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A Comparative Study of the
Natural Sugar and Vitamin C
Content in Commercial Fruit
Yoyos, a Homemade Equivalent
and Fresh ...
 Have you ever wondered if the “healthy snacks”
you’re eating are actually healthy? Would you be
better off making your o...
 Yoyos are gently baked rolls of pure fruit
with no added sugar, salt, preservatives,
fruit concentrates or gumming agent...
Aim
 To compare the reducing sugar and vitamin C levels of commercial
Fruit Yoyos, a homemade equivalent and fresh fruit....
By following the methods below, adapted from an Easy Food magazine,
the homemade equivalent to Fruit Yoyos was created.
In...
Experimental Procedure
 Create a colour using known amounts of glucose and method below.
 Prepare a 2g sample of each fl...
Standardising the iodine solution
 Place a 0.1g sample of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) tablet in a conical flask with 30ml
w...
Determination of Vitamin C in commercial Fruit Yoyos, the homemade
equivalent and fresh fruit
 Place a 5g sample in a con...
Flavour Commercial Fruit Yoyo Homemade Equivalent Fresh Fruit
Apple 0.6g 0.8g 0.6g
Mango 0.4g 0.2g 0.2g
Strawberry 1.0g 0....
Graph of Reducing Sugar Results
The strawberry
commercial Yoyo has the
most reducing sugar out
of all the samples. We
expe...
Flavour
Commercial
Fruit Yoyos
Homemade
Equivalent
Fresh Fruit
Apple 297.2mg 38.8mg 84.0mg
Mango 193.8mg 32.5mg 45.3mg
Str...
Vitamin C Calculations
 Fresh Fruit
Homemade Strawberry Apple Mango
mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3
0.969 : 0.1 0.969...
Graph of Vitamin C Results
The apple commercial
Yoyo had almost the
entire recommended
daily allowance(RDA) of
vitamin C f...
Testing for Reducing Sugar
 The results were the same each time. From highest sugar content to lowest sugar content they ...
Commercial Fruit Yoyos overall
 The Strawberry Yoyo had the least amount of vitamin C and the highest sugar content. As t...
More Accurate electronic balance
 The electric balance which we used for all of our experiments only displayed one signif...
Ms. Katie O' Donovan
 Our teacher, for her constant help and support, for giving up her
lunch hours and taking time out o...
Thanks for
Watching!
Please…..
Like and Share
#scichallenge2017
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#scichallenge2017 A Comparative Study of the Natural Sugar and Vitamin C Content in Commercial Fruit Yoyos, a Homemade Equivalent and Fresh Fruit

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This project aims to determine the nutritional differences with particular regard to the sugar and vitamin C content in commercial fruit Yoyos, our own equivalent and fresh fruit. #scichallenge2017

Published in: Food
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#scichallenge2017 A Comparative Study of the Natural Sugar and Vitamin C Content in Commercial Fruit Yoyos, a Homemade Equivalent and Fresh Fruit

  1. 1. A Comparative Study of the Natural Sugar and Vitamin C Content in Commercial Fruit Yoyos, a Homemade Equivalent and Fresh Fruit. #scichalllenge2017 Natural Sciences- Food Chemistry By Sarah Lane and Lydia Punch, St. Aloysius’ Secondary School, Cork City, Ireland.
  2. 2.  Have you ever wondered if the “healthy snacks” you’re eating are actually healthy? Would you be better off making your own? Should you just eat fresh fruit? This project aims to determine the nutritional differences, with particular regard to the natural sugar and vitamin C content, between commercial fruit Yoyos, our own homemade equivalent and fresh fruit. Introduction
  3. 3.  Yoyos are gently baked rolls of pure fruit with no added sugar, salt, preservatives, fruit concentrates or gumming agents. They are enjoyed by many children, and some adults, as a delicious snack or lunchbox- filler. Both of us thoroughly enjoy eating commercial fruit Yoyos but wondered if it would be healthier to make our own or just eat plain fresh fruit. What is a Fruit Yoyo?
