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Optical Fiber Communication
By: Saurabh Kumar
● Introduction to Optical Fiber.
● History of Optical Fiber.
● Principles of operation.
● Types of Fiber
a) On basis of mode
b) On basis of Index
● Manufacturing of OFC .
● Optical Fiber is a boon for the digital communication.
● Optical Fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made from
silica(glass) and it is thin as human hair.
● Diameter of a typical optical fiber is about 27 micrometer.
● Optical fiber are used most often as a means to transmit
light between the two ends of the fiber and has wide usage
in fiber-optics communication.
● Fiber Optics was first introduced by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in
Paris in the early 1840s.
● Earlier it was developed for the image transmission through fiber bundles.
● In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell and Sumner Tainter invented photophone which
was first of it type uses optical beam for the transmission of voice signals.
● In late 20th century, optical fiber came out for the wide usage in
● An optical fiber is a cylindrical
dielectric waveguide in which
transmission is done by the
process of Total Internal
● When light is beamed in fiber
with angle greater than critical
angle (θc) then reflection of
light starts inside the core of
● There is a range of angles in
which transmission of light in
OFC is possible and it is know
as acceptance cone of fiber.
TYPES OF FIBER
BASIS OF MODE BASIS OF INDEX
● In single mode fiber,
there is single light path
through which light is
transmitted to other end.
● The core to cladding
diameter ratio of SMF is
● Used for long distance
transmission and higher
bandwidth is required.
● In multimode Optical
Fiber, there is multiple
light path through which
light is transmitted to
● The diameter ratio of
core and cladding is
● Used where multiple
voice/data is transmitted
in less expensive with
CONSUMERS OF OFC IN WORLD
Consumer of a chinese company
● The core of optical fiber is made
from the glass(silica).
● Cladding is covering the core with
higher Refractive Index.
● Coating in OFC is done according to
their usage. As coating is done with
HDP(High Density Polyethene) or
LDP(Low Density Polyethene).
● A strengthening fiber is again
provided for its strength.
● Final Cable jacket is provided for the
TERMINATION AND SPLICING
● Optical Fibers are terminated using the connectors.These connectors are usually
of standard type such as FC,SC,LC connectors.
Ferrule Connector Square Connector Lucent Connector
TERMINATION AND SPLICING(Contd.)
● Optical Fibers splicing means joining two
fibers to form a continuous optical
● Generally accepted splicing method is arc
fusion splicing,which melts the fiber ends
together with an electric arc.
MERITS AND DEMERITS
1. Immune to electrical interference
2. Immune to corrosion.
3. Large bandwidth than a copper wire.
4. Highly secure as it cannot be tap.
1. It is expensive to install but long last
than copper wires.
2. Transmission on optical fiber
requires repeaters after 50kms.
3. More protection than copper wires. It
has special coating for protection.