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Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica - Luisa F. Cabeza (GREiA Research Group, University of Lleida)

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L'intervento di Luisa F. Cabeza (GREiA Research Group, University of Lleida) in occasione dell'evento "Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica: Tecnologie, materiali, campi di impiego" che si è tenuto l'11 ottobre 2019 a Cagliari.

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Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica - Luisa F. Cabeza (GREiA Research Group, University of Lleida)

  1. 1. © 2019 GREiA, University of Lleida Materials for thermal energy storage Le tecnologie per l'accumulo termico nelle Smart grid Cagliari, Italy Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza
  2. 2. 2Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Contents • Introduction • Materials for TES
  3. 3. 3Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Basic principle of TES • A complete storage process involves at least three steps: • Charging • Storing • Discharging Mehling H, Cabeza LF. Heat and cold storage with PCM. An up to date introduction into basics and applications. Springer, 2008.
  4. 4. 4Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Basic principle of TES • The technical and economical requirements for an energy storage system are determined by its actual application within the energy system • Therefore any evaluation and comparison of energy storage technologies is only possible with respect to this application • The application determines the technical requirements (e.g. type of energy, storage capacity, charging/discharging power, etc.) as well as the economical environment (e.g. expected pay-back time, price for delivered energy, etc.)
  5. 5. 5Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Benefits of TES • The systems achieve benefits by fulfilling one or more of the following purposes: • Increase generation capacity • Enable better operation of cogeneration plants • Shift energy purchases to low cost periods • Increase system reliability • Integration with other functions Figure from Andreas Hauer
  6. 6. 6Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Thermal Energy Storage L.F. Cabeza, A. Gutierrez, C. Barreneche, S. Ushak, A.G. Fernández, A.I Fernández, M. Grágeda Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 1106-1112
  7. 7. 7Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Thermal Energy Storage • Maturity of TES technologies A. Gutierrez, L. Miró, A. Gil, J. Rodríquez- Aseguinolaza, C. Barreneche, N. Calvet, X. Py, A.I. Fernández, M. Grágeda, S. Ushak, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59 (2016) 763-783
  8. 8. 8Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Thermal Energy Storage Sensible Latent Sorption & chemical reactions Thermochemical (kJ/kg) Temperature(ºC) Stored heat (kJ/kg) Temperature(ºC) Stored heat A(s) heat storage endothermic reaction heat release exothermic reaction B(s) + 𝐶(g) STORAGE CHARGE DISCHARGE
  9. 9. 9Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 TES technologies • Heat storage as sensible heat – solids (stone, brick,…) – liquids (water,…) The most common method for heat storage. Stored heat Temperature sensible TcmQ 
  10. 10. 10Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Stored heat Temperature sensible sensible latent sensible Temperature of phase change Materials with useful phase change = latent heat storage material, = phase change material (PCM) TES technologies • Heat storage as latent heat – evaporation at constant volume  temperature and pressure change – evaporation at constant pressure  volume change or open system – melting at constant pressure  small volume change  no temperature change hmQ 
  11. 11. 11Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 TES technologies • Sorption and thermochemical storage • Uses reversible chemical reactions to store thermal energy in the form of chemical compounds • This energy can be discharged at different temperatures, dependent on the properties of the thermochemical reaction
  12. 12. 12Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 TES application potential • Matching supply and demand Figure from Andreas Hauer
  13. 13. 13Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 TES application potential • Matching supply and demand: seasonal storage A. Dahash, F. Ochs, M.B. Janetti, W. Streicher. Applied Enregy 239 (2019) 296-315
  14. 14. 14Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 TES application potential • Power vs. Energy Figure from Andreas Hauer
  15. 15. 15Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 TES application potential • Building applications – Passive systems in the envelope – Active systems in the envelope (ventilated façade) – DHW solar energy with PCM in water tank • High temperature applications – Solar cooling – Industrial waste heat recovery – Storage in CSP • Other applications – General containers – Beverages – Catering – Blood products – Electronic devices
  16. 16. 16Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Contents • Introduction • Materials for TES
  17. 17. 17Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Classes of materials • Any material can be used for thermal energy storage (TES) • The selection of the material depends on: – The application – The requirements of the application: • Temperature • Power • Energy density – The properties of the material: • Energy density • Stability (chemical, physical, etc.) • TES technology used • …
  18. 18. 18Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Classes of materials • Classes of materials A. Fallahi, G. Guldentops, M. Tao, S. Granados-Focil, S. Van Dessel. Applied Thermal Engineering 127 (2017) 1427-1441
  19. 19. 19Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Water (tanks, pits) – Rocks/bricks/ceramics – Metals – Molten salts Usually classified by the application
  20. 20. 20Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Water (tanks, pits) • Widely available • Cheap • High energy density A. Dahash, F. Ochs, M.B. Janetti, W. Streicher. Applied Energy 239 (2019) 296-315 Y. Pal Chandra, T. Matuska. Energy and Buildigns 187 (2019) 110-131
