The Battle of Kettle Creek
Battle at Kettle Creek and notes on
     Standardizing Metal Detector Surveys.

                        By Daniel E. Battl...
Kettle Creek

Goal:
Locate evidence to aid in
our understanding in the
historical event known as
the Revolutionary war
Bat...
What was the Battle of Kettle Creek?
●   An ongoing campaign against loyalists trying to take up arms

●   Fought on Feb. ...
Kettle Creek

           The battle was
           mostly a personal
           fight among the
           Whigs and Loyal...
Kettle Creek

       What amounts to be
       successful campaign by the
       patriot backwoodsmen that
       should b...
Kettle Creek
British Strategy:
●   Uniting and recruitment of settlers in the frontier back-country
●   Relatively large n...
Kettle Creek

Why it did not work:
●   An Equal numbers of Patriot settlers countered several attempts
     by the Loyalis...
Kettle Creek

           Sunday morning, Feb 14, 1779
       Patriots                          Loyalists
Col. Andrew Picke...
Kettle Creek
Kettle Creek

U.S.G.S.
1906 Map
showing
Battle Site
Kettle Creek
Force Locations
Kettle Creek

      Archaeological Methods
      ●   Shovel testing (overall
          unsuccessful)

      ●   Excavation...
Kettle Creek

Benefits of metal detector survey
●   sparse artifact scatters

●   Limited time for a large area
Kettle Creek




Artifact Located During
Metal Detection Survey
Kettle Creek

Metal detector Results:
●   14 metal concentrations
    including farmsteads
Kettle Creek

               Metal detector Results:
               ●   3 general areas
                   produced elemen...
Kettle Creek
Kettle Creek

Conclusions:
●   site boundary
    recommendations were given
    for preservation plans

●   further site s...
Various Artifacts Found on Battlefield
Generally Metal Detectors can be used
in the following ways:
1.Quick non-evasive evaluation or mapping of a site          ...
Kettle Creek
How can we better use metal detectors at Archaeological sites.
Ideas on Standardizing the use of Metal detect...
Problems with Standardization of Metal
              Detector Surveys

Big Misconception -
       If you can turn on the m...
Some Possible Standardization
    Approaches:
●   Choose detectors that offer
    professional features

●   Develop suffi...
Some Possible Standardization
Approaches:
                    ●   Standardize Search Methods
                             ...
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Dan Battle

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"Rediscovering the Backcountry Battle of Kettle Creek in Wilkes County, Georgia"
Daniel Edward Battle
Cypress Cultural Consultants

