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LEARNING DISABILITY
Introduction
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in
which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an
unknown factor or factors. Given the "difficulty learning in a typical manner",
this does not exclude the ability to learn in a different manner. Therefore, some
people can be more accurately described as having a "Learning Difference", thus
avoiding any misconception of being disabled with a lack of ability to learn and
possible negative stereotyping.
While learning disability, learning disorder and learning difficulty are often used
interchangeably, they differ in many ways. Disorder refers to significant learning
problems in an academic area. These problems, however, are not enough to
warrant an official diagnosis. Learning disability on the other hand, is an official
clinical diagnosis, whereby the individual meets certain criteria, as determined by
a professional (psychologist, pediatrician, etc.). The difference is in degree,
frequency, and intensity of reported symptoms and problems, and thus the two
should not be confused. When the term "learning disorder" is used, it describes a
group of disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific
academic, language, and speech skills.[2]
Types of learning disorders include
reading mathematics and writing.
The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive and
process information. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn
as quickly or in the same way as someone who is not affected by a learning
disability. People with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types
of skills or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught
in conventional ways.
Individuals with learning disabilities can face unique challenges that are often
pervasive throughout the lifespan. Depending on the type and severity of the
disability, interventions and current technologies may be used to help the
individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can
be quite simplistic, while others are intricate and complex. Current technologies
may require student training to be effective classroom supports. Teachers, parents
and schools can create plans together that tailor intervention and
accommodations to aid the individuals in successfully becoming independent
learners. School psychologists and other qualified professionals quite often help
design the intervention and coordinate the execution of the intervention with
teachers and parents. Social support may improve the learning for students with
learning disabilities
Learningdisability
A learning disability affects the way a person learns new things in any area of
life, not just at school. Find out how a learning disability can affect someone, and
where you can find support.
A learning disability affects the way a person understands information and how
they communicate. Around 1.5m people in the UK have one. This means they can
have difficulty:
 understanding new or complex information
 learning new skills
 coping independently
It is thought that up to 350,000 people have severe learning disabilities. This
figure is increasing.
What causes learning disabilities?
A learning disability happens when a person's brain development is affected,
either before they are born, during their birth or in early childhood.
Several factors can affect brain development, including:
 the mother becoming ill in pregnancy
 problems during the birth that stop enough oxygen getting to the brain
 the unborn baby developing certain genes
 the parents passing certain genes to the unborn baby that make having a
learning disability more likely (known as inherited learning disability)
 illness, such as meningitis, or injury in early childhood
Sometimes there is no known cause for a learning disability.
Some conditions are associated with having a learning disability, such as cerebral
palsy. This is because people with these conditions are more likely to have one.
Everyone with Down's syndrome, for example, has some kind of learning
disability, and so do many people with cerebral palsy. People with autism may
also have learning disabilities, and around 30% of people with epilepsy have a
learning disability.
Specific Learning Disabilities
Specific learning disability is defined as a disorder in one or more of the
basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using
language, spoken or
written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think,
speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations. The term
includes such conditions
as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction,
dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not apply to
students who have learning
problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor
disabilities, intellectual disabilities, emotional or behavioral disorders or
environmental, cultural or
economic disadvantage.
Learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems
which are primarily the resultof visual, hearing, or motor handicaps;
of mental
retardation;of emotionaldisturbance;or of environmental,cultural or
economic disadvantages.
Generally speaking,people with learningdisabilities are of average or
above average intelligence.Thereoften appears to be a gap between
the
Individual’s potential and actual achievement. This is why learning
disabilities are referred to as “hidden disabilities”: the person looks
perfectly
“normal” and seems to be a very bright and intelligent person, yet
may be unable to demonstrate the skill level expected from someone
of a similar
age.
A learning disability cannot be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong
challenge. However, with appropriate support and intervention,
people with learning
disabilities can achieve success in school, at work, in relationships,
and in the community.
Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)
Also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder, this is a condition that
adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed
or interpreted by the brain. Individuals with APD do not recognize subtle
differences between sounds in words, even when the sounds are loud and clear
enough to be heard. They can also find it difficult to tell where sounds are
coming from, to make sense of the order of sounds, or to block out competing
background noises.
Dyscalculia
A specific learning disability that affects a person’s ability to understand numbers
and learn math facts. Individuals with this type of LD may also have poor
comprehension of math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing
numbers, have difficulty telling time, or have trouble with counting.
Dysgraphia
A specific learning disability that affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine
motor skills. Problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing,
poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing
as well as thinking and writing at the same time.
Dyslexia
A specific learning disability that affects reading and related language-based
processing skills. The severity can differ in each individual but can affect reading
fluency, decoding, reading comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and
sometimes speech and can exist along with other related disorders. Dyslexia is
sometimes referred to as a Language-Based Learning Disability.
