Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Consumer Motivation 
Zoe Baskett 
Tim Bedford-Bain 
Micheal Fabiyi 
Sarah Kirkby 
Rob Noble
What we’re talking at today... 
‣ Definitions of Consumer Motivation 
‣ Factors affecting Motivation 
‣ Consumer Motivatio...
Defining Consumer Motivation 
‣ ‘Motivated behavior is activity that is directed towards the attainment of 
a goal or an o...
Four Main Factors of Motivation 
Advertising 
‣Creates awareness 
‣Advertising can either describe the product or appeal t...
Motivation Factors Continued 
Unconscious Choice 
‣Manipulative elements 
‣Seductive lighting 
‣balanced with conscious ch...
Product Attributes 
‣ Individuals tend to have certain priorities when it comes to buying a new 
product. 
‣ The majority ...
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Continued 
This theory assumes that 
1. People acquire a similar set of motives through genetics...
Drive Theory 
‣ Drive theory focuses on biological needs e.g. stomach rumbling, which 
then creates tension. 
‣ We are the...
Benefits to companies 
Knowing what motivates a consumer would help companies; 
‣Communicate with their customers in ways ...
Freud Symbolism 
‣ Freud Symbolism theory suggests that people unconsciously recognise, 
and identify objects in a crude m...
Freudian Symbolism Used by Marketers 
‣ The uses of freudian symbolism such as phallic and yonic symbols can 
be found in ...
What do you see?
Budweiser Ad, with Freud’s Symbolism 
‣ In this advertisement, it is obvious that Freud’s symbolism is still taking 
place...
Have the Competitors Used Freud’s Theory
Another Ad which Features Freud’s 
Symbolism 
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5pqM4kEsVk
Continued 
‣ This advert was for the new Maybelline colour sensation lipstick 
released in December 2012 
‣ promotional ob...
Continued 
‣ This advert is not overtly sexual but you can still 
recognise elements of freudian symbolism 
‣ Mainly in th...
Continued 
‣ Maybelline is a global brand, it is the cosmetic leader in over 90 
countries 
‣ Freud's Symbolism is univers...
What is the competition doing? 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K51vV8x8gZ8 
‣L’oreal – competitor of Maybelline 
‣Also use...
Analysis of another Ad with Freudian 
Symbolism 
‣ This is an obvious example 
of Freud’s theory of objects 
with ‘BK Supe...
Continued 
‣ A BK rep assured it that the chain “values and respects all of its 
guests”—and, incidentally, that the ad “g...
BK’s Competitors 
‣ Who are the competitors? 
‣ McDonalds 
‣ KFC 
‣ Are they adopting a similar approach? 
‣ Print media i...
Could this be seen as Freud’s Theory?
What we have looked at today... 
‣ The concept of consumer motivation 
‣ Motivation Models; Maslow and Drive theory 
‣ Fre...
References 
- Michael R. Solomon, Buying, Having and Being. 7th edition. 
- Xaxx, J. (2013) ‘What factor is most important...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Consumer Motivation

3,772 views

Published on

A presentation around the subject of consumer motivation. We look at definitions of consumer motivation, factors which affect consumer motivation and Freudian symbolism. Delving deeper into how Freud's theory can be use by marketer and analysing three adverts to so how they have done this.

