World War II 1939 – 1945Chapter 31 section 4 Chapter 32
World War II CAUSES German Aggression in Europe Unstable Governments Rise of Fascism Failure of League of Nations Appeasement
World War II German Aggression Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty 1935 Hitler announce Germany would follow the conditions set by the treaty Germany began to rebuild its military League of Nations issued a mild condemnation League could not stop German rearming
Nazi Party Principles Unification of Greater Germany (Austria + Germany) Land + expansion Anti-Versailles - abrogation of the Treaty. Land and territory - lebensraum. Only a "member of the race" can be a citizen. Anti-semitism - No Jew can be a member of the race. Anti-foreigner - only citizens can live in Germany. No immigration - ref. to Jews fleeing pograms. Everyone must work. Abolition of unearned income - "no rent-slavery". Nationalisation of industry Division of profits Extension of old age welfare. Land reform Death to all criminals German law, not Roman law (anti- French Rev.) Education to teach "the German Way" Education of gifted children Protection of mother and child by outlawing child labor. Encouraging gymnastics and swimming Formation a national army. Duty of the state to provide for its volk. (people) Duty of individuals to the state
World War II Forbidden Land Although forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles Hitler moved troops into the Rhineland French did not want war British urged appeasement – giving in to the aggressor to keep peace France and Britain looked weak in Hitler’s eyes which served to encourage further aggression!
World War II Axis Powers Mussolini, Italian fascist leader sought an alliance with Germany. Japan shortly joined Italy and Germany
World War II United States Adopted a policy of isolationism (political ties with other nations should be avoided) Neutrality Acts Passedby Congress Banned loans or selling of arms to nations at war
World War II Third Reich – German EmpireHitler planned to annex Austria & CzechoslovakiaTreaty of Versailles forbade an alliance between Germany & Austria-Hungary 1938 – Hitler’s army took control of Austria
World War II Third Reich Czechoslovakia was a democracy Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) was on the border of Germany A German speaking area Hitler demanded control of of the Sudetenland Many of the region welcomed the Germans.
World War IIMunich ConferenceFrance & Gr. Britain met and decided that Hitler could take Sudetenland for the promise to respect the borders of CzechoslovakiaSix months laterHitler took controlof Czechoslovakia.
World War IIGerman – Russian Non Aggression Pact Britain & France sought Russia’s help Negotiations were slow Hitler signed anagreement with Russiabut secretly they agreedto divide Poland.
World War II Germany Attacks Poland Surprise attack German planes attacked from the air Tanks attacked on land Troops on the ground “BLITZKRIEG” “lightening war” Considered the beginning of WW II
World War II France declared waron Germany Britain declared waron Germany
World War II Russia Took Eastern Poland Soviet troops took E. Poland Also Latvia, Lithuania, & Estonia Finland resisted, but were later taken by the Soviets.
World War II Phony WarFrance & Gr. Britain stationed troops along the French/ German border in a defensive position, believing Germany would attack.They remained there for months with no military action taken – “sitzkrieg”Ended when Hitler launched a surprise attack on Denmark & Norway.
World War IIBATTLE FOR FRANCE AND BRITAIN Germany took Holland, Belgium, & Luxembourg Then to France Allies were backed up to Dunkirk a port city on the English Channel Britain to the rescue! Sent 850 ships along with yachts, lifeboats, motorboats, fishing boats to save the Allied troops.
World War IIFall of FranceItaly joined Germany in war against France - attacked from the south - Germany took Paris - French leader exiled to London setting up a government in exile. - Established Free French Forces that fought the Nazi until French liberation in 1944.
World War IIGermany Assaults Great BritainGreat Britain stood ALONE against Germany Winston Churchill, Prime Minister declared that Britain would NEVER give in to Germany. surely from this period of ten months this is the lesson: never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never-in nothing, great or small, large or petty - never give in except to convictions of honour and good sense. Never yield to force; never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy. We stood all alone a year ago, and to many countries it seemed that our account was closed, we were finished. All this tradition of ours, our songs, our School history, this part of the history of this country, were gone and finished and liquidated.
World War II Operation Sea Lion- Luftwaffe – (German Air Force) bombed Great Britain.- Focused on the bombing of London.
World War IIBritain’s Secret WeaponsRadar – detected number, speed & direction of incoming planesEnigma – German code machine in the hands of Britain became a code breaking machine.Germany called off attacks on Britain in May 1941.The Germans were stopped by the Allies!
