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Shakespeare and renaissance

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Shakespeare and renaissance

  1. 1. Shakespeare and The Renaissance
  2. 2. Terms Allegory – Story that teaches a political or religious lesson Pound – British unit of money Courtier – Member of the Royal Court/ A Noble
  3. 3. The Renaissancein Britain and other countries
  4. 4. The word Renaissance means “Rebirth”. This time period was a rebirth of society.
  5. 5. When and Where it Began The Renaissance began in Italy with the rise of the middle class. It began in approximately 1500. It spread westward across Europe from Italy. It was based on the culture, creativity, and education of Greece and Rome. – It was the rebirth of scholarship in the classical learning and philosophy.
  6. 6. Advancements Science Literature – There was more to write about. Medicine Drama Exploration – Development of Compass – Advancements in Astronomy – Columbus Reaching Western Hemisphere
  7. 7. Advancements Cont. Trade Architecture Geography Religion Art Philosophy
  8. 8. England was not part of the earlyRenaissance because of internalproblems, external wars, and its distance from Italy.
  9. 9. The Printing Press William Caxton brought it to England Set up in London 1476. Printed 26,000 works and editions by 1640 It made books affordable. – Increased Literacy Rate: By 1530 half of the British population could read. – Increased amount of education in population
  10. 10. Art and Literature This is the most important time for the arts. Courtiers wrote for small audiences of the educated and noble class. Love Poetry was very popular.
  11. 11. Science and Religion Copernicus discovered that the earth was NOT the center of the universe. This upset traditional religious teachings.
  12. 12. Science and Religion Cont. The Catholic church has previously split into Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic. The Roman Catholic Church split again with Martin Luther in Germany in 1517 (Creating the Lutheran Church). King Henry VIII broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and created the Anglican Church.
  13. 13. Queen Elizabeth I
  14. 14. Parents and Family Her father was Henry VIII. He was married six times His wife, Anne Boleyn, was Elizabeth’s mother. He had Anne beheaded. She had an older ½ sister, Mary. She had a younger ½ brother, Edward.
  15. 15. Split of the Church Henry VIII got into an argument with the Pope because the Pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (Mary’s mother). Henry then changed the national religion from Catholicism to Protestantism (Anglicans- Episcopalians). He crowned himself head of the Church of England.
  16. 16. Heir to the Throne The Catholic Church thought both daughters were illegitimate. – Mary because her mother was previously married to Henry VIII’s brother. – Elizabeth because Henry’s second marriage was invalid. Edward was therefore thought to be the child of the first true marriage and succeeded his father.
  17. 17. Edward Ruled from age 9 to age 15. Was persuaded by advisor, Duke of Northumberland, to leave the throne to Northumberland’s daughter-in- law, Lady Jane Gray. Excluded Mary and Elizabeth on the grounds they were illegitimate.
  18. 18. Mary She was proclaimed Queen at Edward’s death by the Lord mayor of London. – Lady Jane was imprisoned and sentenced to be beheaded. She was Catholic and tried to restore the Catholicism her father removed resulting in turmoil and bloodshed. She mercilessly persecuted Protestants. She became known as Bloody Mary
  19. 19. The Family Tree Henry VIIMary Elizabeth Edwards
  20. 20. Elizabeth’s Crown Elizabeth became Queen at 25 when her sister died. There was a lot of support from the Catholic community for the claim of Mary Stuart. There were many plots on Elizabeth’s life until Mary Stuart was beheaded in 1587. She was able to restore order after the religious turmoil. She ruled over England, Holland, and parts of France
  21. 21. Issues with Spain Phillip of Spain hoped to  Drake also intercepted marry Elizabeth in order to Spanish treasure ships at unite the two nations. sea, and put the gold of Spain was the most South America (stolen by powerful nation of the time. the Spanish) into the Spain and England had British treasury. been long-time enemies.  This helped England to When Spanish ships gain power on the seas. threatened England, Elizabeth sent Hawkins ant Drake to destroy the Spanish Armada.
  22. 22. Personality Famous for delaying decisions as long as possible in the hopes that a way would be found out of the difficulty. Famous for her ability to choose wise advisors and to inspire their loyalty and devotion. Said to have the body of a weak woman and a the heart and stomach of a king.
  23. 23. Achievements Supported by the middle class. Summoned Parliament very little – Only in session 35 months during her 45 year reign from 1558 to 1603.
  24. 24. Successor Elizabeth died unmarried. Named Mary Stuart’s son, James, her successor.
