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Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica - Giorgio Cau (Università degli Studi di Cagliari)

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L'intervento di Giorgio Cau (Università degli Studi di Cagliari) in occasione dell'evento "Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica:
Tecnologie, materiali, campi di impiego" che si è tenuto l'11 ottobre 2019 a Cagliari.

Published in: Environment
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Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica - Giorgio Cau (Università degli Studi di Cagliari)

  1. 1. Incontri formativi in tema di: Gestione intelligente dell’energia 1. La cattura dell'anidride carbonica e il suo utilizzo: tecnologie ed economia per una transizione energetica sostenibile 2. L'economia del biometano, vincoli e opportunità nel contesto regionale alla luce del recente Decreto 3. Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica: Tecnologie, materiali, campi di impiego 4. Vehicle to Grid: l'integrazione della mobilità elettrica nelle Smart grid 5. L'integrazione delle tecnologie dell'idrogeno nelle Smart grid 6. Le comunità energetiche
  2. 2. Sistemi di accumulo dell’energia termica: Tecnologie, materiali, campi di impiego
  3. 3. Sistemi di accumulo dell'energia termica: Tecnologie, materiali, campi di impiego Generalità sui sistemi di accumulo dell’energia Prof. Ing. Giorgio Cau DIMCM - Dipartimento di ingegneria meccanica, chimica e dei materiali - Università degli Studi di Cagliari Sardegna Ricerche - Piattaforma Energie Rinnovabili – Laboratorio Tecnologie Solari a Concentrazione e Idrogeno da FER Manifattura Tabacchi di Cagliari 11 ottobre 2019
  4. 4. Perché accumulare l’energia? In breve: Perché l’accumulo consente di rendere indipendenti le fasi di produzione e di utilizzo dell'energia, ovvero di adeguare l'offerta alla domanda indipendentemente dai vincoli che agiscono sulla produzione L’accumulo di energia, più specificamente: 1. rende possibile l'utilizzo differito dell'energia prodotta in assenza o carenza di una contestuale e conforme domanda, e l’alimentazione differita delle utenze in assenza o carenza di una contestuale e conforme produzione 2. consente di fornire l'energia all'utenza a un livello di potenza diverso e indipendente da quello di produzione 3. consente di livellare i carichi (load leveling) e di spianare i picchi (peak shaving) di domanda e di generazione 4. è indispensabile per qualificare e valorizzare ai fini del dispacciamento l’energia prodotta da fonti energetiche non programmabili, in particolare le energie rinnovabili come l’energia eolica e l’energia solare
  5. 5. L’energia può essere accumulata in varie forme Meccanica: potenziale, cinetica Elettrica: elettrostatica, elettromagnetica, elettrochimica Chimica: combustibili e vettori energetici (idrogeno, PtG, PtL) sostanze chimiche (NH3, MeOH, DME, FA, OA, HMF, FDCA, ecc.) Termica: calore sensibile, calore latente, termochimica
  6. 6. Accumulo dell’energia meccanica L’energia meccanica si manifesta essenzialmente nelle due forme potenziale e cinetica e in tali forme può essere reciprocamente trasformata e accumulata Con riferimento all’energia potenziale si ha l’ulteriore distinzione tra: - Energia potenziale gravitazionale (idrico, idrico pompato, maree, …) • - Energia potenziale elastica (aria/gas in pressione, molle, barre e altri elementi elastici metallici, CNT, …) • Con riferimento all’energia cinetica si può ulteriormente distinguere tra: - Energia cinetica traslazionale • - Energia cinetica rotazionale (volani a bassa e ad alta velocità) • 𝐸 𝑃𝐺 = 𝑚𝑔∆𝑧 𝐸 𝑃𝐸 = 1 2 𝑘∆𝑥2 𝐸 𝐶𝑇 = 1 2 𝑚𝑣2 𝐸 𝐶𝑅 = 1 2 𝐼𝜔2
  7. 7. Accumulo dell’energia elettrica Anche l’energia elettrica si manifesta in varie forme e può essere accumulata in forma elettrostatica, elettromagnetica ed elettrochimica: - Accumulatori di energia elettrostatica • Supercondensatori - Accumulatori di energia elettromagnetica • Sistemi magnetici superconduttori (SMES) - Accumulatori elettrochimici • Batterie primarie: batterie per uso domestico a funzionamento irreversibile (alcaline, litio, zinco-carbone) • Batterie secondarie per applicazioni ordinarie: batterie a funzionamento reversibile (Li-ion, litio polimero, Ni-Cd, Ni- MH, piombo-acido, piombo-gel, …) • Batterie secondarie per applicazioni speciali
