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Microscopic View of fibers and their identification , solubility test

This presentation is on Fibers and their properties

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Microscopic View of fibers and their identification , solubility test

  1. 1. Report On Fiber Identification By Sarmad Khan TS-1A Text-176 TO, Sir Imran Raza Malik Date: 25th of March 2015
  2. 2. COTTON: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:- Ribbon Like Kidney Shaped
  3. 3. Burn Test:- Ignites on contact with flames; burns quickly and leaves a yellowish to orange afterglow when put out. Does not melt. It has the odor of burning paper, leaves, or wood. The residue is a fine, feathery, gray ash. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1)70% H2So4 (20 Mins) 1)80% formic acid 2)Cuprammonium 2)Xylene Boiling Hydro oxide 3)Chlorine Bleach %5 4)Acetone 100% 5)HCl 20%
  4. 4. Silk: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:-
  5. 5. Burn Test:- Burns slowly, but does not melt. It shrinks from the flame. It has the odour of charred meat (some say like burned hair). The residue is a black, hollow irregular bead that can be easily to a gritty, grayish-black ash powder. It is self-extinguishing, i.e., it burns itself out. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1)Chlorine Bleach %5 1) Acetone 100% 2)70% & 60% H2So4 2)Xylene Boiling 3) HCl 20% 3)meta cresol 4) Cuprammonium
  6. 6. hydroxide 5)Molar Sodium Hypochloride
  7. 7. Wool: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:- Burn Test:- Burns with an orange sputtery color, but does not melt. It shrinks from the flame. It has a strong odor of burning hair or feathers. The residue is a black, hollow irregular bead that can be easily crushed into a gritty black powder. It is self- extinguishing, i.e., it burns itself out.
  8. 8. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1)Chlorine Bleach %5 1) Acetone 100% 2) Cold Meta cresol 2) Boiling NaOH 5% 3) 80% Formic acid 3)Molar Sodium 4) Acetone 100% Hypochloride 5) HCl 20% Linen: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:-
  9. 9. Bur n Test:- Linen takes longer to ignite. The fabric closest to the ash is very brittle. Linen is easily extinguished by blowing on it as you would a candle.
  10. 10. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1)70% H2So4 1)Chlorine Bleach %5 2)Acetone 100% 3)Formic Acid 90% 4)HCl 20% Rayon: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:-
  11. 11. Burn Test:- It is a regenerated cellulose fiber which is almost pure cellulose. Rayon burns rapidly and leaves only a slight ash. The burning smell is close to burning leaves
  12. 12. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1)70% n 60% H2So4 1)Chlorine Bleach %5 2)Acetone 100% 3)Formic Acid 90% 4)HCl 20% Polyester: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:-
  13. 13. Burn Test:- Polyester melts and burns at the same time, the melting, burning ash can bond quickly to any surface it drips on including skin. The smoke from polyester is black with a sweetish smell. The extinguished ash is hard. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1) M-Cresol 1)Chlorine Bleach %5 2)Acetone 100% 3)Formic Acid 90% 4)HCl 20% 5)H2So4 60% n 70%
  14. 14. Nylon: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:- Burn Test:- Nylon melts and then burns rapidly if the flame remains on the melted fiber. If i can keep the flame on the melting nylon, it smells like burning plastic.
  15. 15. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1)HCl 20% 1)Chlorine Bleach %5 2)H2So4 60% n 70% 2)Acetone 100% 3)Formic Acid 90% Acrylic: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:-
  16. 16. Burn Test:- Acrylics burn readily due to the fiber content and the lofty, air filled pockets. A match dropped on an acrylic blanket can ignite the fabric which will burn rapidly unless extinguished. The ash is hard. The smell is acrid or harsh Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1) dimethyl formamide 1)Chlorine Bleach
  17. 17. %5 2)Acetone 100% 3)Formic Acid 90% 4)HCl 20% Acetate: Microscopic View:- Longitudinal Structure & Cross Sectional Structure:- Burn Test:- Acetate burns readily with a flickering flame that cannot be easily extinguished. The burning cellulose drips and
  18. 18. leaves a hard ash. The smell is similar to burning wood chips. Solubility Test:- Soluble Insoluble 1)Acetone 100% 1)HCl 20% 2)Formic Acid 90% 2)Chlorine Bleach %5 3)H2SO 70% n 60% Acetic acid: At 20 °C, glacial (100%) acetic acid dissolves acetates. At 100 °C, glacial acetic acid dissolves acetates and triacetates. Nylon dissolves, but very slowly.
  19. 19. Acetone: At 20 °C, acetone dissolves acetates, triacetates, modacrylics, and vinyons. Hydrochloric acid: At 20 °C, concentrated (12 M) hydrochloric acid dissolves acetates, triacetates, saponified cellulose acetate (Fortisan), nylon, and silk. Rayons dissolve slowly. Less concentrated (6 M) hydrochloric acid dissolves nylon, but not the other fibers listed. Sodium hydroxide: At 100 °C, a 5% solution of sodium hydroxide dissolves nytrils, wool and other animal hair, and cultivated silk. Acetates, triacetates, wild (Tussah) silk, and reconstituted protein fibers dissolve only partially and very slowly. At 100 °C, a 50% solution of sodium hydroxide dissolves all of the above fibers readily, and slowly (30 to 60 minutes) dissolves polyesters. Acrylics dissolve partially and very slowly. Modacrylics and sarans (Enjay, Saran) melt but do not dissolve.
  20. 20. Sulfuric acid: At 20 °C, 60% sulfuric acid dissolves acetates, triacetates, rayons (cuprammonium and viscose), silk, and nylon, but not cotton, linen, or other cellulosic plant fibers. At 20 °C, 70% sulfuric acid dissolves all of the above fibers. The 70% acid can be used to discriminate reconstituted cellulose fibers from cotton and other natural cellulose fibers. Zinc chloride: At 45 °C, 75% zinc chloride solution dissolves acetates, triacetates, acrylics, silk, cotton that has not been mercerized, and rayons (cuprammonium and viscose). In this lab session, we’ll attempt to dissolve fiber specimens in various solvents and record our observations.

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