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Conference on Small-scale Concentrating Solar Power in Sardinia
Small-scale CSP and solar process heat
application: case s...
Fraunhofer ISE – Short Profile
Director Prof. Eicke Weber
Founded 1981
12 Business areas
Budget 2014 86 Mio €
© Fraunhofer...
Solar Thermal Technology for Heat and Electricity
Optics and Material
Science
Solar Thermal
Collectors
Solar Thermal Syste...
Content
Introduction
Solar Process Heat
Electricity Generation by CSP
Polygeneration
Project examples and Case studies
Con...
Comparison of LCOE conventional and renewable energy
© Fraunhofer ISE
Source: PWC 2010
Heat plays important role worldwide
© Fraunhofer ISE
Note: Figure based on 2009 data
Source: Energy Technology Perspective...
Industrial process
heat…
District heating
Central Europe
Useful heat
from natural gas
Useful heat
from electricity EU27 av...
Is the combination of CSP and process heat the
solution?
Combination of CSP and solar process heat => small scale CSP
1 MW...
Content
Introduction
Solar Process Heat
Electricity Generation by CSP
Polygeneration
Project examples and Case studies
Con...
Temperature
• Industrial Process Heat
• Solar Cooling (2 stage)Small
> 300 °C
Utility scale
power
generation
Solar Tower,
...
Parabolic Throughs and Linear Fresnel Collectors
Reduced temperature level for process heat compared to CSP
Smaller solar ...
40%
60%
80%
100%
European Industrial Heat Demand
by temperature level and industrial sector year 2003
© Fraunhofer ISE
0%
...
Temperature Levels for Industrial Heat
Industry Sector Process Temperature level [C]
Food and Drinks Drying
Washing
Pasteu...
Solar Thermal Heat Integration
Process- or Supply Level?
© Fraunhofer ISE
Process characterization
Heat profile of the process
Temperature level
Heat Integration
© Fraunhofer ISE
Process: time, te...
Solar Thermal Heat Integration
Process Level
© Fraunhofer ISE
Simplified system concept for direct process heating
Solar Thermal Heat Integration
Supply Level Example: Direct Steam Generation
Solar thermal
System
CondensateConcentrating-...
Integration concepts
Process Level
Solar heat is directly supplied to the process.
Can be used for processes where the tem...
Content
Introduction
Solar Process Heat
Electricity Generation by CSP
Polygeneration
Project examples and Case studies
Con...
Parabolic mirrors
focus sunlight onto a
Series of flat /
shallow-curvature
Array of heliostats
focus sun-light upon a
Para...
Capacity factors of CSP
CSP provides wide range of plant types with different CF
Andasol 40%
Solana 43%
Gemasolar 75%
Sham...
Why CSP? Case study – RE-mix at middle east site
PV power production profile vs. load
PV production follows irradiation wi...
Why CSP? Case study – RE-mix at middle east site
CSP production profile vs. load
On a good solar day, CSP storages are fil...
Why CSP?
Impact on grid infrastructure utilization
Due to the higher capacity factor the grid infrastructure is used much ...
After news on low battery cost – is PV cheaper?
Comparison of Investment Cost for 100 MW Plant
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Inve...
Grid Model for North Africa
- Regional grid plan
- Interconnectors to Europe taken into account
GR
ITF
R
© Fraunhofer ISE
...
RE-Power Generation in Marocco (Example)
Optimizer ToolOptimizer Tool
Ressources Data base
Power plants
Fuels
Transmission...
Analysis of Electricity Production over 5 days
Fluctuating
generation from
RE
Transmission
losses taken
into account
Flexi...
Evaluation of molten salt storages
The path to lower cost
Two-tank indirect
Temperature (T) loss due
two double HX
T limit...
CSP – Optimization of Systems and Storage
Development of high-temperature storage,
molten salt technology and further
deve...
Principle of new PCM storage system
Solid granular material and molten material are stored in separate tanks
Transport of ...
Prototype and commissioning
Angular setting
of SHE
Melt outlet
Melt inlet
© Fraunhofer ISE
Inclination for crystallization...
Materials Testing
Slow Strain Rate Test in molten salt (CERT –Test)
Heating
Tube
sample
Flat
sample
F F
© Fraunhofer ISE
A...
What is the future of CSP?
Dispatchability of Solar Thermal Power is a unique selling point compared to
PV (and allows hig...