World War II Eastern FrontBecause of the success of Britain, Hitler changed his European strategy. - North Africa – Italy had already tried to seize control of British controlled Egypt. - The British fought back driving the Italians back -Hitler stepped in to help save Italy
World War IIGerman commander Rommel (Desert Fox) was sent to help the Italians defeat the British in Africa.Hitler attacked the Balkans in order to build military bases in the region. Yugoslavia fell in 11 days and Greece fell in 17.
World War IIGermany Invades the Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa Surprise to Russia - blitzkrieg Germany moved 500 miles inland Retreating Russians used scorched earth
World War IIBy December, Germany Retreated summer uniforms fuel and oil froze weapons became useless
World War II U. S. Aids Allies Lend-Lease Act Lend or lease arms and other supplies to any nation vital to the United States Churchill and Roosevelt met secretly on a battleship to sign the Atlantic Charter upholding free trade and self determination.
United States Enters WW II Dec. 7, 1941 Japan Attacked Pearl Harbor America Declared War On Japan Dec. 8, 1941 http://www.usconstitution.com/FD RInfamySpeech.htm
World War IIJapanAfter Pearl Harbor Japan took and or attacked Guam Wake Island Philippines Hong Kong
World War IIAllies Strikes BackAllied forces led by led by Lt. Col. Doolittle. - bombed major Japanese cities - not much physical damage but the Japanese understood they were subject to attack -raised American morale
World War IIPacific BattlesCoral Sea – Japan & the Allies used aircraft carriers for the first time. The Allies lost more ships but stop Japanese southward expansion.Battle of Midway – Japanese target because of American military bases located there. Pacific Allied commander Nimitz was outnumbered by Japanese naval forced 4 to 1. Japanese ships were attacked destroying 322 Japanese planes. The Allies won the victory.
World War IIAdditional Allied VictoriesGen. Douglas MacArthur Commander of Allied forces in the Pacific Proposed “island hopping” past Japanese strong points Seize islands not well defended Cut supply lines
The Holocaust Germany Targeted Jews, homosexuals, gypsies and others Idea of the Master Race Gov’t Policy of Persecution (Kristallnacht) Emigration The Final Solution
World War IIDEATHS Jews Killed % SurvivedPoland 3,300,000 10Soviet Union 2,850,000 56Hungary 650,000 30Romania 600,000 50Germany/Austria 240,000 10
Allied Victories Force A Two Front War Allied Victory in North Africa Fighting in N. Africa since 1941 Germans dug in near Alexandra All out British assault defeated the Germans Allies launched Operation Torch in Algeria and Morocco – defeated Germans in 1943
World War II Allies Defeated Germany at Stalingrad Luftwaffe bombed the city nightly Stalin ordered the defense of the city Germans controlled 90% of the city Russians trapped the Germans inside the city where they cut off supplies. Germans surrendered.
World War II Allies Invaded and Defeated Italy 1943 Allies invaded Sicily Mussolini fell Disguised himself as a German soldier Next day Mussolini was shot Mussolini’s body was displayed in Milan
World War IID-Day Invasion of France* Largest military invasion in history* 3.5 Million Allied troops – Operation Overlord*Dummy army set up at Calais*Germans protected by concrete walls*Thousands of casualties*Allies held the beach*A million additional troops
World War IIBattle of the BulgeSoviets from the eastAllies from the westGermans broke through westerndefenses creating a bulge in thedefensive lineAllies pushed back the Germansand defeated themSoon afterward Hitler committedsuicide and Germany surrendered.
World War IIBombing of Nagasaki & HiroshimaAfter the loss of many Allied livesin battle with Japan, the decisionwas made to bomb Japan ratherthan suffer the loss of perhapsanother ½ to a million soldiers8/6/45 - The first Atomic Bomb wasdropped on Hiroshima with the lossof 73,000 lives – Japan did not surrender8/9/1945 – The second bomb wasdropped on Nagasaki.Japan officially surrendered September 2, 1945
Japan Surrenders: Sept. 2, 1945Shigemitsu signs the conditions of surrenderaboard the USS Missouri
Post War Europe Huge Loss of Life and Property Agriculture and Infrastructure Destroyed Unstable Post War Governments Nuremberg Trials International Military Tribunal to try German war crimes Occupation and Demilitarization of Japan Japan was ordered to take down military forces, leaving only enough to defend the nation A constitution was written U. S. helped with the rebuilding of the Japanese economy