  8. 8. Batterie secondarie per applicazioni speciali Si tratta per lo più di batterie basate su tecnologie sperimentali per applicazioni orientate prevalentemente allo stoccaggio stazionario e all'autotrazione. Si distingue tra: - Batterie a stato solido • batterie Sodio-Zolfo (Na-S) • batterie Sodio-Nichel (ZEBRA, Zero Emission Battery Research Activity) - Batterie a flusso • batterie Vanadio Redox • batterie Zinco-Bromo (Zn-Br)
  9. 9. Caratteristica energia-potenza di diverse tecnologie di accumulo meccanico ed elettrico
  10. 10. Accumulo dell’energia termica I sistemi di accumulo termico coprono un’ampia gamma di temperature e applicazioni, con interessanti prospettive di sviluppo tecnologico e di mercato. Si basano su processi di variazione dell'energia interna del materiale in forma di: - Calore sensibile (riscaldamento del mezzo di accumulo liquido/solido) • - Calore latente (transizione di fase) • - Energia termochimica (rottura e ricomposizione di legami chimici) • - Processi combinati 𝐸 𝑇𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐∆𝑇 = 𝑉𝜌𝑐∆𝑇 𝐸 𝑇𝐿 = 𝑚∆ℎ𝑡𝑓 𝐸 𝑇𝐶 = 𝑚∆ℎ 𝑟
  11. 11. Laboratorio «Tecnologie di accumulo energia termica» del DIMCM – Dotazioni principali  Impianti per la sperimentazione di sistemi TES a calore sensibile di tipo “packed bed”:  Impianto a circuito aperto utilizzante l’aria come HTF  Impianto a circuito chiuso in pressione utilizzante gas diversi (CO2, N2, He, ecc.) come HTF  Impianto polivalente per la sperimentazione di sistemi di accumulo termico a calore latente e a calore sensibile di varia tipologia
  12. 12. Sferette di allumina sinterizzata Diametro: 7-9 mm “Rack” termocoppie Impianto a circuito aperto con aria come HTF  Altezza e diametro del letto di materiale solido: 1.8 – 0.58 m  Materiale solido: sferette di allumina, diametro 7-9 mm  Capacità di accumulo: fino a 72 kWh  Potenza termica (in carica): fino a 70 kW  Temperatura massima dell’HTF: 300 °C  Pressione atmosferica
  13. 13. Impianto a circuito chiuso con gas diversi come HTF  Altezza e diametro del letto di materiale solido: 0.90 – 0.30 m  Materiale solido: sferette di allumina, diametro 1.5-2.5 mm  Capacità di accumulo: fino a 5 kWh  Potenza termica (in carica): fino a 6 kW  Temperatura massima dell’HTF: 150 °C  Pressione max: 5 bar Sezione interna Sezione esterna
  14. 14.  Potenza elettrica in carica (EH): fino a 40 kW  Potenza termica in scarica (CHE): fino a 170 kW  Capacità di accumulo di sistemi TES: fino a 300 kWh  Temperatura massima dell’HTF: fino a 350 °C Impianto polivalente per la sperimentazione di sistemi di accumulo termico a calore latente e a calore sensibile Sezione interna
  15. 15.  Prototipo di accumulatore a PCM del tipo a “tubi e mantello”  PCM: organici e inorganici  Temperatura di fusione: fino a 350 °C, dipendente dal PCM  Capacità di accumulo:  PCM organici: fino a 8-9 kWh  PCM inorganici: fino a 11-12 kWh  PCM metallici: fino a 13-14 kWh Impianto polivalente per la sperimentazione di sistemi di accumulo termico a calore latente e a calore sensibile Sezione interna Sezione esterna
  16. 16. Impianto solare sperimentale di Ottana  Superficie di raccolta: 8.400 m2  Potenza termica del campo solare: 4.690 kWt  Accumulo termico: 14.7 MWh (2 serbatoi C/F)  Potenza del motore ORC: 600 kWe  Potenza del CPV: 400 kWe  Accumulo elettrico: batterie SoNick, 430 kWh CPV solar field conventional PV solar field fire water tank TES tanks engine room dry cooling system CSP Fresnel solar field
  17. 17. A. Aghahosseini, C. Breyer, Development of Energy Storage Systems for Power Network Reliability:Assessment of geological resource potential for compressed air energy storage in global electricity supply. August 2018, Energy Conversion and Management, 169 Ricerche sui sistemi integrati di generazione elettrica con accumulo di aria compressa di tipo A-CAES
  18. 18. SISTEMA A-CAES Ricerche sui sistemi integrati di generazione elettrica e accumulo chimico con produzione di metanolo
  19. 19. Microrete della Piattaforma Energie Rinnovabili
  20. 20. Microrete della Piattaforma Energie Rinnovabili
  21. 21. Grazie per l’attenzione Prof. Ing. Giorgio Cau Dipartimento di ingegneria meccanica, chimica e dei materiali Università degli Studi di Cagliari gcau@unica.it - http://people.unica.it/giorgiocau

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