Premchand (July 31, 1880 – October 8, 1936)was a famous writer of modern Hindi-Urduliterature. He is one of the most celebratedwriters of the Indian subcontinent, and isregarded as one of the foremost Hindi-Urduwriters of the early twentieth century. A novelwriter, story writer and dramatist, he has beenreferred to as the "Upanyas Samrat" ("Emperorof Novels") by some Hindi writers
Early life• Premchand was born on 31 July 1880 in the Lamhi village near Benares. His ancestors came from a large family, which owned six bighas of land. His grandfather Gur Sahai Lal was a patwari (village accountant), and his father Ajaib Lal was a post office clerk. His mother was Anand Devi of Karauni village, who could have been the inspiration for the character Anandi in his Bade Ghar Ki Beti. Premchand was the fourth child of Ajaib Lal and Anandi. His parents named him Dhanpat Rai ("the master of wealth"), while his uncle, Mahabir, a rich landowner, nicknamed him "Nawab" ("Prince"). "Nawab Rai" was the first pen name chosen by Premchand.
When he was 7 years old, Premchand began his education ata madarsa in Lalpur, located around 2½ km from Lamahi.Premchand learnt Urdu and Persian from a maulvi in themadarsa.He learnt English at a missionary school, and studied severalworks of fiction including George W. M. Reynoldss eight-volume The Mysteries of the Court of London
Other aspects of Premchand Besides being a great novelist, Premchand was also a social reformer and thinker. His greatness lies in the fact that his writings embody social purpose and social criticism rather than mere entertainment. Literature according to him is a powerful means of educating public opinion. He believed in social evolution and his ideal was equal opportunities for all.
WorksPremchand wroteover three hundredshort stories andfourteen novels,many essays andletters, plays andtranslations. Many ofPremchands workswere translated intoEnglish and Russianafter his death.
“Poos ki Raat” is a story of a tenant farmer named Halku and his plight against zameendari system prevalent in colonial India. The settings are that of any small village of north India in and around U.P. of that time. Halku‟s fields are the centerline of this plot, being both, his only source of income as well as cause of all his problems. Basically he had to choose between a blanket which got along with it the insult by the landlord for not paying the lagaan or cold and chilly january nights in the field to guard it upholding his honour and pride.
Then too he wasn‟t devastated and was still affectionate towards his dog,Jabra, the dog who like him left behind all the warmth of home andfollowed him to protect „its field‟. The field establishes the connectionbetween a dog and its master in a wonderful way. As the writer describesHalku sleeping under the shelter of cane leaves he also meant to show thesignificance those crops held. They were the shelter of his life, though withleakage everywhere.The act of making a fire to keep a check on cold waves in an open fieldcreates a wonderful picture in our mind. Here it is the only refuge for Halkuagainst the cold waves.
When the nilgai were destroying his field, he knew it, but couldn‟t gather the will to get up and save it. It seemed that it was because of the physical inability that the cold weather had caused to him but more of it was because of the mental effect that the fields have had over his life. It was like loving someone. We hold on to the relationship as long as possible, even though if we know its devastating our life. But the moment we decide to quit it we just don‟t bother about it any more or how bad the relationship becomes. We just „let it happen‟ and take its course. And if we are enthusiastic enough towards life we take it as a new beginning and tackle the future with the learning from past. That‟s what Halku did.