Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Educational philosophies


Published on

Published in: Education, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

Educational philosophies

  1. 1. Educational Philosophies: Humanism and Realism By: Sarah Sell, Brianna Schuehler, Valeri Mocciola
  2. 2. Contents • Overview and Contrast of Philosophies • Major Characteristics and Goals of Philosophy • Roles of Teachers within Philosophy • Roles of Students within Philosophies • Teaching Methods for Philosophy • History of Philosophy • Philosophers Associated with Philosophy
  3. 3. Humanism Vs. Realism Humanism Realism• A school of thought that believes • Started in the 1800’s humans must be aware of and focus on the whole individual’s • Aristotle growth and development • Scientific method• Areas of particular interest in • Wasn’t about ideas humanism: - inquiry of the self • Things that were real and - motivation factual – Proven and backed up by - establishing goals facts• Self- Actualization, a theory by Abraham Maslow, is most relevant topic within the study of humanism
  4. 4. Characteristics and Goals of Humanism Characteristics Goals• Maslow’s self- actualization • Development of emotions theory • Shaping of desires • Expression of aesthetic qualities• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, • Enhancement of self direction and especially those concerning the control. theory of self-actualization and • Learn what must know be known, motivation common knowledge.• Client centered therapy for • Understand how one learns as opposed to just acquiring knowledge. enlightenment of self direction • Practice self- evaluation as it is an• Empathy, understanding, respect, effective assessment of a students work, acceptance, authenticity, • Generate feelings that are as important as gentility, freedom, dignity, and content, potential • Create a healthy and safe environment to attain optimal learning.
  5. 5. Characteristics and Goals of Realism Characteristics Goals• Highly organized and • To teach the students about specific, practical and useful the world• Understand the world • Be realistic with the through questioning information being displayed• Study of science and scientific method are important
  6. 6. Role of Teachers in Humanism • Self- actualize to better perceive and appreciate the whole child. • Be open-minded • Encourage more self- directed learning • Appear more concerned and humane with students • Respond to student’s feelings • Engage in dialogues • Utilize student’s ideas in instructions • Praise students as often as possible. • Modify contents to fit an individual’s needs • Help students set realistic goals • Assign group work to develop pupil’s social skills. • Be a role model • Teachers should refrain from neglecting connecting the learning to the learner and their experience of personal growth
  7. 7. Role of Teachers in Realism • Must be very knowledgeable and well educated • Cannot be a pessimist or optimist • Much teach realities in life whether it is hard or not • Expose the children to problems in life and around the world • Question the media
  8. 8. Role of Students in Humanism • Engage in more cooperative, creative, and independent activities • Prepare for futures by practicing practical problem solving skills and drawing on previous experiences for future learning • Take presidency over educations • Self-guide through self-assessment and performing at an individualized and appropriate pace • Self- actualize to foster honesty, openness with peers, empathy, and trust • Students continue learning throughout their lives in a way that is self- directed
  9. 9. Teaching Methods for Humanism • Exercise students reasoning skills through Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas (establish their own values while improving their moral reasoning) • Teach self- concept lessons because they stimulate the growth and development of the whole person • self-concept lessons: bibliotherapy, creative drama, contract grading, individualized education, and journal writing • Make students aware of multiculturalism to eliminate prejudice thinking and/or improve their outlooks of different ethnicities, races, religions, backgrounds, cultures, etc. • Instruct on global education allowing students to self actualize when they consider more global perspectives and establish a sense of world citizenship. • Students and teachers should work together to develop lessons and activities that work with the abilities of the students
  10. 10. Teaching Methods for Realism • Learn simple to more complex • Concrete to abstract thinking • Repetition is key • More emphasis on questioning and understating rather than knowing specific dates and information • Put no pressure on the students
  11. 11. History of Philosophies Humanism Realism• Humanism became popular The age of Enlightenment in education when strictly • 17th-18th century structured and overly • Questioned the government, mechanistic approaches to different values and beliefs, morals and traditions teaching and learning • Became strong in science and became less popular and rationality schools were looking for a • The founders of the Declaration new alternative. of Independence and the Bill of Rights were driven by this idea and philosophy
  12. 12. Philosophers Jean- Jacques Rousseau Abraham Maslow
  13. 13. Jean- Jacques Rousseau • Born in 1712 and died in 1778 • Strongly emphasized that students should be taught as individuals rather than teaching them in a group or classroom. • Considered society evil and that society made people evil, so he thought students should be educated away from society. • Thought learning should come from nature and natural learning experiences. • Wrote "Emile" - a story about his ideal was to educate students. • In his philosophy of thinking it was central for students to be strong in there decision making skills. • He also thought that teachers and single students should work and learn together based on the students personal interests.
  14. 14. Maslow • Theorized the idea of self- actualization: innate human needs and intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. • Measurable by a Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) • further developed Self actualization with a hierarchy of needs. • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: eight internal requirements for self- actualizing • Types of needs - needs 1-4: primitive needs, - needs 5-6: growth needs - needs 7- 8: continual needs • Pyramid
  15. 15. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in Action