Content
Introduction
Solar Process Heat
Electricity Generation by CSP
Polygeneration
Project examples and Case studies
Con...
Concentrating Solar
Collector Field
Thermal
Energy
Storage
• solar electricity
• integrated fossil fuel backup
capacity, p...
Annual Sale of Diesel Generators for Continous
Operation (16 GW/ 14 000 Units)
© Fraunhofer ISE
Expansionmachines for Electricity Generation
© Fraunhofer ISE
Cost function for heat engines
4 000 €
5 000 €
6 000 €
7 000 €
8 000 €
9 000 €
10 000 €
specificcost[€/kW] Steam
ORC
Screw...
Very Simple Steam Engine for Commissioning
© Fraunhofer ISE
Polygeneration – Waste heat concept
Gturbine
steam
field
Thermal oil
70 - 110 °C (55)
320 °C
260 °C / 25 bar
storage
evapo...
In operation since October 2010
Waste - and solar heat
Target capacity 5m3/day
MD pilot plants in operation
Waste- and sol...
Polygeneration – process steam production
Gturbine
steam
field
Thermal oil
75 - 115 °C (55)
320 °C
260 °C / 25 bar
storage...
Content
Introduction
Solar Process Heat
Electricity Generation by CSP
Polygeneration
Project examples and Case studies
Con...
Brewery Göss, Austria
© Fraunhofer ISE
Source: AEE INTEC
Integration into the mashing process
© Fraunhofer ISE
Source: AEE INTEC
Integration into the mashing process
© Fraunhofer ISE
GEA brewery systems
Overheating protection !
-> night-time cooling
-...
Co-generation of Electricity and Heat
Solar dish-based CPV system using MIM cells developed at Fraunhofer ISE,
Zenith Sola...
Scheffler Reflector
Main technical data:
770 Scheffler dishes with fix
focus (60 m2 each)
Reflector area: 45.000 m2
1 MWel...
EU-Project MATS
Multiple Application Thermodynamic Solar
• Demonstration in Egypt
• Molten salt as HTF and storage
medium
...
MATS - Site 51
© Fraunhofer ISE
NREL, Global Environment Facility, UNEP, Nov. 2005, Africa Direct Normal Solar Radiation A...
Content
Introduction
Solar Process Heat
Electricity Generation by CSP
Polygeneration
Project examples and Case studies
Con...
Conclusion
SSCSP may be interesting when reliable and highly efficient heat engines in
range 0.5 – 5 MWel are available an...
Conclusion
Solar Thermal Energy has a lot of opportunities
– commercially and for research
© Fraunhofer ISE
– commercially...
Thank you for listening!
Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE
© Fraunhofer ISE
www.ise.fraunhofer.de
Dr. Wern...
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Il CSP di piccola taglia e il calore di processo: esempi pratici e casi studio - Werner Platzer

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L'intervento di Werner Platzer (Fraunhofer ISE) in occasione dell'evento "Solare termodinamico di piccola taglia: impianti dimostrativi in Sardegna e calore di processo industriale" che si è tenuto a Pula (CA) il 25 settembre 2015.

