Unit 33 – Assignment 1Task 1TechniquesPersistence of vision→ is a commonly-accepted although somewhat controversial theory...
DevelopmentPioneersJoseph Plateau (Phenakistoscope) → in 1832, Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and his sonsintroduced the...
DevelopersWillis O’Brien→was an Irish American motion picture special effects and stop-motions animationpioneer, who accor...
Genres and FormsAnimation is used in many different sections of the media, for example:        TV animation,        Cinema...
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Techniques and pioneers


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Techniques and pioneers

  1. 1. Unit 33 – Assignment 1Task 1TechniquesPersistence of vision→ is a commonly-accepted although somewhat controversial theorywhich states that the human eye always retains images for a fraction of a second (around0.04 second). This means that everything we see is a subtle blend of what is happening nowand what happened a fraction of a second ago.In film and video, this phenomenon is widely believed to account for our ability to perceivea sequence of frames as a continuous moving picture. However this idea was debunked in1912 and there is no scientific evidence to suggest that persistence of vision works in thisway. Rather, it is thought that the illusion of continuous motion is caused by unrelatedphenomena such asbeta movement (the brain assuming movement between two staticimages when shown in quick succession).Stop Frame→ it is achieved my manipulating a physical object and making it appear to moveon its own by shooting one frame, manipulating the object, then shooting another frame,and so on. An example of stop frame animation is the 1933 film, King Kong and also Wallaceand Gromit.Other forms of animation such as cell animation and object animation also fall under stopframe animation. Clay puppets are commonly used when filming stop frame animation,because their movements can easily be manipulated between frames with minimal risk ofdamage to the puppet. It is a relatively newer form of frame-by-frame animation, but it tookhold as a popular form of stop-motion, especially when geared toward childrensprogramming. This type of frame-by-frame animation is often called Claymation.Other forms of frame-by-frame animation rely on manipulation of solid objects rather thanmalleable ones. A stop-motion film can be shot, for example, of a model car driving up thestreet by taking a shot of the car in one frame, moving it up the road a bit, and then takinganother shot. This principle mirrors that of Claymation, but the object itself is not malleableand therefore cannot imitate human or animal expressions. This is called object animationand is one of the oldest animation techniques.Frame Rates→ is the measure of the number of frames displayed sequentially per second ofanimation in order to create the illusion of motion. The higher the frame rate, the smootherthe motion, because there are more frames per second to display the transition from pointA to point B.
  2. 2. DevelopmentPioneersJoseph Plateau (Phenakistoscope) → in 1832, Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and his sonsintroduced the phenakistoscope ("spindle viewer"). It was also invented independently inthe same year by Simon von Stampfer of Vienna, Austria, who called his invention astroboscope. Plateaus inspiration had come primarily from the work of Michael Faradayand Peter Mark Roget. Faraday had invented a device he called "Michael Faradays Wheel,"that consisted of two discs that spun in opposite directions from each other. From this,Plateau took another step, adapting Faradays wheel into a toy he later named thephenakistoscope. A phenakistoscopes discs spin together in the same direction. Whenviewed in a mirror through the first discs slots, the pictures on the second disc will appearto move.Thomas Edison (Kinetscope)→ Edisons interest in motion pictures began before 1888; however,the visit of Eadweard Muybridge to his laboratory in West Orange in February of that year certainlystimulated his resolve to invent a camera for motion pictures. Muybridge proposed that theycollaborate and combine the Zoopraxiscope with the Edison phonograph. Although apparentlyintrigued, Edison decided not to participate in such a partnership, perhaps realizing that theZoopraxiscope was not a very practical or efficient way of recording motion. In 1888 he described hisideas for a device which would "do for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear", record andreproduce objects in motion. He called it a "Kinetoscope," using the Greek words "kineto" meaning"movement" and "scopos" meaning "to watch.” One of Edisons first motion picture and the firstmotion picture ever copyrighted showed his employee Fred Ott pretending to sneeze.Lumiere Brothers→ Auguste and Louis Lumière came from Lyon in France, where they worked intheir fathers photographic factory. In 1894, they saw Edisons kinetoscope in Paris, and decided todesign a camera of their own. By February of the next year they had produced a working model oftheir ciné camera, which they called a cinématographe. The machine was in fact not only a camerabut could be used, together with a magic lantern, to project the films which the brothers had taken.The films produced by the Lumières camera were usually about 50 seconds long. They were taken inone shot, with the camera kept fixed on a tripod, looking the same way all the time. The first onewhich was ever to shown to an audience was an image of the workers leaving the factory in Lyon.William Horner (Zoetrope)→ William Horner created a device called the zoetrope, it is a device thatproduces the illusion of motion from a rapid succession of static pictures. The zoetrope consists of acylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides. On the inner surface of the cylinder is a band withimages from a set of sequenced pictures. As the cylinder spins, the user looks through the slits at thepictures across. The scanning of the slits keeps the pictures from simply blurring together, and theuser sees a rapid succession of images, producing the illusion of motion. The term zoetrope is from,the Greek words ζωή (zoē), meaning "alive, active", and τροπή (tropē), meaning "turn", with"zoetrope" taken to mean "active turn" or "wheel of life".
