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Proxy design pattern


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Software design and architecture

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Proxy design pattern

  1. 1. Proxy Design pattern Control the access to your objects
  2. 2. Motivation  The need to control the access to a certain object
  3. 3. Intent  The Proxy pattern provides a surrogate or placeholder for another object to control access to it  This ability to control the access to an object can be required for a variety of reasons:  To hide information about the real object to the client  To perform optimization like on demand loading  To do additional house-keeping job like audit tasks  Proxy design pattern is also known as surrogate design pattern
  4. 4. Context Sometimes a client object may not be able to access a service provider object (also referred to as a target object) by normal means. This could happen for a variety of reasons depending on:  The location of the target object  The target object may be present in a different address space in the same or a different computer.  The state of existence of the target object  The target object may not exist until it is actually needed to render a service or the object may be in a compressed form.  Special Behavior  The target object may offer or deny services based on the access privileges of its client objects. Some service provider objects may need special consideration when used in a multithreaded environment
  5. 5. Solution In such cases, the Proxy pattern suggests using a separate object referred to as a proxy to provide a means for different client objects to access the target object in a normal, straightforward manner.  The Proxy object offers the same interface as the target object.  The Proxy object interacts with the target object on behalf of a client object and takes care of the specific details of communicating with the target object  Client objects need not even know that they are dealing with Proxy for the original object.  Proxy object serves as a transparent bridge between the client and an inaccessible remote object or an object whose instantiation may have been deferred.
  6. 6. Implementation  UML class diagram for the Proxy Pattern
  7. 7. Implementation The participants classes in the proxy pattern are:  Subject - Interface implemented by the RealSubject and representing its services. The interface must be implemented by the proxy as well so that the proxy can be used in any location where the RealSubject can be used  Proxy  Maintains a reference that allows the Proxy to access the RealSubject.  Implements the same interface implemented by the RealSubject so that the Proxy can be substituted for the RealSubject.  Controls access to the RealSubject and may be responsible for its creation and deletion.  Other responsibilities depend on the kind of proxy.  RealSubject - the real object that the proxy represents
  8. 8. Applicability  Proxies are useful wherever there is a need for a more sophisticated reference to a object than a simple pointer or simple reference can provide  Use the Proxy Pattern to create a representative object that controls access to another object, which may be remote, expensive to create or in need of securing  There are several use-case scenarios that are often repeatable in practice
  9. 9. Applicability  Remote Proxy  The remote proxy provides a local representation of the object which is present in the different address location  Virtual Proxy  delaying the creation and initialization of expensive objects until needed, where the objects are created on demand  Protection Proxy  The protective proxy acts as an authorization layer to verify if the actual user has access to appropriate content  Smart Reference  provides additional actions whenever a subject is referenced, such as counting the number of references to an object
  10. 10. Applicability  Firewall Proxy  controls access to a set of network resources, protecting the subject from “bad” clients  Caching Proxy  Provides temporary storage for results of operations that are expensive. It can also allow multiple clients to share the results to reduce computation or network latency  Synchronization Proxy  provides safe access to a subject from multiple threads  Copy-On-Write Proxy  controls the copying of an object by deferring the copying of an object until it is required by a client. This is a variant of the Virtual Proxy  Complexity Hiding Proxy
  11. 11. Example: Remote Proxy  Solves the problem when the real subject is a remote object. A remote object is object that exists outside of the current Java Virtual Machine whether it be in another JVM process on the same machine or a far machine accessible by network.  The Remote Proxy pattern enables communication with minimal modification to existing code  The Remote Proxy acts as a local representative to the remote object  The client call methods of the proxy  The proxy forwards the calls to the remote object  To the client, it appears as though it is communicating directly with the remote object
  12. 12. Example: Remote Proxy
  13. 13. Example: Remote Proxy public interface ISubject { public String doHeavyTask(String arguments); } public class RealSubject implements ISubject{ @Override public String doHeavyTask(String arguments) { //do the heavy task.. //generate results String results = new String("Results"); return results; } }
  14. 14. Example: Remote Proxy public class Proxy implements ISubject{ @Override public String doHeavyTask(String arguments) { //start of the stub routine //pack arguments and generate the request.. //send the request and wait for the response //unpack results from the response String results = new String("Results"); //end of the stub routine return results; } }
  15. 15. Example: Remote Proxy public class Skeleton { /* * */ public void receiveRequest(String request){ //unpack the request //object? RealSubject subject = new RealSubject(); //method? arguments? String result = subject.doHeavyTask("arguments"); //pack response with the result //send the response } }
  16. 16. Example: Remote Proxy
  17. 17. Example: Virtual Proxy  Solves the problems that arises while working directly with objects that are expensive to create, initialize and maintain in concern with time or memory consumption  In this situations the Virtual Proxy:  acts as a representative for an object that may be expensive to create  often defers the creation of the object until it is needed  also acts as a surrogate for the object before and while it is being created. After that, the proxy delegates requests directly to the RealSubject
  18. 18. Example: Virtual Proxy
  19. 19. Example: Virtual Proxy
  20. 20. Example: Virtual Proxy class ImageProxy implements Icon { ImageIcon imageIcon; public int getIconWidth() { if (imageIcon != null) { return imageIcon.getIconWidth(); } else { return 800; } } public int getIconHeight() { if (imageIcon != null) { return imageIcon.getIconHeight(); } else { return 600; } } }
  21. 21. Example: Virtual Proxy public void paintIcon(final Component c, Graphics g, int x, int y) { if (imageIcon != null) { imageIcon.paintIcon(c, g, x, y); } else { g.drawString("Loading CD cover, please wait...", x+300, y+190); if (!retrieving) { retrieving = true; retrievalThread = new Thread(new Runnable() { public void run() { try { imageIcon = new ImageIcon(imageURL, "CD Cover"); c.repaint(); } catch (Exception e) {} } }); retrievalThread.start(); } } }
  22. 22. Example: Virtual Proxy  Refactoring the code: URL url = new URL(""); Icon icon = new ImageIcon(url); Icon icon = new ImageProxy(url); int iconHeight = icon.getIconHeight(); int iconWidth = icon.getIconWidth(); icon.paintIcon(c, g, x, y);
  23. 23. Related patterns Many design patterns can have similar or exactly same structure but they still differ from each other in their intent.  Adapter design pattern  Adapter provides a different interface to the object it adapts and enables the client to use it to interact with it, while proxy provides the same interface as the subject  Decorator design pattern  A decorator implementation can be the same as the proxy however a decorator adds responsibilities to an object while a proxy controls access to it
  24. 24. Questions
  25. 25. “ Thank you for your attention ” Sashe Klechkovski December, 2013