of another. As the promotional contest is at the core of the campaign, actively encouraging users to participate and discover the meaning of the brand essence for themselves. One the one hand, tools such as advertising and public relations are used to increase awareness of the happening of the contest, but will revert to advertising other features when sales promotion and direct marketing are up and running. This ensures efficiency across all tools, no medium is ever fully resting, but alternating between active and supporting functions. Even if advertising takes over the role of drawing attention to the functional attributes of Facebook, it is still with the intention of “unlocking the potential” of the consumer’s social media usage. The vertical integration of all objectives with the linkages to relevant tools and common theme ensure a more powerful, multiplied impact than one tool alone. The synergy created will support the achievement of objectives smoothly.
  62. 62. 62 Figure 41, Author’s Own
  63. 63. 63 3.5. Horizontal Synergy To obtain a positive, long lasting effect on the environment, synergy amongst all tools is essential. For an IMC campaign to be successfully implemented, consistency and corporate cohesion throughout will ensure an improvement of communications strategy. The tools used for this IMC do not have clear boundaries of when they start and end, but have morphed into each other to minimize weaknesses and leverage strengths. Figure 42, Author’s own Since the sales promotion contest is held on a social media platform, which encourages active participation and responses of users, it blurs into direct marketing. The YouTube advertisement is a traditional visual tool embedded in a non-traditional marketing setting. Moreover, the outdoor advertisements all have a QR code to allow a fast and direct response. PR also communicates the same message, but with the objective to obtain third-party endorsement from journalists to maintain authenticity. Ultimately, public relations will also host events to represent their excellent services to their business customers and hence closing the circle. The tools are knit together tightly and present a consistent message throughout every activity. The combination allows for a multiplied impact with positive synergy.
  64. 64. 64 4. CampaignDelivery 4.1. Campaign Budget Budget Frequency GBP Total Promotion Contest 1 1'500'000.00 Small Contest 15 7000 105'000.00 Outdoors Tube Billboards 10 5500 55'000.00 Escalators 10 23000 230'000.00 Buses 16 6200 99'200.00 Newspapers Evening Standard Cover Page 1 16800 16'800.00 National Metro Cover Page 1 36104.6 36'104.60 Evening Standard Quarter Page 10 8400 84'000.00 Metro Quarter Page 10 18052.3 180'523.00 Digital YouTube (Ad Production & Click Through) 1 months 700'000.00 Public Relations Stand at World Travel Market 3 100'000.00 3'107000 Gain from Investment= £8’250’000 Cost of Investment= £3’107’000 ROI= 1.65 The ROI calculated amounted to 1.65. However, it has to be kept in mind that the campaign, even though focusing on the UK, will have a global impact and bring significantly more revenue than the 33million users in the UK. Currently, the revenue per user amounts to USD 2.06 (GBP 1.42). Based on that, an increase to 20% of the total travel revenue would amount to GBP 307'500'000.00. Relative to the amount spent, this would result in an ROI of 97.97. It can be therefore argued that a mid-way approach needs to be adapted. If the campaign were held on a truly global scale, the advertising costs would be much higher and therefore result in a strong, yet more realistic return on investment.
  65. 65. 65 4.2. Timeline The below timeline indicates what activities are planned for which months for the year of 2015. The teaser campaign with little explanation on outdoor billboards will be in the first month before the contest is officially announced, so that a base of awareness already preexists. The contest will start in February and people will have 2 months to submit their videos, and the full month of April will be dedicated to the increasing of Likes by sharing the video for it to gain maximum exposure. YouTube will be launching from the second month of the contest, to reinforce and awaken more awareness and intensify interest. The day the contest is announced, Facebook will also issue a news release, so that the business and technology press is informed and the news distributes through media. Moreover, the same day, both the Evening Standard as well as the Metro nationwide will have a full front cover page on the papers with the contest advert. As soon as the blogging starts, the adverts outdoors and in newspapers will change in nature and focus on communicating the functional features of Facebook and how they can be useful and relevant to making everyday life better. Feature stories will be kept at bay, to reduce the risk of media fatigue, since they should only be issued if there is a really exciting new function that can be talked about. The world travel market will be held in November. It will be advantageous that it is held close to the end of the campaign, as there will be visible results with which the business customers can be convinced. To keep the users interested, there will be 2-weekly to monthly contests, where they can win a trip to one of the countries the blogger has been on.