  4. 4. Aim  To compare the reducing sugar and vitamin C levels of commercial Fruit Yoyos, a homemade equivalent and fresh fruit. Objectives  To make a homemade equivalent to commercial Fruit Yoyos using the ingredients and proportions given on the Yoyos package.  To test the reducing sugar content of commercial Fruit Yoyos, the homemade equivalent and fresh fruit.  To test the vitamin C content of commercial Fruit Yoyos, the homemade equivalent and fresh fruit.  To compare all of the above and to determine the highest reducing sugar and vitamin C content. Aims and Objectives
  5. 5. By following the methods below, adapted from an Easy Food magazine, the homemade equivalent to Fruit Yoyos was created. Ingredients:  Apple: Apple 455g, Pear 195g  Mango: 266g apples, 266g pears, 118g mangoes.  Strawberry: 380g apples, 205g pears, 65g strawberries. Procedure  Peel, core, de-stone, hull and chop all ingredients.  Place in a large saucepan and heat until boiling, as seen top right. Turn down the heat and simmer for 45-60 minutes, stirring occasionally, until it reduces to about 250ml.  Preheat the oven to 400C. Line a large baking tray with cling film.  Gently pour the mixture onto the tray and spread thinly, as seen bottom right. Bake for 10 hours or until the product is tacky but does not stick to fingers.  Transfer the mixture, with lining attached, onto a cooling rack overnight. Making the Homemade Equivalent
  6. 6. Experimental Procedure  Create a colour using known amounts of glucose and method below.  Prepare a 2g sample of each flavour of commercial fruit Yoyos, homemade equivalent and fresh fruit in separate test tubes and label each one.  Pipette 2ml of water into each test tube.  Set up apparatus as shown in top right.  Pipette 2ml Benedict's Solution into each test tube.  Place test tubes in the heated 700C water baths for three minutes.  Observe the colour change of the solutions in the test tube.  Using beaker tongs carefully lift the beakers off the hotplate.  Using test tube tongs carefully take the test tubes out of the beaker and place in a test tube rack.  Arrange test tubes according to colour change from greenest- brick reddest.  Document the colour change of the solutions in the test tube.  Compare the colour changes of the respective test tubes.  By using the premade colour scale seen bottom right, the levels of reducing sugar in each sample can be determined.  This experiment was then repeated three times for accuracy. Testing the reducing sugar levels in commercial Fruit Yoyos, homemade equivalent and fresh fruit.
  7. 7. Standardising the iodine solution  Place a 0.1g sample of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) tablet in a conical flask with 30ml water and 5 drops of 2% starch solution.  Pour potassium iodide into the burette and turn on the tap and allow the tap to fill with solution.  Take out the funnel and record the initial reading from the bottom of the meniscus.  Set up the apparatus as shown opposite.  Using the burette, slowly titrate the potassium iodide solution into the conical flask until the indicator turns a blue/black colour.  The endpoint of the titration is the first permanent trace of dark blue colour due to the starch-iodine complex.  Record final volume readings in a table.  From these results, and the known amount of Vitamin C in the tablet derive a formula to calculate future amounts of Vitamin C. Testing the Vitamin C levels in commercial Fruit Yoyos, homemade equivalent and fresh fruit
  8. 8. Determination of Vitamin C in commercial Fruit Yoyos, the homemade equivalent and fresh fruit  Place a 5g sample in a conical flask with 30ml water and 5 drops of 2% starch solution.  Pour potassium iodide into the burette and turn on the tap and allow the tap to fill with solution.  Take out the funnel and record the initial reading from the bottom of the meniscus.  Set up the apparatus as shown opposite.  Using a burette, slowly titrate the potassium iodide solution into the conical flask until the indicator turns a blue/black colour.  The endpoint of the titration is the first permanent trace of dark blue colour due to the starch-iodine complex.  Record final volume readings in a table.  Repeat this experiment for all commercial, homemade and fresh fruit samples.  By measuring the amount of potassium iodide used, the amount of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is determined.  Repeat this experiment three times for accuracy and graph the average result. Testing the Vitamin C levels in commercial Fruit Yoyos, homemade equivalent and fresh fruit
  9. 9. Flavour Commercial Fruit Yoyo Homemade Equivalent Fresh Fruit Apple 0.6g 0.8g 0.6g Mango 0.4g 0.2g 0.2g Strawberry 1.0g 0.6g 0.8g Pear* N/ A N/ A 0.4g Reducing sugar Results Reducing Sugar Content (g/ 2g) * The pear was only used in the fresh fruit tests. As each of the flavours of Yoyos contain apple and pear as well as the fruit in the title, we also tested pear when testing fresh fruit.