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Il CSP di piccola taglia e il calore di processo: esempi pratici e casi studio - Werner Platzer

  1. 1. Conference on Small-scale Concentrating Solar Power in Sardinia Small-scale CSP and solar process heat application: case studies Werner J. Platzer © Fraunhofer ISE Werner J. Platzer Director Division Solar Thermal and Optics Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE Pula, 25th September 2015
  2. 2. Fraunhofer ISE – Short Profile Director Prof. Eicke Weber Founded 1981 12 Business areas Budget 2014 86 Mio € © Fraunhofer ISE Revenues from industry average 40% (over last seven years) 1225 Employees 27000 m2 lab and office space Strong growth rate 2008-2012
  3. 3. Solar Thermal Technology for Heat and Electricity Optics and Material Science Solar Thermal Collectors Solar Thermal Systems Engineering Collector development Certified TestLab Heat transfer Concentrator optics DHW and heating Process heat Solar thermal power Thermal storage PVD coatings Surface analytics Vacuum technology Micro structuring © Fraunhofer ISE Concentrator optics Structural mechanics Thermal storage Water treatment Micro structuring Degradation
  4. 4. Content Introduction Solar Process Heat Electricity Generation by CSP Polygeneration Project examples and Case studies Conclusion © Fraunhofer ISE
  5. 5. Comparison of LCOE conventional and renewable energy © Fraunhofer ISE Source: PWC 2010
  6. 6. Heat plays important role worldwide © Fraunhofer ISE Note: Figure based on 2009 data Source: Energy Technology Perspectives 2012
  7. 7. Industrial process heat… District heating Central Europe Useful heat from natural gas Useful heat from electricity EU27 average: €-cent 19.3EU27 average: €-cent 7.7 Cost of Solar Heat in Europe © Fraunhofer ISE Source: ETP RHC (2013) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 DHW thermosiphon… DHW forced circulation… Combi-systems Central /… heat… Heat costs in €-cent / kWh
  8. 8. Is the combination of CSP and process heat the solution? Combination of CSP and solar process heat => small scale CSP 1 MWel instead of 100 MWel Considerations: Heat consumers have limited demand on heat -> industry < 10 MWth Area in industrial areas is usually more expensive Area for solar process heat often limiting factor © Fraunhofer ISE Area for solar process heat often limiting factor Economy of scale: large plants have lower specific costs Additional operational complexity PV electricity seems better suited for smale-scale generation Which factors can make SSCSP commercially viable?
  9. 9. Content Introduction Solar Process Heat Electricity Generation by CSP Polygeneration Project examples and Case studies Conclusion © Fraunhofer ISE
  10. 10. Temperature • Industrial Process Heat • Solar Cooling (2 stage)Small > 300 °C Utility scale power generation Solar Tower, Parabolic Trough and Fresnel Solar Thermal Collectors – for Power, Cooling and Heat © Fraunhofer ISE 40-60°C 70-80°C 90-110°C 120-250°C Temperature • Solar Cooling (2 stage) • Distributed Power Generation Small troughs and Fresnel • Solar Cooling (1 stage) • Low Temperature Process Heat Vacuum Tube CPC Collectors • Domestic Water Heating • Space Heating Flat Plate Collectors
  11. 11. Parabolic Throughs and Linear Fresnel Collectors Reduced temperature level for process heat compared to CSP Smaller solar field requires different installation procedures © Fraunhofer ISE
  12. 12. 40% 60% 80% 100% European Industrial Heat Demand by temperature level and industrial sector year 2003 © Fraunhofer ISE 0% 20% 40% M ining and Q uarrying Food and Tobacco Pulp & paper C hem ical N on-M etallic M inerals B asic M etals M achinery Transport Equipm ent O thers Abov e 400°C 100 - 400°C Be low 100°C Source: ECOHEATCOOL
  13. 13. Temperature Levels for Industrial Heat Industry Sector Process Temperature level [C] Food and Drinks Drying Washing Pasteurising Cooking Sterilising Heat Treatment 30 - 90 40 – 80 80 –110 95 – 105 140 – 150 40 – 60 Textile Washing 40 – 80 © Fraunhofer ISE Textile Washing Bleaching Dying 40 – 80 60 – 100 100 – 160 Chemistry Cooking Destilling various chem. Processes 95 –105 110 – 300 120 -180 All Sectors Feedwater pre-heating Space Heating 30 – 100 30 – 80
  14. 14. Solar Thermal Heat Integration Process- or Supply Level? © Fraunhofer ISE
  15. 15. Process characterization Heat profile of the process Temperature level Heat Integration © Fraunhofer ISE Process: time, temperature, pressure, humidity... Heat carrier: air, water, steam, oil... Process medium Process: continuous or batch-process?
  16. 16. Solar Thermal Heat Integration Process Level © Fraunhofer ISE Simplified system concept for direct process heating
  17. 17. Solar Thermal Heat Integration Supply Level Example: Direct Steam Generation Solar thermal System CondensateConcentrating-Collector Steam Drum Process Steam 140 °C 4 bar Pressure Valve Process Steam Network © Fraunhofer ISE Simplified system concept for direct steam generation Conden- sate Steam Boiler Feed Water Feed Water Tank 90°CMake-up- Water 20°C Tank Concentrating Collector Drum Circulation Pump Valve Feed Pump
  18. 18. Integration concepts Process Level Solar heat is directly supplied to the process. Can be used for processes where the temperature of heat required is of low grade (until 100 °C) such as washing, cleaning, heating of industrial baths, hot air drying. Is useful most when the heat requirement is restricted to one or two processes. © Fraunhofer ISE Supply Level Solar heat is supplied to all the processes through the heat distribution network. Used in steam networks and high temperature networks where the solar thermal system may deliver pre-heated feed water or direct high- temperature steam Flexible against process and demand changes!