  25. 25. King James Established the 1st permanent settlement in America – Jamestown, VA Enjoyed the arts. Persecuted the Protestants because he was Catholic. Commissioned a new version of the bible-The King James Bible – Completed in 1611 – Influenced prose for generations – 50-54 people helped write it.
  26. 26. King James Cont. James and his son, Charles – were unable to maintain religious peace. – Struggled with Parliament  Money  Absolute rule Persecuted the Puritans – Led to the founding of Plymouth
  27. 27. TheatreOne of Ms. Ross’ favorite subjects.
  28. 28. Actors  Only men could be actors.  These men must be acrobats, dancers, and duelers.  They were fined for not going to rehearsals because they were so important.  The women were played by men
  29. 29. How they produced a play Censorship was done by  The biggest parts go the a royal servant who new costumes. would edit outlines and  There were no sets and remove inappropriate only a few props. things.  There were usually only Copies of the script were six men in the acting made by having a copyist company and as many as write each part on a 20 characters. separate scroll Advertisements were done with fliers and flags on the theatres.
  30. 30. Audiences There were no  Each play had to reserve seats. have a lesson or Children stood parents wouldn’t let between their parent’s children see it. knees.  The audience The audience members were from expected poetry and all levels of society, violent, realistic including pickpockets. action.
  31. 31. The Closing of the Theatre Theatres were sometimes closed due to crime and disease. Complaints were sometimes filed about how ungodly theatres were. Plagues suspended operations.
  32. 32. Dramatists These are the people who wrote the plays. Charles Marlowe The first Elizabethan Dramatist Ben Johnson William Shakespeare
  33. 33. Queen Elizabeth was important to theatrebecause she enjoyed playsand kept the theatres open. Many of London’s acting companies performed for her.
  34. 34. How a Play Opened A trumpet would sound. One actor would come on stage and deliver a prologue. Things were usually in verse because they were easier to memorize.
  35. 35. The first Theatre James Burbage built the first theatre in England. It had five levels.  More people could see  Lowest had trapdoors plays.  Main Stage  There was storage and  Balcony protection for costumes There were pulleys  Actors no longer had to under the roof to make share space. people fly.  Now actors could There was a loft room perform in once place for musicians. instead of traveling.  Actors could marry  Actors could have children
  36. 36. Interlude An interlude is a short play performedbetween banquet courses. This was anew literary form developing during the Renaissance.
  37. 37. W illiamShakespeare
  38. 38. Family  His father was John Shakespeare.  Mayor of Stratford  His mother was Mary Arden  Daughter of an affluent farmer  He married Anne Hathaway at age 18  Most scholars believe he was born on April 23, 1564.  He had three children  Susanna born 1583  He had 7 siblings.  Hamnet born 1585  He saw his first play at age 4  His only son who died in when his father arranged for 1596 money from the town funds,  Judith born 1585 so that everyone could see  He died on his birthday at the the first show free of charge. age of fifty-two in 1616.
  39. 39. Family Tr ee
  40. 40. Shakespear e’sCompany  It was Called the  Members Kings Men under  William Kemp King James.  A comic Actor  Richard Burbage  Idol of London Theatre  John Hemings  Business Manager  Henry Condell  Helped create the 1st edition of Shakespeare’s plays
  41. 41. Genr es of Shakespear e  History  Most Popular  He was very knowledgeable in history  Richard III is an example  Comedy  Most like reality  Usually about love  Usually involved a clown  A Midsummer Night’s Dream is an example  Tragedy  Usually ended in death for the main character  Romeo and Juliet is an example.
  42. 42. Shakespear e’s Writings  His first play was Henry  He was no ordinary VI written in 1592. writer, he did not do what  He wrote 154 sonnets was expected. (poems).  He did the opposite of  When he became what was assumed to be recognized for his poetry, in the plan. he stopped writing it.  He is called the common man’s composer because he wrote for the common people not to gain status or to entertain nobility.
  43. 43. Basis for Romeo andJuliet  The idea may have partly come from his love for Anne Hathaway and his parent’s objections to that marriage.  Originated from a poem by Arthur Brook that was based on an Italian love story.
  44. 44. Pr oblems forShakespear e  The early years of his  Plague of 1592 theatre were hard  Closed theatres because of  Shakespeare had no problems. work, so he began to  Economic Depression write poetry.  Lots of Rain  Poor Harvest
  45. 45. Fir st Pur chases afterSuccess  His own theatre  Largest home in Stratford  His father’s coat of arms
  46. 46. T he GlobeBuilt by the Chamberlain’s Company
  47. 47. T he Globe is a polygon

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