LanguageProcessing Disorder
A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) in which there is difficulty
attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories. While
an APD affects the interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain, a Language
Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language. LPD can
affect expressive language and/or receptive language.
Affects attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and
stories.
A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD). While an APD affects the
interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain (e.g., processing sound in
noisy backgrounds or the sequence of sounds or where they come from), a
Language Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language.
LPD can affect expressive language (what you say) and/or receptive language
(how you understand what others say).
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities
A disorder which is usually characterized by a significant discrepancy between
higher verbal skills and weaker motor, visual-spatial and social skills. Typically,
an individual with NLD (or NVLD) has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like
facial expressions or body language, and may have poor coordination.
VisualPerceptual/Visual MotorDeficit
A disorder that affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or
the ability to draw or copy. A characteristic seen in people with learning
disabilities such as Dysgraphia or Non-verbal LD, it can result in missing subtle
differences in shapes or printed letters, losing place frequently, struggles with
cutting, holding pencil too tightly, or poor eye/hand coordination.
Related Disorders
ADHD
A disorder that includes difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty
controlling behavior and hyperactivity. Although ADHD is not considered a
learning disability, research indicates that from 30-50 percent of children with
ADHD also have a specific learning disability, and that the two conditions can
interact to make learning extremely challenging.
Dyspraxia
A disorder that is characterized by difficulty in muscle control, which causes
problems with movement and coordination, language and speech, and can affect
learning. Although not a learning disability, dyspraxia often exists along with
dyslexia, dyscalculia or ADHD.
Executive Functioning
An inefficiency in the cognitive management systems of the brain that affects a
variety of neuropsychological processes such as planning, organization,
strategizing, paying attention to and remembering details, and managing time
and space. Although not a learning disability, different patterns of weakness in
executive functioning are almost always seen in the learning profiles of
individuals who have specific learning disabilities or ADHD.
Memory
Three types of memory are important to learning. Working memory, short-term
memory and long-term memory are used in the processing of both verbal and
non-verbal information. If there are deficits in any or all of these types of
memory, the ability to store and retrieve information required to carry out tasks
can be impaired.
Conclusion
Learning disabilities is a field that is constantly changing. With the advent of
techniques that allow scholars to study the brain in action, we may understand
not only the normal process of reading but also what happens when the system is
not working. The hope is that we will be able to prevent learning disabilities or, at
the least, to develop innovative and successful interventions. It is also hoped that
we will become more adept at identifying children at earlier ages to prevent some
of the emotional and social difficulties that can be associated with a learning
disability. Neuroscience is now promising new avenues in our study of learning
disabilities as is genetics. Families who have a history of learning disability need
further study to provide appropriate support for them as well as to assist with
early interventions. Schools are becoming more adept at working with children
with differing types of learning disability and it is hoped that our ability to assess
minority children appropriately will also improve.
Reference
www.wikipedia.com
sitemaker.umich.edu
A learning disability affects

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A learning disability affects

  • 1. LEARNING DISABILITY Introduction Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. Given the "difficulty learning in a typical manner", this does not exclude the ability to learn in a different manner. Therefore, some people can be more accurately described as having a "Learning Difference", thus avoiding any misconception of being disabled with a lack of ability to learn and possible negative stereotyping. While learning disability, learning disorder and learning difficulty are often used interchangeably, they differ in many ways. Disorder refers to significant learning problems in an academic area. These problems, however, are not enough to warrant an official diagnosis. Learning disability on the other hand, is an official clinical diagnosis, whereby the individual meets certain criteria, as determined by a professional (psychologist, pediatrician, etc.). The difference is in degree, frequency, and intensity of reported symptoms and problems, and thus the two should not be confused. When the term "learning disorder" is used, it describes a group of disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills.[2] Types of learning disorders include reading mathematics and writing. The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive and process information. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn as quickly or in the same way as someone who is not affected by a learning
  • 2. disability. People with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types of skills or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways. Individuals with learning disabilities can face unique challenges that are often pervasive throughout the lifespan. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions and current technologies may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are intricate and complex. Current technologies may require student training to be effective classroom supports. Teachers, parents and schools can create plans together that tailor intervention and accommodations to aid the individuals in successfully becoming independent learners. School psychologists and other qualified professionals quite often help design the intervention and coordinate the execution of the intervention with teachers and parents. Social support may improve the learning for students with learning disabilities Learningdisability A learning disability affects the way a person learns new things in any area of life, not just at school. Find out how a learning disability can affect someone, and where you can find support. A learning disability affects the way a person understands information and how they communicate. Around 1.5m people in the UK have one. This means they can have difficulty:  understanding new or complex information  learning new skills  coping independently It is thought that up to 350,000 people have severe learning disabilities. This figure is increasing.
