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ENVIRONMENTAL AND
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF
NATURAL DISASTER:
A CASE STUDY OF EARTHQUAKE
IN NEPAL
Dr. Murali Gopal Ranjitk...
THE 2015
EARTHQUAKE IN
NUMBERS
25 April 2015
(11: 56 AM)
7.8 Magnitude
Barpak, Gorakha
12 May 2015
(12:50 PM)
7.3 Magnitud...
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC
IMPACTS OF EARTHQUAKE
• Water Resources
• Biodiversity and Forestry
• Landslides, Avalanc...
1. WATER RESOURCES
1.1 Disruption of services related to WASH
1.2 Damages to hydropower
1.3 Contamination of water bodies
...
1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.)
1.1 DISRUPTION OF SERVICES RELATED TO WASH
• Thousands of people in displacement sites/temporar...
1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.)
1.2 DAMAGES TO HYDROPOWER
• The earthquake is reported to have damaged 14
hydropower projects r...
1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.)
1.3 CONTAMINATION OF WATER BODIES
• Decaying bodies of the deceased humans and animals, their m...
1. WATER RESOURCES
1.4 EFFECTS ON SURFACE WATER
• Springs and traditional stone spouts dried up in many places
where as ne...
1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.)
1.5 IMPACT ON GROUNDWATER RESERVOIRS
• Contamination of groundwater
• Ground water level retrea...
2. BIODIVERSITY AND FORESTRY
• 7 protected areas (PAs) were affected and most severely
affected were Langtang NP, Sagarmat...
3. LANDSLIDES, AVALANCHES AND GLOF
• A total of 2,782 landslides was recorded
• Out of 31 affected districts, 14 suffered ...
4. ECONOMY AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT
• Total value of disaster effects from the April Earthquake is US $ 7 billion
Value of de...
5. HEALTH, SAFETY AND MENTAL WELLBEING
• The volume of paint and lead from damaged houses and
building could reach 3.176 m...
• Earthquakes have a huge impact
on human-health, environment
and infrastructure.
• Pre and post disaster strategy
should ...
CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD
• Slow recovery process at snails pace
• Schools, hospitals, water and sanitation
facilities sh...
CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD
• Disaster events can generate large
quantities of debris and
management of such debris can
pre...
THANK YOU
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Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts of Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal

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Nepal Earthquake Impact on water resources, wildlife and biodiversity, landslides, built environment, health and safety.