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Dan Battle

  1. 1. The Battle of Kettle Creek
  2. 2. Battle at Kettle Creek and notes on Standardizing Metal Detector Surveys. By Daniel E. Battle Cypress Cultural Consultants, LLC under the direction of the LAMAR Institute, Inc. funded by a Preserve America Grant from the National Park Service, and the citizens of Wilkes County, Georgia.
  3. 3. Kettle Creek Goal: Locate evidence to aid in our understanding in the historical event known as the Revolutionary war Battle of Kettle Creek.
  4. 4. What was the Battle of Kettle Creek? ● An ongoing campaign against loyalists trying to take up arms ● Fought on Feb. 14th, 1779 on the heals of the British Invasion of Georgia ● History more known for formalized armies on famously known battlefields ● Over 200 Battles and Skirmishes in SC alone--more than other colonies. ● Not your typical Revolutionary War Battle
  5. 5. Kettle Creek The battle was mostly a personal fight among the Whigs and Loyalist backwoodsmen in the region nicknamed the “Hornet Nest”
  6. 6. Kettle Creek What amounts to be successful campaign by the patriot backwoodsmen that should be viewed as a sum of its parts: “Snow Campaign” SC/NC 1775 Ninety-Six, SC 1775 Moore’s Creek Bridge, N.C.1776 Kettle Creek, Georgia 1779 Kings Mountain, NC. 1780
  7. 7. Kettle Creek British Strategy: ● Uniting and recruitment of settlers in the frontier back-country ● Relatively large numbers of Scottish settlers had been pouring into the Frontier regions in the South and were viewed as loyal to the crown ● The British Authorities from as early as 1775, had made it a key strategy to take advantage of the Scottish and other immigrant populations.
  8. 8. Kettle Creek Why it did not work: ● An Equal numbers of Patriot settlers countered several attempts by the Loyalist to take over control ● The over all campaign effort of the Patriots was a success and kept volunteers from this region to a minimum is often an overlooked fact by many historians
  9. 9. Kettle Creek Sunday morning, Feb 14, 1779 Patriots Loyalists Col. Andrew Pickens Col. John or James Boyd ● Commanded less than 400 men ● Commanded about 900 men ● 32 men killed in action ● 75 men taken prisoner ● 70 men killed in action
  10. 10. Kettle Creek
  11. 11. Kettle Creek U.S.G.S. 1906 Map showing Battle Site
  12. 12. Kettle Creek Force Locations
  13. 13. Kettle Creek Archaeological Methods ● Shovel testing (overall unsuccessful) ● Excavation units were placed in areas found during a Metal Detection Reconnaissance ● ground penetrating radar (GPR) ● metal detection (located all the metal activity areas.)
  14. 14. Kettle Creek Benefits of metal detector survey ● sparse artifact scatters ● Limited time for a large area
  15. 15. Kettle Creek Artifact Located During Metal Detection Survey
  16. 16. Kettle Creek Metal detector Results: ● 14 metal concentrations including farmsteads
  17. 17. Kettle Creek Metal detector Results: ● 3 general areas produced elements of the battle ● Two probable areas are located in the flood plan. ● One probable area in heavy underbrush
  18. 18. Kettle Creek
  19. 19. Kettle Creek Conclusions: ● site boundary recommendations were given for preservation plans ● further site study potential still present
  20. 20. Various Artifacts Found on Battlefield
  21. 21. Generally Metal Detectors can be used in the following ways: 1.Quick non-evasive evaluation or mapping of a site 2.Supplement to shovel testing or as a stand alone during the planning stages similar to the use of GPR: testing method of gaining valuable information at historic sites a) location and general dating of historical activity areas in the field a) mimic the transects of any shovel testing to assure activity areas are not missed b) location of modern intrusions on a site to help b) evaluation of non-traditional archeological sites effectively focus testing such as battlefields c) conducting intense piece plotting of historic c) evaluation of the integrity of sites for formulating artifact scatters. additional testing strategies d) reconnaissance of large tracts. d) understanding of the placement and concentration of 3. Used non-evasively during excavation to give a metal artifacts vertically and horizontally heads up on the placement of fragile historical artifacts or deeper buried features* e) understanding of the preservation state of a historical site damaged by non-professional metal detector enthusiasts.
  22. 22. Kettle Creek How can we better use metal detectors at Archaeological sites. Ideas on Standardizing the use of Metal detectors to better be used as a consistent tool: Generally SHPO’s recognize the value of using Metal detectors in evaluation of historical sites but have stopped short of committing to any type of standard or guidelines in their usage in the field by archaeologists.
  23. 23. Problems with Standardization of Metal Detector Surveys Big Misconception - If you can turn on the machine, you can use it with little training! ● few standards and guidelines ● no training classes ● most archaeologists have insufficient experience ● technical control of search areas given to non-professional volunteers ● large variation in metal detectors
  24. 24. Some Possible Standardization Approaches: ● Choose detectors that offer professional features ● Develop sufficient methodology and goals that can be replicated: – Set Search Depth Parameters and Max Retrieval Depth – Conduct Depth Detection Test – Determine Sample Interval (similar to shovel tests interval)
  25. 25. Some Possible Standardization Approaches: ● Standardize Search Methods – Search Head or Coil Sweep ● Keep Adequate Field Records ● Consistent Plotting and Recording of Sampled Artifacts ● Participate in Training and Education on your Machine ● Field Identification and Mapping of Metal Anomalies or “Hits” ● Choose Volunteers Carefully and Educate them.

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