  10. 10. Graph of Reducing Sugar Results The strawberry commercial Yoyo has the most reducing sugar out of all the samples. We expected this as strawberries are known for their high sugar content. What was not expected though was for fresh mango to have the least.
  11. 11. Flavour Commercial Fruit Yoyos Homemade Equivalent Fresh Fruit Apple 297.2mg 38.8mg 84.0mg Mango 193.8mg 32.5mg 45.3mg Strawberry 135.6mg 64.6mg 478.05mg Pear N/ A N/ A 923.85mg Vitamin C Results Vitamin C Content mg/100g We noticed that the fresh apple and fresh mango were not as high in vitamin C as the commercial brands. The main reason for this, we believe is that each of the commercial Yoyos contains apple and pear as well as whatever fruit is in the title. As the pear was so high in vitamin C, this affected the result of the commercial brand.
  12. 12. Vitamin C Calculations  Fresh Fruit Homemade Strawberry Apple Mango mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.100 0.969 : 0.100 0.969 : 0.100 Multiplied By x3.3 x2 x1.7 Outcome 3.198 : 0.330 1.938 : 0.200 1.647 : 0.170 Commercial Yoyos Strawberry Apple Mango mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.1 Multiplied By x7 x15 x10 Outcome 6.783 : 0.7 14.535 : 1.5 09.69 : 1.0 Fresh Fruit Strawberry Apple Mango Pear mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 mg : cm3 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.1 0.969 : 0.1 Multiplied By x24.6 x4.3 x2.3 x47.7 Outcome 23.837 : 2.46 4.1667 : 0.43 2.2287 : 0.23 46.221 : 4.77 These calculations were done to determine the amount of vitamin C in each sample. The “0.969 : 0.1” is the amount of vitamin C (mg), 0.969, that is turned with 0.1cm3 of iodine. This is the multiplied by the amount of iodine used for any given sample. This is the amount of vitamin C in 5g of sample
  13. 13. Graph of Vitamin C Results The apple commercial Yoyo had almost the entire recommended daily allowance(RDA) of vitamin C for an adult in one Yoyo. Pears proved to have more than twice the amount of vitamin C than any of our other samples. This was our highest result.
  14. 14. Testing for Reducing Sugar  The results were the same each time. From highest sugar content to lowest sugar content they were: Strawberry, apple, pear and mango. We used these fruits because they are the fruits used in making Yoyos and equivalent. The reason we tested fresh fruit as well as the commercial Yoyos and homemade equivalent was to see if fresh fruit was healthier and also to determine if boiling (homemade equivalent) and processing (commercial Yoyos) actually makes a difference. Testing for Vitamin C  The first test was done with vitamin C tablets; however, the method we used differed from the one we used in testing commercial fruit Yoyos, homemade equivalent and fresh fruit. Our original method used a whole 4.3g vitamin C tablet. The titration was then carried out as normal. This test didn't show any colour change even after we had used an entire burette of potassium iodide. We later realised that as the vitamin C solution was so concentrated that there wasn't enough iodide to bond with all of it. After more experimentation and research, we found “Determination of Vitamin C in Foods” by David A. Katz. This experiment only used 0.1g of a vitamin C tablet and a more concentrated iodine solution. This proved successful. During a titration, the iodine solution bonds with the vitamin C to create a colourless iodide. Once all the vitamin C has been bonded with, the iodine will indicate any leftover starch by turning a blue/ black.  We then went on to test Commercial Fruit Yoyos, homemade equivalent and fresh fruit. Using both the results from the tablet titration and these titrations we could work out how much vitamin C was in each sample. The results were surprising, showing pears to have the most vitamin C and mangoes the least. Fresh fruit was tested to solve if it is in fact healthier to eat fresh fruit with regards to the vitamin C content and also if the processing that the commercial Yoyos go through and the boiling and baking that the homemade equivalents go through affects the vitamin C. Vitamin C is known to be very easily destroyed by boiling, storing in the fridge or even keeping something for too long.  Discussion