  • 3. What causes learning disabilities? A learning disability happens when a person's brain development is affected, either before they are born, during their birth or in early childhood. Several factors can affect brain development, including:  the mother becoming ill in pregnancy  problems during the birth that stop enough oxygen getting to the brain  the unborn baby developing certain genes  the parents passing certain genes to the unborn baby that make having a learning disability more likely (known as inherited learning disability)  illness, such as meningitis, or injury in early childhood Sometimes there is no known cause for a learning disability. Some conditions are associated with having a learning disability, such as cerebral palsy. This is because people with these conditions are more likely to have one. Everyone with Down's syndrome, for example, has some kind of learning disability, and so do many people with cerebral palsy. People with autism may also have learning disabilities, and around 30% of people with epilepsy have a learning disability. Specific Learning Disabilities Specific learning disability is defined as a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions
  • 4. as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not apply to students who have learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, intellectual disabilities, emotional or behavioral disorders or environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage. Learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems which are primarily the resultof visual, hearing, or motor handicaps; of mental retardation;of emotionaldisturbance;or of environmental,cultural or economic disadvantages. Generally speaking,people with learningdisabilities are of average or above average intelligence.Thereoften appears to be a gap between the Individual’s potential and actual achievement. This is why learning disabilities are referred to as “hidden disabilities”: the person looks perfectly “normal” and seems to be a very bright and intelligent person, yet may be unable to demonstrate the skill level expected from someone of a similar age. A learning disability cannot be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong challenge. However, with appropriate support and intervention, people with learning disabilities can achieve success in school, at work, in relationships, and in the community.
  • 5. Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) Also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder, this is a condition that adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed or interpreted by the brain. Individuals with APD do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in words, even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard. They can also find it difficult to tell where sounds are coming from, to make sense of the order of sounds, or to block out competing background noises. Dyscalculia A specific learning disability that affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts. Individuals with this type of LD may also have poor comprehension of math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty telling time, or have trouble with counting.
  • 6. Dysgraphia A specific learning disability that affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. Problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at the same time. Dyslexia A specific learning disability that affects reading and related language-based processing skills. The severity can differ in each individual but can affect reading fluency, decoding, reading comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and sometimes speech and can exist along with other related disorders. Dyslexia is sometimes referred to as a Language-Based Learning Disability.
  • 7. LanguageProcessing Disorder A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) in which there is difficulty attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories. While an APD affects the interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain, a Language Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language. LPD can affect expressive language and/or receptive language. Affects attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories. A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD). While an APD affects the interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain (e.g., processing sound in noisy backgrounds or the sequence of sounds or where they come from), a Language Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language. LPD can affect expressive language (what you say) and/or receptive language (how you understand what others say).
  • 8. Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities A disorder which is usually characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and weaker motor, visual-spatial and social skills. Typically, an individual with NLD (or NVLD) has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language, and may have poor coordination. VisualPerceptual/Visual MotorDeficit A disorder that affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy. A characteristic seen in people with learning disabilities such as Dysgraphia or Non-verbal LD, it can result in missing subtle differences in shapes or printed letters, losing place frequently, struggles with cutting, holding pencil too tightly, or poor eye/hand coordination. Related Disorders
  • 9. ADHD A disorder that includes difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior and hyperactivity. Although ADHD is not considered a learning disability, research indicates that from 30-50 percent of children with ADHD also have a specific learning disability, and that the two conditions can interact to make learning extremely challenging. Dyspraxia A disorder that is characterized by difficulty in muscle control, which causes problems with movement and coordination, language and speech, and can affect learning. Although not a learning disability, dyspraxia often exists along with dyslexia, dyscalculia or ADHD.
  • 10. Executive Functioning An inefficiency in the cognitive management systems of the brain that affects a variety of neuropsychological processes such as planning, organization, strategizing, paying attention to and remembering details, and managing time and space. Although not a learning disability, different patterns of weakness in executive functioning are almost always seen in the learning profiles of individuals who have specific learning disabilities or ADHD. Memory Three types of memory are important to learning. Working memory, short-term memory and long-term memory are used in the processing of both verbal and non-verbal information. If there are deficits in any or all of these types of memory, the ability to store and retrieve information required to carry out tasks can be impaired.
  • 11. Conclusion Learning disabilities is a field that is constantly changing. With the advent of techniques that allow scholars to study the brain in action, we may understand not only the normal process of reading but also what happens when the system is not working. The hope is that we will be able to prevent learning disabilities or, at the least, to develop innovative and successful interventions. It is also hoped that we will become more adept at identifying children at earlier ages to prevent some of the emotional and social difficulties that can be associated with a learning disability. Neuroscience is now promising new avenues in our study of learning disabilities as is genetics. Families who have a history of learning disability need further study to provide appropriate support for them as well as to assist with early interventions. Schools are becoming more adept at working with children with differing types of learning disability and it is hoped that our ability to assess minority children appropriately will also improve. Reference www.wikipedia.com sitemaker.umich.edu