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Presented by: 
Samya Sayantan 
Id: 121-29-381 
Batch: 7th 
Sec: A 
Department of Pharmacy 
Daffodil International Universi...
Anesthetic: 
 Anesthetic is a drug that temporarily depresses 
neuronal function producing total or partial loss of 
sens...
Local anesthetic 
Local anesthetics are agents that prevent 
transmission of nerve impulses without causing 
unconsciousne...
Properties 
 It should not be irritating to the tissue. 
 Its systemic toxicity should be low because it is 
eventually ...
Mechanism of action 
 Local anesthetic bind with the protein of Na+ 
channel 
 Block the Na+conductance 
 Block the dep...
Types 
There are two types of local anesthetic- 
 Ester local anesthetic: 
 Procaine 
 Cocaine 
 Tetracaine 
 Benzoca...
 Amide local anesthetic: 
 Lidocaine 
 Prilocain 
 Mepivacaine 
 Etidocaine 
 Bupivacaine 
 Ropivacaine 
 Artcaine...
Adverse effect 
 The local adverse effects of anesthetic agents include 
neurovascular manifestations such as prolonged a...
General anesthesia 
A general anesthetic is a drug that has the ability to bring 
about a reversible loss of consciousness...
Classification 
They are classified into three group- 
 Pre-anesthetic: 
 Anticholinergic 
 Anti histamine 
 Barbitura...
 Intravenous: 
 Barbiturates 
 Benzodiazepine 
 Ketamine 
 Propofol 
 Opioids
 Inhalational: 
 Desflurane 
 Enflurane 
 Halothane 
 Isoflurane 
 Nitrous oxide
Mechanism of action 
General anesthesia works by altering the flow of sodium 
molecules into nerve cells through the cell ...
Adverse effect 
 Pain 
 Nausea and vomiting 
 Damage to teeth 
 Sore throat and laryngeal damage 
 Respiratory depres...
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Anesthetics sam

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Short Knowledge About Anesthetics

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Anesthetics sam

  1. 1. Presented by: Samya Sayantan Id: 121-29-381 Batch: 7th Sec: A Department of Pharmacy Daffodil International University
  2. 2. Anesthetic:  Anesthetic is a drug that temporarily depresses neuronal function producing total or partial loss of sensation with or without the loss of consciousness.  A drug that causes a person to lose feeling and to feel no pain in part or all of the body. Anesthetic mainly categorized into two classes-  Local anesthetic  General anesthetic
  3. 3. Local anesthetic Local anesthetics are agents that prevent transmission of nerve impulses without causing unconsciousness. They are used mainly in-  Minor surgery  Dentistry  Ophthalmology  Acute pain  Chronic pain
  4. 4. Properties  It should not be irritating to the tissue.  Its systemic toxicity should be low because it is eventually absorbed from its site of application.  The time for onset of action must be short as possible  The duration of action must be sufficient to allow time for the surgery  It should be effective in body pH.  The time should not be so long for an extended period of surgery.
  5. 5. Mechanism of action  Local anesthetic bind with the protein of Na+ channel  Block the Na+conductance  Block the depolarization, fails to initiation and propagation of action potential  Afferent impulse cannot go to the higher center  No pain sensation
  6. 6. Types There are two types of local anesthetic-  Ester local anesthetic:  Procaine  Cocaine  Tetracaine  Benzocaine  Propoxycaine  Cyclomethycaine  Proparacaine  Chloroprocaine
  7. 7.  Amide local anesthetic:  Lidocaine  Prilocain  Mepivacaine  Etidocaine  Bupivacaine  Ropivacaine  Artcaine  Levobupicaine  Trimecaine
  8. 8. Adverse effect  The local adverse effects of anesthetic agents include neurovascular manifestations such as prolonged anesthesia and parasthesia(tingling, feeling of "pins and needles", or strange sensations). These are symptoms of localized nerve impairment or nerve damage.  General systemic adverse effects are due to the pharmacological effects of the anesthetic agents used. The conduction of electric impulses follows a similar mechanism in peripheral nerves, the central nervous system and the heart. The effects of local anesthetics are therefore not specific for the signal conduction in peripheral nerves. Side effects on the central nervous system and the heart may be severe and potentially fatal.
  9. 9. General anesthesia A general anesthetic is a drug that has the ability to bring about a reversible loss of consciousness. Properties  Induce anesthesia smoothly and rapidly.  They must cause amnesia.  Ensure rapid recovery from its effect.  Be non-irritant, non-inflammatory.  They must have analgesic property.  Administration by simple apparatus.  Avoid adverse effect.
  10. 10. Classification They are classified into three group-  Pre-anesthetic:  Anticholinergic  Anti histamine  Barbiturates  Benzodiazepine  Opioids
  11. 11.  Intravenous:  Barbiturates  Benzodiazepine  Ketamine  Propofol  Opioids
  12. 12.  Inhalational:  Desflurane  Enflurane  Halothane  Isoflurane  Nitrous oxide
  13. 13. Mechanism of action General anesthesia works by altering the flow of sodium molecules into nerve cells through the cell membrane. Exactly how the anesthetic does this is not understood since the drug apparently does not bind to any receptor on the cell surface and does not seem to affect the release of chemicals that transmit nerve impulses from the nerve cells. It is known, however, that when the sodium molecules do not get into the neurons, nerve impulses are not generated and the brain becomes unconscious, does not store memories, does not register pain impulses from other areas of the body, and does not control involuntary reflexes. Although anesthesia may feel like deep sleep, it is not the same. In sleep, some parts of the brain speed up while others slow down. Under anesthesia, the loss of consciousness is more widespread. Actual theories are based on:  Lipid theory  Ion channel
  14. 14. Adverse effect  Pain  Nausea and vomiting  Damage to teeth  Sore throat and laryngeal damage  Respiratory depression  Hypoxic brain damage  Nerve injury  Headache

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