  3. 3. DevelopersWillis O’Brien→was an Irish American motion picture special effects and stop-motions animationpioneer, who according to ASIFA-Hollywood “was responsible for some of the best-known images incinema history,” and is best remembered for his work on The Lost World (1925), King Kong (1933)and Mighty Joe Young (1949), for which he won the 1950 Academy Award for Best Visual Effects.Ray Harryhausen→ is an American visual effects creator, writer and producer. He created a brand ofstop-motion model animation known as “Dynamation.” Among his most notable works are hisanimations on Mighty Joe Young (with pioneer Willis O’Brien, which won the Academy Award forspecial effects)(1949), The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (his first colour film) and Jason and the Argonauts,featuring a famous sword fight against seven skeleton warriors.Jan Švankmajer→ is a Czech filmmaker and artist, whose work spans several media. He is a self-labeled surrealist known for his surreal animations and features, which have greatly influenced otherartists such as Terry Gilliam, the Brothers Quay and many others. He did various feature-length films,such as Alice in 1988, Faust in 1994 and Conspirators of Pleasure in 1996. He also did some shortfilms such as The Last Trick in 1964, A Game with Stones in 1965 and Punch and Judy in 1966.Contemporary WorkThe Brothers Quay→ are identical American twin brothers. They are the recipients of the 1998Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Set Design for their work on the play The Chairs. The QuayBrothers reside and work in England, having moved there in 1969 to study at the Royal College ofArt, London after studying illustration at the Philadelphia College of Art. They were included in thehelp of some featured films such as The Piano tuner of Earthquakes in 2005 and InstitutesBenjamenta, or This Dream People Call Human Life in 1995. They also helped in short films such asStreet of Crocodiles in 1986, Rain Dance in 1990 and Through the Weeping Glass in 2011.Tim Burton→ is an American film director, film producer, writer and artist. He is famous for his dark,quirky themed movies such as Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas and SweeneyTodd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street 9. Burton is known for using recurring collaborators on hisworks; among them are Jonny Depp, musician Danny Elfman; and domestic partner Helena BohnamCarter. He also wrote and illustrated the poetry book The Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy & OtherStories, published in 1997, and a compilation of his drawings, sketches and other artwork, entitledThe Art of Tim Burton, was released in 2009.Aardman Animations→ also known as Aardman Studios, or simply as Aardman, is a Britishanimation studio based in Bristol, United Kingdom. The studio is known for films made using stop-motion clay animation techniques, particularly those featuring Plasticine characters Wallace andGromit. However, it is successfully entered the computer animation market with the movie FlushedAway in 2006.
  4. 4. Genres and FormsAnimation is used in many different sections of the media, for example: TV animation, Cinema, Advertising, Music videos,TV animation→these are programmes that use animation as a type of video format. For example alot of children TV shows use a variety of animation methods such as stop-start animation to helpcreate the various shows. Some examples of this are Wallace and Gromit, Morph in SMart and Shaunthe Sheep for the BBC.Cinema→ stop-motion animation and also Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) are used in themaking of quite a lot of films, in a variety of genres from action to horror. These types of animationare used in various scenes of a film because either the scene maybe unrealistic such as a scene inspace, or a scene maybe too dangerous for a stunt man to do. Some films that use CGI are: Tron,Avatar, Toy Story 1, 2, 3 and WALL-E.Advertising→ Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) and stop-motion animation is also used in TVadvertising. These kinds of animations are used in quite a creative way to help advertise the productin peculiar ways to interest the public into wanting to buy that product. Some examples of CGI TVadvertisements are: Lynx Dark Temptation Chocolate Man and Panasonic Toughbook TV. Someexamples of stop-motion are: Amazon Kindle Commercial 2 and EBay Stop Motion Commercial.Music Videos→some music videos also you various types of animation to help make the videosexciting and suit the tone and tempo of the music. Most music videos either use ComputerGenerated Imagery (CGI) and stop-motion animation and an example of this is the music videoSledgehammer (1986) by Peter Gabriel. In this music video, stop-motion animation is used prettymuch all the way through the entire music video, and most on the stop-motion used suits what issaid the music being played.