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Optical fiber Communication

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Optical fiber Communication

  1. 1. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Optical Fiber Communication By: Saurabh Kumar
  2. 2. CONTENT ● Introduction to Optical Fiber. ● History of Optical Fiber. ● Principles of operation. ● Types of Fiber a) On basis of mode b) On basis of Index ● Manufacturing of OFC .
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION ● Optical Fiber is a boon for the digital communication. ● Optical Fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made from silica(glass) and it is thin as human hair. ● Diameter of a typical optical fiber is about 27 micrometer. ● Optical fiber are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and has wide usage in fiber-optics communication.
  4. 4. HISTORY ● Fiber Optics was first introduced by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. ● Earlier it was developed for the image transmission through fiber bundles. ● In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell and Sumner Tainter invented photophone which was first of it type uses optical beam for the transmission of voice signals. ● In late 20th century, optical fiber came out for the wide usage in telecommunication.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION ● An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide in which transmission is done by the process of Total Internal Reflection. (TIR). ● When light is beamed in fiber with angle greater than critical angle (θc) then reflection of light starts inside the core of OFC. ● There is a range of angles in which transmission of light in OFC is possible and it is know as acceptance cone of fiber.
  6. 6. TYPES OF FIBER FIBER BASIS OF MODE BASIS OF INDEX SINGLE MODE FIBRE (SMF) MULTIMODE FIBER(MMF) STEP INDEX FIBER GRADED INDEX FIBER
  7. 7. SINGLE MODE FIBER(SMF) ● In single mode fiber, there is single light path through which light is transmitted to other end. ● The core to cladding diameter ratio of SMF is 9:125. ● Used for long distance transmission and higher bandwidth is required.
  8. 8. MULTIMODE FIBER(MMF) ● In multimode Optical Fiber, there is multiple light path through which light is transmitted to other end. ● The diameter ratio of core and cladding is 63:125. ● Used where multiple voice/data is transmitted in less expensive with
  9. 9. CONSUMERS OF OFC IN WORLD Consumer of a chinese company
  10. 10. MANUFACTURING ● The core of optical fiber is made from the glass(silica). ● Cladding is covering the core with higher Refractive Index. ● Coating in OFC is done according to their usage. As coating is done with HDP(High Density Polyethene) or LDP(Low Density Polyethene). ● A strengthening fiber is again provided for its strength. ● Final Cable jacket is provided for the colour coding.
  11. 11. TERMINATION AND SPLICING Termination ● Optical Fibers are terminated using the connectors.These connectors are usually of standard type such as FC,SC,LC connectors. Ferrule Connector Square Connector Lucent Connector
  12. 12. TERMINATION AND SPLICING(Contd.) Splicing ● Optical Fibers splicing means joining two fibers to form a continuous optical waveguide. ● Generally accepted splicing method is arc fusion splicing,which melts the fiber ends together with an electric arc.
  13. 13. MERITS AND DEMERITS Merits 1. Immune to electrical interference 2. Immune to corrosion. 3. Large bandwidth than a copper wire. 4. Highly secure as it cannot be tap. Demerits 1. It is expensive to install but long last than copper wires. 2. Transmission on optical fiber requires repeaters after 50kms. 3. More protection than copper wires. It has special coating for protection.
  14. 14. APPLICATIONS OF OFC
  15. 15. Thanks!

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