Definitions Multinational Companies (MNC’s) As defined by I. L. O. or the International Labor Organization, a M. N. C. is one, which has its operational headquarters based in one country with several other operating branches in different other countries. The country where the head quarter is located is called the home country whereas, the other countries with operational branches are called the host countries. Transnational Companies (TNC’s) As defined by United Nations Commission on Transnational Corporations as ‘enterprises which own or control production or service facilities outside the country in which they are based.
D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n M N C ’s & T N C ’s• Transnational corporations are a type of Multinational corporations.• MNC have an international identity as belonging to a particular home country where they are headquartered. On the other hand, transnational corporations are more or less borderless in this regard as they do not consider a particular country as their base.• MNC’s have branches in other countries, whereas TNC’s have subsidiaries• MNC have investment in other countries, but do not have coordinated product offerings in each country. It is more focused on adapting their products and service to each individual local market. A TNC, on the other hand, have invested in foreign operations, have a central corporate facility but give decision-making, R&D and marketing powers to each individual foreign market.
Advantages of MNCs and TNCs to Host Country 1. The investment level, employment level, and income level of the host country increases due to the operation of MNCs & TNCs. 2. The industries of host country get latest technology from foreign countries through MNCs & TNCs. 3. The host countrys business also gets management expertise from MNCs & TNCs. 4. The domestic traders and market intermediaries of the host country gets increased business from the operation of MNCs & TNCs. 5. MNCs & TNCs break local monopolies, create competition among domestic companies and thus enhance their competitiveness. 6. Domestic industries can make use of R and D outcomes of MNCs & TNCs. 7. The host country can reduce imports and increase exports due to goods produced by MNCs & TNCs in the host country. This helps to improve balance of payment. 8. Level of industrial and economic development increases due to the growth of MNCs & TNCs in the host country.
Advantages of MNCs & TNCs for the Home country 1. MNCs & TNCs create opportunities for marketing the products produced in the home country throughout the world. 2. They create employment opportunities to the people of home country both at home and abroad. 3. It gives a boost to the industrial activities of home country. 4. MNCs & TNCs help to maintain favorable balance of payment of the home country in the long run. 5. Home country can also get the benefit of foreign culture brought by MNCs & TNCs
Disadvantages of MNCs & TNCs for the host country 1. MNCs & TNCs may transfer technology which has become outdated in the home country. 2. As MNCs & TNCs do not operate within the national autonomy, they may pose a threat to the economic and political sovereignty of host countries. 3. MNCs & TNCs may kill the domestic industry by monopolizing the host countrys market. 4. In order to make profit, MNCs & TNCs may use natural resources of the home country indiscriminately and cause depletion of the resources. 5. A large sums of money flows to foreign countries in terms of payments towards profits, dividends and royalty.
MNC’s & TNC’s in India Why?There are a number of reasons why the multinational companies are coming down toIndia. India has got a huge market. It has also got one of the fastest growingeconomies in the world. Besides, the policy of the government towards FDI has alsoplayed a major role in attracting the multinational companies in India.For quite a long time, India had a restrictive policy in terms of foreign directinvestment. As a result, there was lesser number of companies that showed interestin investing in Indian market. However, the scenario changed during the financialliberalization of the country, especially after 1991. Government, nowadays, makescontinuous efforts to attract foreign investments by relaxing many of its policies. As aresult, a number of multinational companies have shown interest in Indian market.
Disadvantages of MNCs & TNCs& TNC’s for the Home country Thank You