  15. 15. Commercial Fruit Yoyos overall  The Strawberry Yoyo had the least amount of vitamin C and the highest sugar content. As this is the case, we do not recommend it as an everyday snack. Both the mango and apple commercial Yoyos had a large amount of vitamin C and a lower amount of reducing sugar, therefore making either of them more preferable. Homemade Equivalent overall  All of the homemade equivalents had very little vitamin C. We believe that this is because they were boiled before being baked and vitamin C is easily destroyed by boiling. The homemade equivalent also had less sugar than the commercial Yoyos, except in the case of the apple. However the difference was not large. Because of this, and the amount of effort that goes into making them, we would not recommend frequent use as a snack. Fresh Fruit overall  The pear had by far the highest vitamin C content with nearly twice as much as the strawberry (second highest). It also had a low amount of reducing sugar. This makes it a very appealing choice for snacking. The mango had the lowest reducing sugar content but the vitamin C was also the lowest. As a result of this, we do not recommend eating mangoes too regularly. Overall Conclusion  An interesting observation was that the mango fresh fruit had the same amount of reducing sugar as the mango homemade equivalent. The same can be said for the apple commercial brand and fresh apple. We have determined that making a homemade equivalent does not benefit one greatly as although the sugar levels proved slightly lower, the vitamin C decreased by more than three times in most cases. Commercial fruit Yoyos, with a higher vitamin C content and a mildly higher reducing sugar content, are a healthier option than homemade equivalent but fresh fruit proved better. From our final results we can conclude that fresh pears are the healthiest option when considering whether to purchase commercial Yoyos, make a homemade equivalent or eat fresh fruit. Conclusions
  16. 16. More Accurate electronic balance  The electric balance which we used for all of our experiments only displayed one significant figure after the decimal point. This means that our reading were not 100% accurate. A reading of 0.1g of a substance, as there was only one significant figure, could be anything between 0.10 and 0.19. This was a large source of error during our experiments. A more accurate electronic balance would improve the accuracy of this experiment. Digital Burette Reading  When reading the burette, we may have been reading slightly above or slightly below eye level. Also, as we both took readings at different points during the project, and we are different heights, the readings may have been mildly obscured. The same can be said for reading the bottom of the meniscus. If we could sent up a digital reader at a fixed height this would further reduce the error margin in our results. Larger Glucose Scale  More test tubes would be added if we were to repeat this experiment: 0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0. this would create a larger scale with which we could compare our reducing sugar results. Making Homemade Equivalent  The homemade equivalent, was made with only one variety of fruit. Experimenting with different varieties of fruit could create more interesting results and enable us to produce a closer homemade equivalent to the commercial product. Spectro-Photometer  By using a spectro-photometer the accuracy of our reducing sugar tests would be increased. Recommendations
  17. 17. Ms. Katie O' Donovan  Our teacher, for her constant help and support, for giving up her lunch hours and taking time out of her holidays to facilitate our project. Ms. Long, Principal and Ms. Kelleher, Deputy Principal  For all of their help and encouragement. Our parents: Patricia Lucey & Martin Punch and Mary O' Connor & Gregg Lane  For their never- ending encouragement and support. Dr. Ann-Marie Murray  For guiding us through our experiment and for her constant encouragement and invaluable advice Acknowledgements There are many people we would like to thank for their assistance with our project.
  18. 18. Thanks for Watching!
  19. 19. Please….. Like and Share #scichallenge2017

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