SARATU GARBA ABDULLAHI
MSc. NURSINNG 2nd YEAR
Communication is the basic element of human interactions that allows
people to establish, maintain and improve contacts with others.
Nursing is a communicative intervention and is founded on effective
The word communication originates from ‘communis’, a Greek word,
meaning ‘to make common’.
It is the transmission and receiving information, feelings and or
attitudes with the overall purpose of having understood producing a
"Communication is a means of persuasion to influence the
other so that the desired effect is achieved.'Aristotle
Communication is “a process by which two or more
people exchange ideas, facts, feelings or impressions in
ways that each gains a ‘common understanding’ of
meaning, intent and use of a message.” Paul Leagens
It has the following main components:
1. Sender (source)
2. Message (content)
3. Channel (s) (medium)
4. Receiver (audience)
5. Feedback (effect)
1. Content (what type of things are communicated)
2. Source (by whom)
3. Form (in which form)
4. Channel (through which medium)
5. Destination/Receiver (to whom)
MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF
The sender (communicator) is the originator of the
Sender formulates, encodes and transmits the information
which he/she wants to communicate.
The impact of the message will depend on sender's
communication skill, social status (authority), knowledge,
attitude and prestige in the community.
A message is the information/desired behaviour in
physical form which the communicator transmits to his
audience to receive, understand, accept and act upon.
The message may be in the form of words, pictures or
Components of message are:
o Message code-any group of symbols that can be structured
in a way that is meaningful to same person, eg., language.
o Message contentthe material in the message i.e., selected
by the source to express his purpose.
o Message treatmenti.e, decisions which the communication
source makes in selecting, arranging both codes and
By channel is implied the “physical bridge” or the media of
communication between sender and the receiver.
Channels can be:
o Interpersonal (face to face communication) may be verbal or non-
o Mass media TV, radio, printed media etc.
Every channel of communication has its advantages and limitations.
The proper selection and use of channels results in successful
Who receives messages from the sender, decoding,
interprets the meaning and giving feedback.
It is the flow of information from receiver to the sender,
the reaction to the message.
Model 1 Communication can be described also as
processes of information transmission governed by three
levels of semiotic rules
1. Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols)
2. Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between
signs/expressions and their users) and
3. Ssemantic (study of relationships between signs and
symbols and what they represent).
Model 2 Communication is information or content (e.g. a
message in natural language) is sent in some form (as
spoken language) from a sender/encoder to a
Model 3 Theories of co-regulation describe
communication as a creative and dynamic continuous
process, rather than a discrete exchange of information.
One-way Communiaction (didactic): The flow of
communication is “one-way” from the communicator to
the receiver. Eg. Lecture method.
Two-way Communiaction (Socratic): Both sender and
receiver take part.
o The process of learning is active and democratic.
o It is more likely to influence behaviour than one-way
Communication should have objective and purpose.
Should be appropriate to situation.
Systematic analysis of the message, i.e., the idea, the
thought to be communicated, so that one is clear about it.
Selection and determination of appropriate language and
medium of communication according to its purpose.
Organizational climate, including appropriate timing and physical
setting to convey the desired meaning of the communication.
Consultation with others for planning of communication; involves
Message should convey something of value to the receiver in the light
of his needs and interests.
The communication action following a communication is important in
effective communication as this speaks more than his/her words.
The sender has to understand the receivers attitude and
reaction by careful, alert and proper listening to ensure
that the desired meaning of the message has been
comprehended by the receiver.
Credibility is very important.
Communication programme should make use of existing
facilities to the great extent possible and should avoid
challenging them unnecessarily.
Role and relationships
Space and territoriality
A critical component of nursing practice
o Generate trust between nurse and clients.
o Provides professional satisfaction.
o Is a means for bringing about change, i.e. nurse listens,
speaks and acts to negotiate changes that promotes client’s
o Is the foundation of the relationship between the nurse and
other members of the health team.
o Helps to promote managerial efficiency.
o Provides basis for leadership action.
o Provides means of co-ordination.
Communication is really an important aspect of our life.
Every one communicate with others but for effective,
productive and interesting communication, proper
communication skill has to be developed.