  66. 66. 66 Campaign Timeline 2015 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Outdoors Tube Billboards Escalators Buses Promotion Contest WINNER Promotion Blogging Small Contests Newspapers Evening Standard Cover Page National Metro Cover Page Metro Quarter Page Evening Standard Quarter Page Digital YouTube Public Relations Press Releases Feature Stories World Travel Market
  67. 67. 67 5. CampaignProposalEvaluation The evaluation of a campaign will allow assessing the effectiveness and success of a campaign. To reduce risk, a pre-evaluation as well as a post-evaluation strategy will be proposed. These will indicate if the campaign was properly developed and then executed. In addition, the process of evaluating adds further value, as mistakes can be avoided this way. This will provide the opportunity to optimize and measure the overall effectiveness of advertising tactics (Ogden and Rarick 2010). 5.1. Pre-Testing A pre-testing can predict the success of a campaign and reveal areas of improvement. 5.1.2. Concept-Testing In order to estimate the response the campaign will elicit from the public, it is sensible to use focus groups with a sample group of people that represent the target audience. It is proposed to use four separate focus groups, two with the younger spillover of 18-24 and the other two the older group of 24-35year olds. The separation of these two age groups will permit insight whether age is determining any differences in preferences and responses. It could also show if there was any difference in self-expression through social media. Since the campaign aims to shift its brand image, essence and slogan and augment the brand to a stage of novelty, it is more appropriate to use a qualitative research method such as focus groups. The latter allows for the moderator to understand the opinions and attitudes of the group. It has to be kept in mind that the result, which this qualitative research delivers, is completely representative of the target audience under examination. However, a direct rating system can deliver the understanding of whether the audience is positive or negative toward an advert. In this method, respondents are questioned and asked to rate a set of averts. The categories comprise attention, read through, cognitive, effective and behavioural strengths (Jyoti 2010). 5.1.3 Copy testing Copy testing is the analysis of an advert prior to it being aired. This type of pre-testing indicates whether an advertisement’s message is strong enough so it can be used by the firm. If it isn’t, it will identify the parameters, which can be edited to communicate the
  68. 68. 68 message with more weight. This technique is often used to shorten adverts and use the best still frames for a combined campaign (DJS Research Ltd 2014). 5.2 Post-testing Post-testing will finally assess the output of the campaign. Here, a quantitative approach in form of a short survey on Facebook itself, in addition to brand tracking studies to measure advertising effectiveness, brand awareness, beliefs and preferences, should be used. Most importantly, it is imperative to assess the key performance indicators, and if they match the stated objectives. The following KPIs will confirm whether the campaign was successful or not:  Increase of travel advertising revenue from 6% to 20% of total revenue  Increase in usage of 30% in terms of comments, likes, shares, and upload of content The travel revenue objective is measured with the sales-response method. The travel sales team as well as accounting will be able to track these figures easily and call to action if that sector should be underperforming. The increase in usage and engagement can be measured with the use of Facebook Analytics. This tool breaks down how many people have been exposed to the ad and how many have shown some kind of response. In case Facebook notices an underperformance, they could promote and boost the posts further to obtain increased engagement. 6. Conclusion Since its birth in 2004, Facebook has grown and into a company of unthinkable shape and talent. However, in an era with short-lived trends and attention spans, the firm needs to truly figure out what is meaningful and valuable to its users. Trying to be ‘cool’ by just relying on viral word of mouth elements has gotten them to a point where their image lost its excitement. Therefore, it is recommended that Facebook, as proposed, much more actively engage with its users. Since it is in its maturity age and these marketing efforts are a tool to maximize the extension of the maturity span. Facebook needs to consider what their role in the next generation web will be, and accept the fact that it might not be a bad thing to mature with its market and morph into a completely different product.
  69. 69. 69 However, the time has not come yet- and Facebook could, much like this campaign proposes, focus on particular revenue sectors and incentivize customer engagement, to monetize their residual existence.

×