Promotion is one of the market mix elements or features, and a term used frequently in marketing. The marketing mix includes the four P’s : price, product, promotion, and place.
PUBLIC RELATIONS Public relations are the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. The aim of public relations by a company often is to persuade the public, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders to maintain a certain point of view about it, its leadership, products, or of political decisions.
Principles of marketing chapter-8 promotion (pu)
Promotion is persuasive communication with the
customers. It refers to raising customer awareness of
product or brand, generating sales, and creating brand
“Promotion is the element in an organization’s
marketing mix that serves to inform, persuade and
remind the market of a product and/or the organization
selling it, in hope of influencing the recipients feelings,
beliefs or behavior”.
Sender Encoding Channel
Fig: Marketing Communication Process
Promotional mix is the marketing strategies used by a
company to market and promote its product and
services. These strategies are broadly classified into
PUSH STRATEGY PULL STRATEGY
A “push” promotional
strategy makes use of a
company's sales force and
trade promotion activities
to create consumer
demand for a product.
The producer promotes
the product to
wholesalers promote it to
retailers, and the retailers
promote it to consumers.
A “pull” selling strategy is
one that requires high
spending on advertising
and consumer promotion
to build up consumer
demand for a product.
If the strategy is
successful, consumers will
ask their retailers for the
product, the retailers will
ask the wholesalers, and
the wholesalers will ask
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Integrated Marketing Communication
Fig: components of promotion mix
Any paid form of non-personal presentation of goods,
services or ideas for action, openly paid for by an
Four important decision to be made when
developing an advertisement program
Setting advertisement objectives
Setting advertisement budget
Developing advertisement strategy
Evaluating advertising campaigns
•Decide on reach,
frequency and impact
•Choosing among major
•Select specific media
•Decide media timing
•Percent of sales
•Objective and task
Personal selling is where businesses use people (the “sales force”)
to sell the product after meeting face-to-face with the customer.
The sellers promote the product through their attitude,
appearance and specialist product knowledge. They aim to
inform and encourage the customer to buy, or at least trial the
Kotler describes 6 roles for the sales force for personal selling
Covers beyond target market
One-on-one interaction/ face to face interaction
It is a flexible tool
It involves minimum wasted effort
It results in actual sale
It provides feedback
It complements advertising
It educates customers
It assists the society
Relationship marketing is the process of identifying,
developing, maintaining, and terminating relational
exchanges with the purpose of enhancing performance.
Here are the main characteristics of relationship
It focuses on partners and customers rather than on the
It puts more emphasis on customer retention and
growth than on customer acquisition.
It relies on cross-functional teams rather than on
It relies more on listening and learning than on talking.
Sales promotion refers to short term incentives to
encourage trial or purchase of a product. It is used to
create a stronger and quicker purchase response.
The characteristics of sales promotion are:-
Duration is neither too short nor too long
Provides “schemes”, “deals” or incentive to the buyers.
Aims at quicker results in terms of faster sales higher sales
The target audience can be consumers, trade channels, and
To bring about a change in the demand pattern of
products and services.
To introduce new products or services.
To attract new customers.
To induce existing customers to buy more
Helps the firm to remain competitive.
To increase sales in off-seasons.
To add to the stock of the dealers.
Public relations are the practice of managing the spread
of information between an individual or an organization and
the public. Public relations may include an organization or
individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of
public interest and news items that do not require direct
1. Two- way communication
2. Assesses the attitudes of the public
3. Executes communication programs
4. PR aims to bring about harmonious and mutually
advantageous adjustments between an organization and the
o Attendance at public events
o Press releases
o Social media marketing