  19. 19. Content Introduction Solar Process Heat Electricity Generation by CSP Polygeneration Project examples and Case studies Conclusion © Fraunhofer ISE
  20. 20. Parabolic mirrors focus sunlight onto a Series of flat / shallow-curvature Array of heliostats focus sun-light upon a Parabolic dish focuses sunlight Parabolic trough Linear Fresnel Solar tower Dish / Stirling Overview of CSP technologies ~3 GW ~400 MW~140 MW ~2 MW XX = worldwide installed capacity (status 2013)= required land use Four main CSP technologies today © Fraunhofer ISE 1) Depending on tower technology focus sunlight onto a receiver tube Receiver contains fluid (oil, molten salt or water) which is heated and used to produce steam that drives turbine & generator shallow-curvature mirrors focus sunlight onto receiver tube positioned above the mirrors Fluid (oil, molten salt or water) in receiver is heated and steam is generated that drives a turbine and generator focus sun-light upon a single point (receiver) at the tower Receiver is heated up (air, oil, water, etc.) and produces steam Steam drives a turbine and generator focuses sunlight onto a receiver above the dish A combustion engine (Stirling type) converts heat into kinetic energy and drives an electric generator 3.25 ha/MW 1.45 ha/MW 1.39 ha/MW1) 4.50 ha/MW1) 3.90 ha/MW
  21. 21. Capacity factors of CSP CSP provides wide range of plant types with different CF Andasol 40% Solana 43% Gemasolar 75% Shams 24% Kuraymat ISCC 77% (solar 20%) Ivanpah 33% © Fraunhofer ISE 50% 75% 100%25% Hydro world avrg 44% Coal avrg 63% PV max ~20% Nuclear up to 90%
  22. 22. Why CSP? Case study – RE-mix at middle east site PV power production profile vs. load PV production follows irradiation with peak at noon CPV has slightly lower output because it only uses direct irradiance Exemplary day (June 28th) Annual average © Fraunhofer ISE
  23. 23. Why CSP? Case study – RE-mix at middle east site CSP production profile vs. load On a good solar day, CSP storages are filled and the complete period of high load can be covered With large thermal storage, even 24/7 operation is possible Also the annual average shows the positive influence of storage Exemplary day (May 5th) Annual average © Fraunhofer ISE
  24. 24. Why CSP? Impact on grid infrastructure utilization Due to the higher capacity factor the grid infrastructure is used much more effectively with CSP than with plants without storage 175.2 GWh/a PV plant without storage Load center Similar invest in grid infrastructure © Fraunhofer ISE Solar tower plant with large storage 100 MVA substations 100 MVA transmission lines 613.2 GWh/a 100 MWe solar plants Load center Much higher annual energy transfer
  25. 25. After news on low battery cost – is PV cheaper? Comparison of Investment Cost for 100 MW Plant 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Invest,M$ Other Storage 3 Storage 2 Storage 1 Power Block Assumptions: Solar Multiple of 3 sufficient for 24h operation Important to note: Additional Solar field capacity is required for storage charging Storage efficiency is not 100 % but rather 90 © Fraunhofer ISE 0 200 400 CSP PV no Storage PV with Storage Power Block Solar Field for Storage Solar Field Storage efficiency is not 100 % but rather 90 % in case of batteries Batteries need to be replaced at least once during power plant life time CSP still competitive for dispatchable power Detailed comparison required on case by case basis
  26. 26. Grid Model for North Africa - Regional grid plan - Interconnectors to Europe taken into account GR ITF R © Fraunhofer ISE Source: Aupdte
