To explain every need, I will be handing out a tangible object or demonstrating an action or feeling that corresponds with a need.Physiological- cookies, water, breathing, sleepSafety- A papers, band aids, life saversLove/belonging- hearts, be my facebook friendEsteem- Good job stickersSelf Actualization
Educational Philosophies: Humanism and Realism By: Sarah Sell, Brianna Schuehler, Valeri Mocciola
Contents • Overview and Contrast of Philosophies • Major Characteristics and Goals of Philosophy • Roles of Teachers within Philosophy • Roles of Students within Philosophies • Teaching Methods for Philosophy • History of Philosophy • Philosophers Associated with Philosophy
Humanism Vs. Realism Humanism Realism• A school of thought that believes • Started in the 1800’s humans must be aware of and focus on the whole individual’s • Aristotle growth and development • Scientific method• Areas of particular interest in • Wasn’t about ideas humanism: - inquiry of the self • Things that were real and - motivation factual – Proven and backed up by - establishing goals facts• Self- Actualization, a theory by Abraham Maslow, is most relevant topic within the study of humanism
Characteristics and Goals of Humanism Characteristics Goals• Maslow’s self- actualization • Development of emotions theory • Shaping of desires • Expression of aesthetic qualities• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, • Enhancement of self direction and especially those concerning the control. theory of self-actualization and • Learn what must know be known, motivation common knowledge.• Client centered therapy for • Understand how one learns as opposed to just acquiring knowledge. enlightenment of self direction • Practice self- evaluation as it is an• Empathy, understanding, respect, effective assessment of a students work, acceptance, authenticity, • Generate feelings that are as important as gentility, freedom, dignity, and content, potential • Create a healthy and safe environment to attain optimal learning.
Characteristics and Goals of Realism Characteristics Goals• Highly organized and • To teach the students about specific, practical and useful the world• Understand the world • Be realistic with the through questioning information being displayed• Study of science and scientific method are important
Role of Teachers in Humanism • Self- actualize to better perceive and appreciate the whole child. • Be open-minded • Encourage more self- directed learning • Appear more concerned and humane with students • Respond to student’s feelings • Engage in dialogues • Utilize student’s ideas in instructions • Praise students as often as possible. • Modify contents to fit an individual’s needs • Help students set realistic goals • Assign group work to develop pupil’s social skills. • Be a role model • Teachers should refrain from neglecting connecting the learning to the learner and their experience of personal growth
Role of Teachers in Realism • Must be very knowledgeable and well educated • Cannot be a pessimist or optimist • Much teach realities in life whether it is hard or not • Expose the children to problems in life and around the world • Question the media
Role of Students in Humanism • Engage in more cooperative, creative, and independent activities • Prepare for futures by practicing practical problem solving skills and drawing on previous experiences for future learning • Take presidency over educations • Self-guide through self-assessment and performing at an individualized and appropriate pace • Self- actualize to foster honesty, openness with peers, empathy, and trust • Students continue learning throughout their lives in a way that is self- directed
Teaching Methods for Humanism • Exercise students reasoning skills through Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas (establish their own values while improving their moral reasoning) • Teach self- concept lessons because they stimulate the growth and development of the whole person • self-concept lessons: bibliotherapy, creative drama, contract grading, individualized education, and journal writing • Make students aware of multiculturalism to eliminate prejudice thinking and/or improve their outlooks of different ethnicities, races, religions, backgrounds, cultures, etc. • Instruct on global education allowing students to self actualize when they consider more global perspectives and establish a sense of world citizenship. • Students and teachers should work together to develop lessons and activities that work with the abilities of the students
Teaching Methods for Realism • Learn simple to more complex • Concrete to abstract thinking • Repetition is key • More emphasis on questioning and understating rather than knowing specific dates and information • Put no pressure on the students
History of Philosophies Humanism Realism• Humanism became popular The age of Enlightenment in education when strictly • 17th-18th century structured and overly • Questioned the government, mechanistic approaches to different values and beliefs, morals and traditions teaching and learning • Became strong in science and became less popular and rationality schools were looking for a • The founders of the Declaration new alternative. of Independence and the Bill of Rights were driven by this idea and philosophy
Philosophers Jean- Jacques Rousseau Abraham Maslow
Jean- Jacques Rousseau • Born in 1712 and died in 1778 • Strongly emphasized that students should be taught as individuals rather than teaching them in a group or classroom. • Considered society evil and that society made people evil, so he thought students should be educated away from society. • Thought learning should come from nature and natural learning experiences. • Wrote "Emile" - a story about his ideal was to educate students. • In his philosophy of thinking it was central for students to be strong in there decision making skills. • He also thought that teachers and single students should work and learn together based on the students personal interests.
Maslow • Theorized the idea of self- actualization: innate human needs and intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. • Measurable by a Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) • further developed Self actualization with a hierarchy of needs. • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: eight internal requirements for self- actualizing • Types of needs - needs 1-4: primitive needs, - needs 5-6: growth needs - needs 7- 8: continual needs • Pyramid