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Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts of Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF NATURAL DISASTER: A CASE STUDY OF EARTHQUAKE IN NEPAL Dr. Murali Gopal Ranjitkar Mr. Saroj Upadhyay
  2. 2. THE 2015 EARTHQUAKE IN NUMBERS 25 April 2015 (11: 56 AM) 7.8 Magnitude Barpak, Gorakha 12 May 2015 (12:50 PM) 7.3 Magnitude Chilankha, Dolakha More than 9,000 people have lost their lives and more than 23,000 are injured till date. Aftershocks from these earthquakes have continued till date.
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF EARTHQUAKE • Water Resources • Biodiversity and Forestry • Landslides, Avalanches and GLOF • Economy and built environment • Health, safety and well being
  4. 4. 1. WATER RESOURCES 1.1 Disruption of services related to WASH 1.2 Damages to hydropower 1.3 Contamination of water bodies 1.4 Effects on Surfacewater 1.5 Impact on groundwater reservoirs
  5. 5. 1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.) 1.1 DISRUPTION OF SERVICES RELATED TO WASH • Thousands of people in displacement sites/temporary tents were without basic water supply and sanitation services immediately after the earthquake • Destruction of water systems across 14 districts left around 1.1 million people without access to protected water sources • 1,570 water supply systems sustained major damage while 3,663 were partially damaged and 220,000 toilets were rendered unusable in the 14 most affected districts. • It could cost US$ 100 million to restore the WASH sector to its pre- earthquake status (UNICEF)
  6. 6. 1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.) 1.2 DAMAGES TO HYDROPOWER • The earthquake is reported to have damaged 14 hydropower projects resulting in 115 MW Hydropower generation facilities being severely damages and 60 MW partially damaged (NPC). • Other under construction hydropower projects of 1000 MW capacity were also affected. • The overall energy sector sustained losses worth Rs18.75 billion.
  7. 7. 1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.) 1.3 CONTAMINATION OF WATER BODIES • Decaying bodies of the deceased humans and animals, their mass cremation,, septic failure, and cross-contamination of the sewer lines with the drinking water distribution systems could impact surface and groundwater quality, thus increasing the risk of water-borne illnesses post-earthquake. • Toxic chemicals released from households and industries will be soaked into the soil and will eventually end up in ground water or rivers, contaminating drinking water sources of millions of people.
  8. 8. 1. WATER RESOURCES 1.4 EFFECTS ON SURFACE WATER • Springs and traditional stone spouts dried up in many places where as new ones appeared at other places, resulting in severe water shortage and also instigated conflicts between communities. • A large number of landslides triggered by the earthquake resulted in the generating an estimated 19,118,538 m3 of sediment, drastically increasing sediment loads in downstream water courses. • Increased sand, clay and slit particles may result in rising river beds, sedimentation and flooding in flatter low-lying areas/ Terai and also adversely impact aquatic flora and fauna
  9. 9. 1. WATER RESOURCES (CONT.) 1.5 IMPACT ON GROUNDWATER RESERVOIRS • Contamination of groundwater • Ground water level retreated in many places and the ground water recharge system was severely impacted • Going on for a few years now due to haphazard urbanization • Matatirtha, Chandragiri Municipality: water table dropped below 80 meters • Dropping water table bringing unimaginable consequences: land subsidence
  10. 10. 2. BIODIVERSITY AND FORESTRY • 7 protected areas (PAs) were affected and most severely affected were Langtang NP, Sagarmatha NP, Manaslu NP and Gaurishankar CA. • 2 Ramsar sites: Gosainkunda and Gokyo were also affected. • Affected forest area in the seven PAs is 408.5 ha. Total forest affected 23,375 ha and loss of NRs. 63.9 billion. • Also there was considerable death of wildlife species, loss of and damage to their habitat and other indirect impacts
  11. 11. 3. LANDSLIDES, AVALANCHES AND GLOF • A total of 2,782 landslides was recorded • Out of 31 affected districts, 14 suffered severe damages from landslides and cracks resulting in loss of human life and properties,, damage to agricultural land, infrastructure, irrigation system, drinking water supply. • An avalanche of ice and rocks killed about 200 local inhabitants and tourists in Langtang village in Rasuwa district • The moraine dams of the three largest and potentially dangerous glacier lakes: Imja, Tsho Rolpa and Thulagi have been affected by the earthquake, and now pose a much greater risk.
  12. 12. 4. ECONOMY AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT • Total value of disaster effects from the April Earthquake is US $ 7 billion Value of destroyed physical infrastructure and Loss of opportunity • 491,620 buildings fully damaged, 269,653 buildings partially destroyed, • 7,532 schools and 1,100 health facilities damaged • More than 3.9 million tones debris accumulated which is equivalent to 11 years of waste generated by the Valley
  13. 13. 5. HEALTH, SAFETY AND MENTAL WELLBEING • The volume of paint and lead from damaged houses and building could reach 3.176 million liters and 33 kilograms in Kathmandu valley and 1.3 million liters and 116 kilograms in other 11 earthquake hit districts respectively • Other hazardous wastes include battery and mercury • Lack of proper protective measures and first aid for demolition workers and supervisors • Loss and damage of alternative energy resulted in increased use of firewood from forests, with health risks from indoor air pollution • Distress caused by severe loss, trauma, continuing danger
  14. 14. • Earthquakes have a huge impact on human-health, environment and infrastructure. • Pre and post disaster strategy should be formulated to abate the impact of earthquake CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD
  15. 15. CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD • Slow recovery process at snails pace • Schools, hospitals, water and sanitation facilities should be prioritized for reconstruction. • Scientific studies into impacts on ecology and environment • Installation of early warning system for landslides and GLOF
  16. 16. CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD • Disaster events can generate large quantities of debris and management of such debris can present a major challenge. • Hazardous wastes can have detrimental impact on environment and human health • Proper rules and regulation should be developed to guarantee its proper management.
  17. 17. THANK YOU

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