  27. 27. RE-Power Generation in Marocco (Example) Optimizer ToolOptimizer Tool Ressources Data base Power plants Fuels Transmission capacities Demand profiles Technology models of Renewable Energies © Fraunhofer ISE Optimizer Tool RE Technology Mix in North Africa (Invest & Operation) Optimizer Tool RE Technology Mix in North Africa (Invest & Operation) Site evaluation: Demand vs. resource Technology-Mix Export OptionOperation Strategies 250 450 650 850 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 0 150 300 450 600 750 900 Installierte Windleistung [MW] Systembetriebs- kosten anteilig zum Referenzszenario in % Installierte CSP Leistung [MW]
  28. 28. Analysis of Electricity Production over 5 days Fluctuating generation from RE Transmission losses taken into account Flexible Production Projection North Africa © Fraunhofer ISE Production incorporated in model CSP with storage
  29. 29. Evaluation of molten salt storages The path to lower cost Two-tank indirect Temperature (T) loss due two double HX T limited by oil One tank always empty Two-tank direct Molten salt also in collector Higher T possible Less T loss & equipment Single thermocline tank One tank less Possible integration of HX Additional use of filler material reduces amount of salt © Fraunhofer ISE Andasol Gemasolar salt Testing / Pilots GG G
  30. 30. CSP – Optimization of Systems and Storage Development of high-temperature storage, molten salt technology and further development of simulation and optimization tools 1 MW Solar thermal power plant using single tank storage and MED desalination in Egypt - MATS (EU FP7) © Fraunhofer ISE in Egypt - MATS (EU FP7) Direct steam generator in single tnak molten salt storage - OPTS (EU FP7) Latent storage uisng a screw heat exchanger unit - INNOLAT (EIRI) Evaluation of storage concepts and innovative storage types - Supergrid (FhG) Scheme of Single Tank molten salt storage uisng integrated steam generator
  31. 31. Principle of new PCM storage system Solid granular material and molten material are stored in separate tanks Transport of PCM through screw heat exchanger (SHE) Phase change inside SHE Size of thermal power and storage capacity are not coupled Molten salt inlet distribution © Fraunhofer ISE Granular material Molten material Steam Water Charging of storage Molten salt inlet distribution system Resistance temperature sensors Design of lab prototype
  32. 32. Prototype and commissioning Angular setting of SHE Melt outlet Melt inlet © Fraunhofer ISE Inclination for crystallization not necessary Crystallization of salt in SHE ṁ = 150 kg/h Bulk density improved to ρ = 950 kg/m³ => Proof of concept has been successful => Heat transfer experiments with varying parameters (e.g. mass flow, rotation speed,..
  33. 33. Materials Testing Slow Strain Rate Test in molten salt (CERT –Test) Heating Tube sample Flat sample F F © Fraunhofer ISE ASTM G129-00 sample sample Ceramic insulation Maximum Load: 150 kN Test Speed: 0,25 µm/h up to 25 mm/h correspond > 3,5*10-9 strain rate for a sample length of 20mm Cooled flange
  34. 34. What is the future of CSP? Dispatchability of Solar Thermal Power is a unique selling point compared to PV (and allows higher LCOE to some extent); two options: Thermal Energy Storage (TES) between 3h and 15h capacity Hybridization with natural gas / biomass boiler Depending on the level of fluctuating generation (PV, Wind) in a grid the dispatchability may allow 2-4 €ct/kWh higher LCOE for CSP © Fraunhofer ISE dispatchability may allow 2-4 €ct/kWh higher LCOE for CSP CSP may play a significant role in a regional and national energy mix, when PV and Wind have already considerable shares in the grid Efficiency considerations and storage capacity leads to higher operations temperatures Dry cooling is less detrimental for high steam temperatures => HTF molten salt with increased operation temperatures in future ?
