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microbiological aspect of kidney

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  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECT OF kidney DR.SAUMYA SINGH P.G 3rd YR MICROBIOLOGY Department dr.d.y.patil medical college kolhapur
  2. 2. Mechanisms of renal injury (Depending on the species and strain/ on the host’s resistance and genetic background) Direct invasion of the renal parenchyma Induce an immune reaction Injure the capillary endothelium Provoke a nonspecific humoral hematologic response.
  3. 3. Bacterial Cause Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Shigellosis Leptospirosis Cholera Scrub typhus . Tuberculosis Pylonephritis Salmonellosis Melioidosis Tetanus Diphtheria Leprosy Parasitic Cause Schistosomiasis Trichinosis Onchocercosis Toxoplasmosis Malaria Filaria Echinococcosis Leishmaniasis Fungal cause Disseminated Candidiasis Mucormycosis Ochratoxicity Virus Cause Dengue haemorrhagic fever Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C .
  5. 5. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Pylonephritis Salmonellosis Shigellosis Leptospirosis Melioidosis Cholera Tetanus Scrub typhus Diphtheria Tuberculosis Leprosy
  6. 6. Postinfectious / Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Streptococcus pyogenes Gram negative cocci Complication -streptococcal pharyngitis / impetigo Immune complexes- lodged in the glomerular basement membrane Complement activation leading to basement membrane destruction Disorder of the glomeruli or small blood vessels in the kidneys.
  7. 7. Pyelonephritis Escherichia coli Gram negative bacilli . Pyelonephritis -type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that affects one or both kidneys. Route- from the bladder/ through the bloodstream from other parts of the body. kidney damage.
  8. 8. Salmonellosis Salmonella typhi Gram-negative ,motile bacilli Renal involvement - Oliguria and azotemia Shigellosis Shigella dysenteriae type 1 Gram-negative non motile bacilli Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)kidney failure with anemia and clotting problems
  9. 9. Cholera Vibrio cholera Gram negative ,motile,curved bacilli. Renal failure- loss of filtering ability Tetanus Clostridium tetani Anaerobic ,gram positive,non motile bacilli Renal involvement (severe cases of tetanus) Dehydration,Urinary stasis ,infection and Renal failure
  10. 10. Diptheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Gram-positive, non motile bacilli Acute renal failure Scrub typhus Orientia tsutsugamushi Gram-negative intracellular bacilli Acute renal failure .
  11. 11. Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei Gram‐negative intracellular bacilli Acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and microabscess formation Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans spiral-shaped bacteria Tubulo-interstitial nephritis and tubular dysfunction.
  12. 12. Renal Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium avium intracellulare Acid fast bacilli Chronic renal failure Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae Acid fast bacilli Renal amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis Chronic renal failure
  13. 13. Parasitic infections Schistosomiasis Malaria Trichinosis Filaria Onchocercosis Echinococcosis Toxoplasmosis . Leishmaniasis
  14. 14. Malaria Plasmodium falciparum Mixed infection with P. vivax Mode of infection-mosquito bite Definitive host-female anopheline mosquito Intermediate host-Man Acute renal failure
  15. 15. Filaria Wuchereria bancrofti Mode of Infection-mosquito bite Definitive host-man Intermediate host-Mosquito(culex,Aedes,Anopheles) Infective form-larvae Recurrent infections associated with damaged lymphatic abnormalities of the renal functions.
  16. 16. Leishmaniasis Promastigote Leishmania donovani Mode of transmisson-bite of sandfly (Phlebotomus) Definitive host-Man Intermediate host-sandfly Infective form-Promastigote Cloudy swelling of kidney-albuminuria Amastigote form
  17. 17. Schistosomiasis (Bilharziasis) Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium,S.japonicum. Source of infection - contaminated freshwater Infective form – cercariae Definitive host -humans Intermediate host-Snail Renal granulomas
  18. 18. Echinococcosis (hydatid cyst) Echinococcus granulosus Mode of infection - contaminated food and drink Infective agent - embryonated eggs. Definitive host - dog Intermediate host – man Glomerulonephritis
  19. 19. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii Mode of infection-Uptake of cyst by inhalation, followed by ingestion . Infective form-cyst Primary host – cat Intermediate host - human Disseminated infection of Kidney occurs
  20. 20. Trichinosis Trichinella spiralis Mode of transmission - raw or undercooked pork bearing larvae Proliferative glomerulopathy
  21. 21. Onchocercosis Onchocerca volvulus Mode of infection-bite of black flies Definitive host-Man Intermediate host-female black flies(simulium) Infective form-larvae Progressive glomerulonephritis.
  22. 22. Fungal diseases Disseminated Candidiasis Mucormycosis Ochratoxicity
  23. 23. Disseminated Candidiasis Candida species Predisposing factor - immunocompromised persons,leukemic patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy. Perinephric abscess Renal failure
  24. 24. Mucormycosis Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia, and Cunninghamella Occurs in underdeveloped tropical regions Immunocompromised patients Renal infarction and thrombosis of renal vessels.
  25. 25. Ochratoxicity Group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus sp. and some Penicillium sp. Occur in commodities such as cereals, coffee, dried fruit and red wine Toxic-Nephropathy Carcinogenic
  26. 26. Viral infections Dengue haemorrhagic fever Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C
  27. 27. Dengue haemorrhagic fever Dengue virus (DEN-1–DEN-4) RNA flavivirus. . Dengue vector - female of the Aedes aegypti Glomerulonephritis Acute kidney injury (AKI) Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
  28. 28. Hepatitis A RNA Virus Source of infection - Faeces Route of transmission - Fecal-oral kidney inflammation.
  29. 29. Hepatitis B DNA Virus Source of infection- Blood/blood derived body fluid Route of transmission- : Parenterally low vertical sexual transmission Renal necrosis occurs due to the body’s reaction to the virus rather than due to the virus itself.
  30. 30. Hepatitis C RNA virus Source of infection-Blood/blood derived body fluid Route of transmission Parenterally low vertical sexual transmission Renal carcinoma
  31. 31. Bacterial .