Topics to be covered:1. Areas of advancement a. Literature b. Arts – Painting/ metal art/sculpture c. Science – Astronomy /Medicine d. Education – Mathematics / Universities2. 2 people who played an important role in the changes during Gupta Age3. 3 reasons why these changes happened during Gupta period.
Golden Age of the GuptasPeriod - between the 4th century and 6th century CEKnown as the Golden Age because of the large achievements Indians made in the fields of science,technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion andphilosophy during the Gupta Empire.Reasons for the achievements:• The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Gupta kings enabled the pursuit of scientificand artistic endeavors in India.• The Gupta kings were patrons of all forms of art and education which made the Gupta periodculturally active.• Science and political administration reached new heights in the Gupta era .• Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural centre and the region became a basefor influencing nearby kingdoms in Burma, Sri Lanka, Malay, Archipelago and Indo China. The Golden Age in India came to an end when the Huns invaded the Gupta Empire in the 6thcentury BC.
Literature:• One of the greatest achievements of Gupta Empire.• Gupta kings – great patrons of Sanskrit and Prakrit Literature – Hindu legends,plays, poetry, fables.• Nine gems known as Navaratnas in Chandragupta II court.• Greatest of the nine gems – Kalidasa, an excellent dramatist and poet. Kalidasa• Great scholars of the period – Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma (Panchatantra) and Vatsyayana• Famous dramatists : • Shudraka, Vishakadatta • Works – comedies, satires, historical and political dramas. Varahamihira
• Important works of Literature: • Puranas - sacred religious texts viz., Vishnu Purana, Markandeya Purana. • Mahabharata – one of India’s greatest classical poems reached its final form. • Dharmasastras – legal texts which included basic laws Hindus were supposed to follow.• Works of Kalidasa: • Epic poems – Kumarasambhava and Raghuvamsa • Lyrical poem – Meghaduta • Great drama – Shakuntala Dharmasastras Sakuntala
ARTPaintings:• Gupta Age - famous for wonderful paintings. Borobudur candi temple, Indonesia• Every educated person was expected to know how to paint.• Paintings show richness of noble life, portraits of royalty or loved one, Gods and religious stories.• Mostly on long scrolls or murals spanning walls of temples and caves.• Most famous Ajanta cave paintings in brilliant colours of red, purple and green pigments made fromminerals and clay. Dasavatar temple or Gupta temple, Deogarh Ajanta Paintings
Sculptures:• One of the most artistic achievements of the Age.• Gupta sculptures worked in Stone, wood, bronze and a clay called terracotta.• Statues of Buddha, Shiva, Vishnu or Durga among other Hindu gods.• Sculptures were also carved into the walls of temples or caves.Metalwork: Buddha Head, 5• Another astounding accomplishment of the Gupta Empire. century AD(stone)• Kings controlled huge mines of gold, copper and iron.• Metal workers made many gold and copper coins to honour Gupta rulers andaccomplishments in war, art and politics.• Amazing example is the 1600 years of rust and corrosion free25 foot tall solid iron pillar at Mehrauli (built around 400 CE) whichweighs 6 and half tonnes and decorated with the inscription ofChandragupta II. Iron pillar,Mehrauli
Science: Pi• Great progress in Science in Gupta Age.• Important scientific advancements were made and severalnotable scientists were there in this period. AryabhattaAstronomy:• Many discoveries about the Sun, Moon, Earth and other planets were made.• Scientists were aware of the Greek discoveries but were more accurate than theGreeks.• Aryabhatta - a famous astronomer lived in the late 5th Century • Calculated the length of 1 year – 365.258 days which we use even today. • Also figured planets are spherical. • Gave a good estimate about the earth’s size • Proposed that the earth turns on its own axis. • Discovered mercury and venus revolve around the sun. • Found lunar eclipses are caused by earth moving between sun and moon casting shadow on moon. Zero
Medicine:• Doctors in Gupta Age standardized the practices of Ayurvedic medicine – an ancient system ofhealthcare in India.• Treatments included use of specific herbs and foods – like garlic and honey to heal body andpromote long life.• Yoga was another important feature of Ayurvedic medicine.• Free hospitals supported by donations of pious citizens.• Doctors gave ointments, liquids and powders made frombark, roots, leaves and chemicals made from minerals.• Gupta doctors also performed many kinds of surgeries. Were especially pioneers in plasticsurgery. They even used pincers of giant ants as stitches for open wounds.
Education TriangleMathematics:• Mathematicians of the Gupta Era made incrediblediscoveries that influenced human civilizations fromthem.• Aryabhatta also an important mathematician developed geometry, algebra and trigonometryfurther.• Before Aryabhatta mathematicians had created system of numbers from 1 to 9, as well as conceptof 0. Also invented chess and idea of using decimals and fractions often called Arabic system.Universities:• Built many colleges and universities (some Hindu, others Buddhists) especially in Northern part ofempire – near political and religious centers.• Only males and daughters of instructors permitted to enroll.Sons of Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas were eligible forreligious studies.• Nalanda – most famous Gupta University; Buddhist school Nalanda Universityteaching Buddhist and Hindu philosophy, logic, grammar andmedicines including Mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, Sanskrit.• Kshatriyas were taught swordsmanship, archery, sculpture, painting, music and dancing.
Samudragupta• Succeeded his father Chandragupta l in AD 335.• A benevolent ruler, a great warrior and a patron of arts.• His passion of conquest was so great that he captured almost whole of India.• His greatest achievement was political unification of India. Samudragupta playing the veena• He assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja (King of Kings) and Chakravartin.• He had a galaxy of poets and scholars in his court – Harishena, Vasubandhu, Asanga.• Himself was a great poet and musician.• Staunch believer of Hinduism and worshipper of Lord Vishnu, but respected Buddhism.• Father of Gupta Monetary system and had seven different types of coins minted in his time.• Was succeeded by his son Chandragupta II.
Chandragupta II (Chandragupta Vikramaditya) – 375 to 415 C.E• One of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta Empire.• Gupta empire at its zenith.• Like his father Samudragupta and grandfather Chandragupta I, he followed favourable military alliancesand an aggressive expansionist policy and controlleda vast empire.• Elevated culture, art, mathematics, philosophy, religion and astronomy during his reign.• Sponsored a galaxy of poets known as the Navaratnas (Nine gems).• Supported Buddhism like his father.• Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hien visited India during his rule.• Trade with Rome made the country prosperous.• After the conquest of Western India Chandragupta-II established his 2nd capital at Ujjain and made it thepolitical, religious and cultural centre of India.• Varshapratipada, the day after Hindu festival Diwali, and start of the Shaka-Samvat calendar marks the coronation of King Vikramaditya. King Reverse – Goddess Chandragupta II Lakshmi