  35. 35. Content Introduction Solar Process Heat Electricity Generation by CSP Polygeneration Project examples and Case studies Conclusion © Fraunhofer ISE
  36. 36. Concentrating Solar Collector Field Thermal Energy Storage • solar electricity • integrated fossil fuel backup capacity, power on demand Solar Polygeneration - Combined Heat & Power -> Small projects Grid-connected and Off-Grid! © Fraunhofer ISE Fuel Power Cycle Solar Heat Process Steam capacity, power on demand • increased solar operating hours, reduced fuel input • additional process steam for heat, cooling, drying, seawater desalination, etc. Electricity
  37. 37. Annual Sale of Diesel Generators for Continous Operation (16 GW/ 14 000 Units) © Fraunhofer ISE
  38. 38. Expansionmachines for Electricity Generation © Fraunhofer ISE
  39. 39. Cost function for heat engines 4 000 € 5 000 € 6 000 € 7 000 € 8 000 € 9 000 € 10 000 € specificcost[€/kW] Steam ORC Screw Steam ORC Screw © Fraunhofer ISE 0 € 1 000 € 2 000 € 3 000 € 4 000 € 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 nominal power [MW] specificcost[€/kW] MEDIFRES, 2011, Fraunhofer ISE
  40. 40. Very Simple Steam Engine for Commissioning © Fraunhofer ISE
  41. 41. Polygeneration – Waste heat concept Gturbine steam field Thermal oil 70 - 110 °C (55) 320 °C 260 °C / 25 bar storage evaporator preheater superheater © Fraunhofer ISE collectorfield cooler 70 - 110 °C (55)185°C 70-110°C Process heat demand preheater Process level
  42. 42. In operation since October 2010 Waste - and solar heat Target capacity 5m3/day MD pilot plants in operation Waste- and solar heat powered pilot plant in Pantelleria © Fraunhofer ISE Target capacity 5m3/day No thermal storage 24h-operation 12 MD modules in operation Total membrane area 120m²
  43. 43. Polygeneration – process steam production Gturbine steam field Thermal oil 75 - 115 °C (55) 320 °C 260 °C / 25 bar storage evaporator preheater superheater © Fraunhofer ISE collectorfield cooler 75 - 115 °C (55)185°C Process heat demand preheater 165 °C Supply level
  44. 44. Content Introduction Solar Process Heat Electricity Generation by CSP Polygeneration Project examples and Case studies Conclusion © Fraunhofer ISE
  45. 45. Brewery Göss, Austria © Fraunhofer ISE Source: AEE INTEC
  46. 46. Integration into the mashing process © Fraunhofer ISE Source: AEE INTEC
  47. 47. Integration into the mashing process © Fraunhofer ISE GEA brewery systems Overheating protection ! -> night-time cooling -> active water-cooler Source: AEE Intec
  48. 48. Co-generation of Electricity and Heat Solar dish-based CPV system using MIM cells developed at Fraunhofer ISE, Zenith Solar launched the first system at Kibbuz Yavne, Israel. April 2009 © Fraunhofer ISE
  49. 49. Scheffler Reflector Main technical data: 770 Scheffler dishes with fix focus (60 m2 each) Reflector area: 45.000 m2 1 MWel (Siemens turbine, 255 °C, 41 bar) 3.5 MWth (hot water grid) © Fraunhofer ISE Metal core storage for continuous operation Supported by MNRE and BMU (Germany) Consultant: Fraunhofer ISE www.india-one.net
  50. 50. EU-Project MATS Multiple Application Thermodynamic Solar • Demonstration in Egypt • Molten salt as HTF and storage medium • 1 MWe, 100 m3/d water desalination, 100 kW cooling © Fraunhofer ISE
  51. 51. MATS - Site 51 © Fraunhofer ISE NREL, Global Environment Facility, UNEP, Nov. 2005, Africa Direct Normal Solar Radiation Annual AlexandriaAlexandria Google Maps Borg Al Arab City of Scientific Research MATS site Borg Al Arab Airport HBE Borg Al Arab Airport HBE
  52. 52. Content Introduction Solar Process Heat Electricity Generation by CSP Polygeneration Project examples and Case studies Conclusion © Fraunhofer ISE
  53. 53. Conclusion SSCSP may be interesting when reliable and highly efficient heat engines in range 0.5 – 5 MWel are available and proven A combination with low temperature process heat (use of reject heat < 80°C) is most interesting (e.g. desalination or industrial waste water cleaning with membrane destillation) Parallel use of high-temperature heat may be interesting in cases where electricity and heat demand are not parallel Dispatchable and reliable heat and electricity production is key: © Fraunhofer ISE Dispatchable and reliable heat and electricity production is key: Cost effecive storage technology (partly in development) Hybridization with biomass Off-grid situations or weak-grid situations are benefical as diesel gensets produce expensive electricity Regional or national requirements (jobs, local value creation, grid stability) may support solar thermal power
  54. 54. Conclusion Solar Thermal Energy has a lot of opportunities – commercially and for research © Fraunhofer ISE – commercially and for research Use it for a bright future!
  55. 55. Thank you for listening! Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE © Fraunhofer ISE www.ise.fraunhofer.de Dr. Werner Platzer werner.platzer@ise.fraunhofer.de Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE

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