  21. 21. 21Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Ceramics • Highly used • Low cost • Low thermal cycling (they break under thermal stress)
  22. 22. 22Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials A. Gil, M. Medrano, I. Martorell, A. Lázaro, P. Dolado, B. Zalba, L.F. Cabeza. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 31-55
  23. 23. 23Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Metals and metal alloys • High thermal diffusivity • Low thermal energy density • Considerations: – There is a lack of consciousness about the implications of the metallurgic aspects related to melting and solidification of metals and metal alloys under thermal cycling at high temperatures A.I. Fernández, C. Barreneche, M. Belusko, M. Segarra, F. Bruno, L.F. Cabeza Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 171 (2017) 275-281
  24. 24. 24Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Metals and metal alloys A.I. Fernández, C. Barreneche, M. Belusko, M. Segarra, F. Bruno, L.F. Cabeza Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 171 (2017) 275-281
  25. 25. 25Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Metal alloys G. Wei, G. Wang, C. Xu, X. Ju, L. Xing, X. Du, Y. Yang Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1771-1786
  26. 26. 26Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – High temperature concrete and castable ceramic A. Gil, M. Medrano, I. Martorell, A. Lázaro, P. Dolado, B. Zalba, L.F. Cabeza. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 31-55
  27. 27. 27Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Molten salts: solar salt • Highly corrosive • Low thermal conductivity G. Wei, G. Wang, C. Xu, X. Ju, L. Xing, X. Du, Y. Yang Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1771-1786
  28. 28. 28Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Molten salts G. Wei, G. Wang, C. Xu, X. Ju, L. Xing, X. Du, Y. Yang Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1771-1786
  29. 29. 29Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Other materials used for high temperature A. Gil, M. Medrano, I. Martorell, A. Lázaro, P. Dolado, B. Zalba, L.F. Cabeza. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 31-55
  30. 30. 30Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Wastes and by-products: bischofite A. Gutierrez, L. Miró, A. Gil, J. Rodríquez-Aseguinolaza, C. Barreneche, N. Calvet, X. Py, A.I. Fernández, M. Grágeda, S. Ushak, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59 (2016) 763-783
  31. 31. 31Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Classes of materials – Wastes and by-products: slags A. Gutierrez, L. Miró, A. Gil, J. Rodríquez-Aseguinolaza, C. Barreneche, N. Calvet, X. Py, A.I. Fernández, M. Grágeda, S. Ushak, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59 (2016) 763-783
  32. 32. 32Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Requirements of the materials Thermal requirements - High energy density - Good specific heat capacity - High thermal conductivity - Low thermal diffusivity - Service temperature range fitted to the application - Low thermal expansion coefficient Physical and technical requirements - High density - High cycle stability - Non-corrosiveness - Low system complexity - Low vapour pressure in the service temperature range
  33. 33. 33Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sensible TES • Requirements of the materials Economic requirements - Low price - Large scale production methods Recyclability and safety requirements - Non-toxicity - Recyclable or reusable - Low CO2 footprint - Low embodied energy For a good selection of the proper material, we need to rank the requirements and to evaluate a compromise between contradictory or competing requirements
  34. 34. 34Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Inorganic substances • Water/ice • Salt hydrates • Salts – Organic substances • Paraffin • Fatty acids • Polymers (HDPE) • BioPCM (esters, etc.) Usually classified by the nature of the material
  35. 35. 35Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials Organics Inorganics Advantages - No corrosives - Low or none subcooling - Chemical and thermal stability Advantages - Greater phase change enthalpy - Higher energy density Disadvantages - Lower phase change enthalpy - Low thermal conductivity - Flammability - Bad compatibility with plastics Disadvantages - Subcooling - Corrosion - Phase separation - Phase segregation, lack of thermal stability L.F. Cabeza, A. Castell, C. Barreneche, A. de Gracia, A.I Fernández Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1675-1695
  36. 36. 36Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials Inorganic Organic A. Fallahi, G. Guldentops, M. Tao, S. Granados-Focil, S. Van Dessel. Applied Thermal Engineering 127 (2017) 1427-1441
  37. 37. 37Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials Solid-solid organic PCM A. Fallahi, G. Guldentops, M. Tao, S. Granados-Focil, S. Van Dessel. Applied Thermal Engineering 127 (2017) 1427-1441
  38. 38. 38Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Water/ice • It is the oldest PCM, used since prehistory • Its use for cold drinks is a clear example of TES material
  39. 39. 39Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Salt hydrates Y. Lin, G. Alva, G. Fang. Energy 165 Part A (2018) 685-708
  40. 40. 40Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Salts Y. Lin, G. Alva, G. Fang. Energy 165 Part A (2018) 685-708
  41. 41. 41Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Eutectic salts Y. Lin, G. Alva, G. Fang. Energy 165 Part A (2018) 685-708
  42. 42. 42Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Polymeric solid-solid PCM A. Fallahi, G. Guldentops, M. Tao, S. Granados-Focil, S. Van Dessel. Applied Thermal Engineering 127 (2017) 1427-1441
  43. 43. 43Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Organic solid-solid PCM A. Fallahi, G. Guldentops, M. Tao, S. Granados-Focil, S. Van Dessel. Applied Thermal Engineering 127 (2017) 1427-1441
  44. 44. 44Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Organometallic solid-solid PCM A. Fallahi, G. Guldentops, M. Tao, S. Granados-Focil, S. Van Dessel. Applied Thermal Engineering 127 (2017) 1427-1441
  45. 45. 45Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Inorganic solid-solid PCM A. Fallahi, G. Guldentops, M. Tao, S. Granados-Focil, S. Van Dessel. Applied Thermal Engineering 127 (2017) 1427-1441
