The word Renaissance means “Rebirth”. This time period was a rebirth of society.
When and Where it Began The Renaissance began in Italy with the rise of the middle class. It began in approximately 1500. It spread westward across Europe from Italy. It was based on the culture, creativity, and education of Greece and Rome. – It was the rebirth of scholarship in the classical learning and philosophy.
Advancements Science Literature – There was more to write about. Medicine Drama Exploration – Development of Compass – Advancements in Astronomy – Columbus Reaching Western Hemisphere
England was not part of the earlyRenaissance because of internalproblems, external wars, and its distance from Italy.
The Printing Press William Caxton brought it to England Set up in London 1476. Printed 26,000 works and editions by 1640 It made books affordable. – Increased Literacy Rate: By 1530 half of the British population could read. – Increased amount of education in population
Art and Literature This is the most important time for the arts. Courtiers wrote for small audiences of the educated and noble class. Love Poetry was very popular.
Science and Religion Copernicus discovered that the earth was NOT the center of the universe. This upset traditional religious teachings.
Science and Religion Cont. The Catholic church has previously split into Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic. The Roman Catholic Church split again with Martin Luther in Germany in 1517 (Creating the Lutheran Church). King Henry VIII broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and created the Anglican Church.
Parents and Family Her father was Henry VIII. He was married six times His wife, Anne Boleyn, was Elizabeth’s mother. He had Anne beheaded. She had an older ½ sister, Mary. She had a younger ½ brother, Edward.
Split of the Church Henry VIII got into an argument with the Pope because the Pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (Mary’s mother). Henry then changed the national religion from Catholicism to Protestantism (Anglicans- Episcopalians). He crowned himself head of the Church of England.
Heir to the Throne The Catholic Church thought both daughters were illegitimate. – Mary because her mother was previously married to Henry VIII’s brother. – Elizabeth because Henry’s second marriage was invalid. Edward was therefore thought to be the child of the first true marriage and succeeded his father.
Edward Ruled from age 9 to age 15. Was persuaded by advisor, Duke of Northumberland, to leave the throne to Northumberland’s daughter-in- law, Lady Jane Gray. Excluded Mary and Elizabeth on the grounds they were illegitimate.
Mary She was proclaimed Queen at Edward’s death by the Lord mayor of London. – Lady Jane was imprisoned and sentenced to be beheaded. She was Catholic and tried to restore the Catholicism her father removed resulting in turmoil and bloodshed. She mercilessly persecuted Protestants. She became known as Bloody Mary
The Family Tree Henry VIIMary Elizabeth Edwards
Elizabeth’s Crown Elizabeth became Queen at 25 when her sister died. There was a lot of support from the Catholic community for the claim of Mary Stuart. There were many plots on Elizabeth’s life until Mary Stuart was beheaded in 1587. She was able to restore order after the religious turmoil. She ruled over England, Holland, and parts of France
Issues with Spain Phillip of Spain hoped to Drake also intercepted marry Elizabeth in order to Spanish treasure ships at unite the two nations. sea, and put the gold of Spain was the most South America (stolen by powerful nation of the time. the Spanish) into the Spain and England had British treasury. been long-time enemies. This helped England to When Spanish ships gain power on the seas. threatened England, Elizabeth sent Hawkins ant Drake to destroy the Spanish Armada.
Personality Famous for delaying decisions as long as possible in the hopes that a way would be found out of the difficulty. Famous for her ability to choose wise advisors and to inspire their loyalty and devotion. Said to have the body of a weak woman and a the heart and stomach of a king.
Achievements Supported by the middle class. Summoned Parliament very little – Only in session 35 months during her 45 year reign from 1558 to 1603.
Successor Elizabeth died unmarried. Named Mary Stuart’s son, James, her successor.
King James Established the 1st permanent settlement in America – Jamestown, VA Enjoyed the arts. Persecuted the Protestants because he was Catholic. Commissioned a new version of the bible-The King James Bible – Completed in 1611 – Influenced prose for generations – 50-54 people helped write it.
King James Cont. James and his son, Charles – were unable to maintain religious peace. – Struggled with Parliament Money Absolute rule Persecuted the Puritans – Led to the founding of Plymouth
Actors Only men could be actors. These men must be acrobats, dancers, and duelers. They were fined for not going to rehearsals because they were so important. The women were played by men
How they produced a play Censorship was done by The biggest parts go the a royal servant who new costumes. would edit outlines and There were no sets and remove inappropriate only a few props. things. There were usually only Copies of the script were six men in the acting made by having a copyist company and as many as write each part on a 20 characters. separate scroll Advertisements were done with fliers and flags on the theatres.
Audiences There were no Each play had to reserve seats. have a lesson or Children stood parents wouldn’t let between their parent’s children see it. knees. The audience The audience members were from expected poetry and all levels of society, violent, realistic including pickpockets. action.
The Closing of the Theatre Theatres were sometimes closed due to crime and disease. Complaints were sometimes filed about how ungodly theatres were. Plagues suspended operations.
Dramatists These are the people who wrote the plays. Charles Marlowe The first Elizabethan Dramatist Ben Johnson William Shakespeare
Queen Elizabeth was important to theatrebecause she enjoyed playsand kept the theatres open. Many of London’s acting companies performed for her.
How a Play Opened A trumpet would sound. One actor would come on stage and deliver a prologue. Things were usually in verse because they were easier to memorize.
The first Theatre James Burbage built the first theatre in England. It had five levels. More people could see Lowest had trapdoors plays. Main Stage There was storage and Balcony protection for costumes There were pulleys Actors no longer had to under the roof to make share space. people fly. Now actors could There was a loft room perform in once place for musicians. instead of traveling. Actors could marry Actors could have children
Interlude An interlude is a short play performedbetween banquet courses. This was anew literary form developing during the Renaissance.
Family His father was John Shakespeare. Mayor of Stratford His mother was Mary Arden Daughter of an affluent farmer He married Anne Hathaway at age 18 Most scholars believe he was born on April 23, 1564. He had three children Susanna born 1583 He had 7 siblings. Hamnet born 1585 He saw his first play at age 4 His only son who died in when his father arranged for 1596 money from the town funds, Judith born 1585 so that everyone could see He died on his birthday at the the first show free of charge. age of fifty-two in 1616.
Shakespear e’sCompany It was Called the Members Kings Men under William Kemp King James. A comic Actor Richard Burbage Idol of London Theatre John Hemings Business Manager Henry Condell Helped create the 1st edition of Shakespeare’s plays
Genr es of Shakespear e History Most Popular He was very knowledgeable in history Richard III is an example Comedy Most like reality Usually about love Usually involved a clown A Midsummer Night’s Dream is an example Tragedy Usually ended in death for the main character Romeo and Juliet is an example.
Shakespear e’s Writings His first play was Henry He was no ordinary VI written in 1592. writer, he did not do what He wrote 154 sonnets was expected. (poems). He did the opposite of When he became what was assumed to be recognized for his poetry, in the plan. he stopped writing it. He is called the common man’s composer because he wrote for the common people not to gain status or to entertain nobility.
Basis for Romeo andJuliet The idea may have partly come from his love for Anne Hathaway and his parent’s objections to that marriage. Originated from a poem by Arthur Brook that was based on an Italian love story.
Pr oblems forShakespear e The early years of his Plague of 1592 theatre were hard Closed theatres because of Shakespeare had no problems. work, so he began to Economic Depression write poetry. Lots of Rain Poor Harvest
Fir st Pur chases afterSuccess His own theatre Largest home in Stratford His father’s coat of arms