Anthelmintic drugs sam


Published on

It is important Topic

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Anthelmintic drugs sam

  1. 1. Presented by: Samya Sayantan (121-29-381) Batch: 7th Sec: A Department of Pharmacy Daffodil International University
  2. 2.  Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are drugs that expel parasitic worms(helminths) from the body by either stunning or killing them.  They may also be called vermifuges (stunning) or vermicides (killing).  There has three major group of helminthes -the nematodes, trematodes and cestodes
  3. 3. Mebendazole:  Mebendazole is a synthetic benzimidazole compound is effective against a wide spectrum of nematodes.  Mebendazole a medicine used to treat infections by worms.  This including pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms, hookworms, and whipworms.
  4. 4.  Binds with β-tubulin and inhibits microtubules polymerization.  Blocks glucose and other nutrients uptake.  Resulting in the gradual immobilization and eventual death of the helminthes.
  5. 5.  In heavy infestation cases  Diarrhoea  Nausea  Abdominal pain  In high dose  Granulocytopenia  Allergic reaction
  6. 6.  Pyrantel pamoate along with mebendazole is effective in the treatment caused by roundworm, pinworm & hookworm.  It is poorly absorbed orally in the intestinal tract.  It is inactive against trichuris and other worms
  7. 7.  Causes the release of acetylcholine and inhibits cholinesterase,  Acts as a depolarizing neuromuscular blocker,  Paralyzing the helminthes,  This has the result of causing the worm to "lose its grip" on the intestinal wall and be passed out of the system by natural process.
  8. 8.  CNS: dizziness, headache, insomnia  Dermatologic: rash  GIT: anorexia, nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea  Neuromuscular & skeletal: weakness
  9. 9.  First benzamidazole polyanthelmintics.  Chelating agents and form stable complexes with metals including iron but does not bind with calcium.  Completely metabolized in liver.
  10. 10.  The precise mode of action of thiabendazole on the parasite is unknown, but it most likely inhibits the helminth-specific enzyme fumarate reductase.  Thereby inhibiting the citric acid cycle, mitochondrial respiration and subsequent production of ATP, ultimately leading to helminth's death.
  11. 11.  GI disturbance  Irreversible liver failure  Fatal Stevens-Johnson syndrome  dizziness  anorexia
  12. 12.  Potent semisynthetic derivative  Obtain from Streptomyces avermitils  Drugs of choice of strongyloidiasis, filariasis, ascariasis, enterobiasis and some parasitic skin diseases including scabies
  13. 13.  Acts on the parasites glutamate-gated Cl- channel receptors.  Chloride influx increased,  hyper polarization occurs ,  resulting in paralysis of the worm.
  14. 14.  Fatigue, dizziness, GI disturbance  Nausea  Abdominal pain  Pruritis
  15. 15. Diethyl carbamazine is used as an anthelmintic drug in the treatment of filariasis because of its ability to immobilize microfilarae and render them susceptible to host defencse mechanism.
  16. 16.  Immobilizes microfilariae and alters their surface structure  displacing them from tissues & making them susceptible to destruction by host defense mechanism  It has immunosuppressive effects
  17. 17.  Fever, maliseheadache, GI disturbance, cough. Chest, muscle, joint pain  Leucocytosis  Retinal hemorrhage  It is not teratogenic
  18. 18. Praziquantel:  Novel anthelmintic with wide range of action.  Praziquantel is a drug which effective against schistosomiasis and trematodes and cestodes.
  19. 19.  Rapidly taken up by worms.  Leakage of intracellular Ca++ causing paralysis.  Worms lose grip on intestinal wall including tissues and veins.  Acts against all stages of worm including larvae.
  20. 20.  Bitter in taste  Nausea  Abdominal pain  Headache  Dizziness and sedation  Rashes, fever, itching and body pain
  21. 21. Niclosamide:  Niclosamide is the drug of choice for most cestode infections.  It safe during pregnancy.
  22. 22.  Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria  Interference of anaerobic generation of ATP by tapeworm.  Injured worms are digested or expelled (purgation)
  23. 23.  Well tolerated  No systemic toxicity  Minor abdominal symptoms  Malaise  Pruritis  Diarrhea
  24. 24.  Congener of Mebendazole.  One dose treatment has cure rate in ascariasis, hookworm, enterobius.  It is also used in the treatment of cestodal infestations such as cysticercosis and hydatid disease.
  25. 25.  Binds with β-tubulin and inhibits microtubules polymerization.  Blocks glucose and other nutrients uptake.  Intestinal parasites are immobilized and die slowly.
  26. 26.  Well tolerated  GI side effects  Dizziness  Prolonged used in hydatid and cysticercosis- headache, fever, alopecia, neutropenia, jaundice.
  27. 27. Pinworm disease:  Causative agent: Enterobius vermicularis  Pruritus ani occurs with white worms visible in stools or perianal region  Therapay: Mebedazole or Pyantel pamoate.
  28. 28.  Causative agent: Ascaris lumbricoides  Ingested larvae grow in the intestine  Causing abdominal symptoms including intestinal obstraction  Roundworms may pass to blood and infect the lungs.  Therapy: Pyrantel pamoate or Mebendazole
  29. 29.  Causative agents: Trichinella spiralis  Usually caused by consumption of insufficiently cooked meat, especially pork  Therapy: Thiabendazole (only in the early stages of disease
  30. 30.  Causative agents: Ancylostoma duodenale (old world), Necator americanus (new world)  Worm attaches to the intestinal mucosa, causing anorexia and chronic intestinal blood loss that leads to anemia.  Therapy: Pyrantel pamoate or Mebendazole
  31. 31. Paragonimiasis:  Causative agent: Paragonimus westermani (lung fluke).  The organisms move from the GI tract to the lung which is the primary site of damage  Paragonimiasis is transmitted by eating raw crab  Diagnosed by identifying eggs in the sputum & stool.  Therapy: Praziquantel
  32. 32.  Causative agent: Clonorchis sinensis (oriental liver fluke)  The primary site of infection is the biliary tract where the resulting inflamatory response can cause fibrosis & hyperplasia  Transmitted by eating raw freshwater fish.  Diagnosed by indentifying eggs in the stool  Therapy: Praziquantel
  33. 33. Echinococcosis:  Causative agent: Echinococcus granulosus  Infection produces large hydatid cysts in the liver, lung and brain.  Sheep often serve as an intermediate.  Diagnosed by CT scan or biopsy of infected tissue and is treated by surgical excision of cysts.  Therapy: Albendazole
  34. 34.  Causative agent: Taenia solium larvae  Infection produces cysticerci in brain and eyes.  Cysticercosis is diagnosed by CT scan or biopsy.  Therapy: Praziquantel, Albendazole or Surgery