  46. 46. 46Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Metal and metal alloys Y. Lin, G. Alva, G. Fang. Energy 165 Part A (2018) 685-708
  47. 47. 47Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Wastes and by-products: bischofite A. Gutierrez, L. Miró, A. Gil, J. Rodríquez-Aseguinolaza, C. Barreneche, N. Calvet, X. Py, A.I. Fernández, M. Grágeda, S. Ushak, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59 (2016) 763-783
  48. 48. 48Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Classes of materials – Wastes and by-products: astrakanite and kainite A. Gutierrez, L. Miró, A. Gil, J. Rodríquez-Aseguinolaza, C. Barreneche, N. Calvet, X. Py, A.I. Fernández, M. Grágeda, S. Ushak, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59 (2016) 763-783
  49. 49. 49Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Requirements of the materials Thermal requirements - Suitable phase change temperature fitted to the application - Large phase change enthalpy and specific heat - High thermal conductivity - Reproducible phase change - Good thermal stability Physical and technical requirements - Low density variation and small volume change - High cycle stability - High chemical and physical stability - Small or no subcooling - Non-corrosiveness (good compatibility with other materials) - Low system complexity - Low vapour pressure in the service temperature range
  50. 50. 50Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Latent TES • Requirements of the materials Economic requirements - Low price - Large scale production methods Recyclability and safety requirements - Non-toxicity - Recyclable or reusable - Low CO2 footprint - Low embodied energy
  51. 51. 51Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials J. Cot-Gores, A. Castell, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 5207-5224 C. Prieto, P. Cooper, A.I. Fernández, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 909-929
  52. 52. 52Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials – Chemical reactions: gas/solid reactions • Hydration reaction: • Carbonation reaction: • Ammonia decomposition: • Metal oxidation reactions: • Sulphur cycle:
  53. 53. 53Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials – Chemical reactions: gas/solid reactions J. Cot-Gores, A. Castell, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 5207-5224
  54. 54. 54Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials – Chemical reactions: gas/solid reactions J. Cot-Gores, A. Castell, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 5207-5224
  55. 55. 55Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials – Chemical reactions: gas/solid reactions J. Cot-Gores, A. Castell, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 5207-5224
  56. 56. 56Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials – Chemical reactions: gas/solid reactions J. Cot-Gores, A. Castell, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 5207-5224
  57. 57. 57Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials – Chemical reactions: gas/solid reactions J. Cot-Gores, A. Castell, L.F. Cabeza Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 5207-5224
  58. 58. 58Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  59. 59. 59Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials – Adsorption • Gas-solid processes (physisorption or chemisorption) • Open/closed – Absorption • Gas-liquid processes • Open/closed A. Sole, I. Martorell, L.F. Cabeza Renewable Energy 47 (2015) 386-398 L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  60. 60. 60Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  61. 61. 61Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  62. 62. 62Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  63. 63. 63Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  64. 64. 64Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  65. 65. 65Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Classes of materials L.F. Cabeza, A. Sole, C. Barreneche Renewable Energy 110 (2017) 3-39
  66. 66. 66Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Requirements of the materials Thermal requirements - Reversible reaction - Control of the kinetic model - Control of the crystallographic structure changes - High thermal conductivity - Water stability with the crystal structure - Proper particle size - Control of the impurities - Solubility of the material in the working conditions - Suitable working temperature range fitted to the applications - Thermal stability
  67. 67. 67Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Requirements of the materials Physical and technical requirements - High cycle stability - High chemical and physical stability - Non-corrosiveness (good compatibility with other materials) - Low system complexity Economic requirements - Low price - Large scale production methods Recyclability and safety requirements - Non-toxicity - Recyclable or reusable - Low CO2 footprint - Low embodied energy
  68. 68. 68Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Sorption & chemical reactions • Requirements of the materials Economic requirements - Low price - Large scale production methods Recyclability and safety requirements - Non-toxicity - Recyclable or reusable - Low CO2 footprint - Low embodied energy
  69. 69. 69Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Acknowledgements © 2019 GREiA, University of Lleida This work was partially funded by the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades de España (RTI2018-093849-B-C31). Funding has also been received from European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programs under projects Innova MicroSOLAR (723596), HYBUILD (768824), SWS-HEATING (764025) and SolBio-Rev (814945). The authors at the University of Lleida would like to thank the Catalan Government for the quality accreditation given to their research group (2017 SGR 1537). GREiA is certified agent TECNIO in the category of technology developers from the Government of Catalonia. This work is partially supported by ICREA under the ICREA Academia programme.
  70. 70. 70Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza – October 2019 Thank you for your attention! www.greia.udl.cat lcabeza@diei.udl.cat

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