Published in: Marketing
  • Be the first to comment

Consumer Motivation

  1. 1. Consumer Motivation Zoe Baskett Tim Bedford-Bain Micheal Fabiyi Sarah Kirkby Rob Noble
  2. 2. What we’re talking at today... ‣ Definitions of Consumer Motivation ‣ Factors affecting Motivation ‣ Consumer Motivation Models ‣ Freudian Symbolism ‣ How Freud’s theory’s can be used by marketers and the benefits of his ideals in advertising ‣ Take a look a three different advertisements who have Freud’s Symbolism and; ‣ look at their marketing objectives ‣ Their competitors actions
  3. 3. Defining Consumer Motivation ‣ ‘Motivated behavior is activity that is directed towards the attainment of a goal or an objective.’ (Markin 1977) ‣ ‘Motivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do. From a psychological perspective motivation occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy.’ (Salmon et al 2006) ‣ It is said a tension is created within the consumer, once the need has been activated, then the desired product/service is then needed to reduce this tension. (Salmon et al 2006)
  4. 4. Four Main Factors of Motivation Advertising ‣Creates awareness ‣Advertising can either describe the product or appeal to consumers desire for adulation, beauty or affection ‣Consumers could become loyal to the brand Safety ‣Main example food and cars ‣Good selling point ‣Cars with poor reviews have poor sales
  5. 5. Motivation Factors Continued Unconscious Choice ‣Manipulative elements ‣Seductive lighting ‣balanced with conscious choice of price Culture ‣Determined by individual background ‣Main Examples; Clothes and Food
  6. 6. Product Attributes ‣ Individuals tend to have certain priorities when it comes to buying a new product. ‣ The majority will consider a low price as favorable rather than the quality of the product. ‣ Qualities such as ‘good customer service’ are low on the list of priorities, yet is still something people consider when purchasing.
  7. 7. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
  8. 8. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Continued This theory assumes that 1. People acquire a similar set of motives through genetics and social interaction. 2. Some motives are more basic than others. 3. Basic motives must be satisfied before others are activated. 4. Once these basic motives are satisfies, other motives surface.
  9. 9. Drive Theory ‣ Drive theory focuses on biological needs e.g. stomach rumbling, which then creates tension. ‣ We are then motivated to reduce tension. ‣ Tension reduction > basic mechanism governing human behavior ‣ In a marketing context ‘tension’ refers to the unpleasant state that exists if a persons consumption needs are not fulfilled. This state then activates goal oriented behavior which attempts to reduce the unpleasant state and return to a balance called homeostasis. ‣ Criticisms are that Drive Theory struggles when it becomes contradicted e.g. someone is able to delay gratification.
  10. 10. Benefits to companies Knowing what motivates a consumer would help companies; ‣Communicate with their customers in ways that emphasize the most valued attributes ‣Target the weaknesses of competitive products ‣Design new products that better meet the needs of customers ‣Target different products towards the customers that most value their attributes
  11. 11. Freud Symbolism ‣ Freud Symbolism theory suggests that people unconsciously recognise, and identify objects in a crude manner ‣ According to authors who have reviewed Freud’s Work, humans harbor a primal mode of symbolic expression which is unconscious in nature. ‣ His study showed companies that science contributes in a big part in advertising & marketing, in the sense that seductive imagery will deliberately target our human senses (footalk, 2005) ‣ Today many adult products/services adverts consist of yonic and Phallic symbols that automatically arouses individuals, which then temps & motivates them to make purchase (Ruth 1990) ‣ Advert designers have used this tactic for years to promote/sell a product or service as these subconscious images affect our attitudes & behaviors (Ruth & Mosatche 1985)
  12. 12. Freudian Symbolism Used by Marketers ‣ The uses of freudian symbolism such as phallic and yonic symbols can be found in adverts ‣ Freud suggests that the use of such symbolism triggers an unconscious recognition which can be found sexually arousing ‣ This arousing affect can motivate an observer, with the end result being recognition of a brand ‣ Freudian symbols when placed in a product may also motivate the consumer to purchase that particular product ‣ Freud believed that these symbols are universal, unlearned and that they transcend cultures
  13. 13. What do you see?
  14. 14. Budweiser Ad, with Freud’s Symbolism ‣ In this advertisement, it is obvious that Freud’s symbolism is still taking place in today’s advertising. ‣ The advertisements that are in the beer market is targeted at men. ‣ Is this image you can see the woman holding the bottle in a suggestive way. ‣ According to Freud’s theory this is a symbol. ‣ The promotional objectives in this advertisement are quite simply to grab the attention of their target market – men.
  15. 15. Have the Competitors Used Freud’s Theory
  16. 16. Another Ad which Features Freud’s Symbolism • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5pqM4kEsVk
  17. 17. Continued ‣ This advert was for the new Maybelline colour sensation lipstick released in December 2012 ‣ promotional objects: The objective of this advert is is to promote awareness of Maybellines new colour sensation lipstick product ‣ it uses the message “fall in love with colour” ‣ Medias used: television adverts and out door advertising is used heavily for the cosmetic market (?!) ‣ Maybellines target audience is 16-25
  18. 18. Continued ‣ This advert is not overtly sexual but you can still recognise elements of freudian symbolism ‣ Mainly in the way the lipstick is presented, it can be seen as a phallic symbol ‣ Following Freud's symbolism theory the use of phallic symbols in a lipstick advert, which is mainly aimed at females between the ages of 16-25 can be to cause an element of arousal ‣ The arousal caused is used as a motivational device
  19. 19. Continued ‣ Maybelline is a global brand, it is the cosmetic leader in over 90 countries ‣ Freud's Symbolism is universal it doesn’t depend on cultures as it is not learnt behaviour . ‣ This could be a reason why global brands such as Maybelline use Freud's symbolic theory in their adverts
  20. 20. What is the competition doing? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K51vV8x8gZ8 ‣L’oreal – competitor of Maybelline ‣Also uses phallic symbols like Maybelline do ‣However, their adverts seems to be more forceful and obvious ‣After looking across the market of cosmetics, we noticed that this is a common tactic all brands use.
  21. 21. Analysis of another Ad with Freudian Symbolism ‣ This is an obvious example of Freud’s theory of objects with ‘BK Super Seven Incher’ ‣ Created for a Singapore branch for the franchise of BK, it was only run in Singapore not in any other market BK is in. ‣ The ad caused a ‘firestorm’ across the US on FOX news.
  22. 22. Continued ‣ A BK rep assured it that the chain “values and respects all of its guests”—and, incidentally, that the ad “generated positive consumer sales” in its market.’ (Klara, R) ‣ The promotional objectives; to create awareness of the new burger the ‘BK seven incher’. This was done through the use of an innuendo, playing on both text and imagery ‣ The target market for this Ad was adults who would be aware and be able to understand the pun. It was not aimed at the younger market, due to the adult content, as well as the exact product being promoted. ‣ This was aimed to a small market within Singapore, for a short time period. It was not created by Burger Kings Advertising Agency and was out of the corporations control.
  23. 23. BK’s Competitors ‣ Who are the competitors? ‣ McDonalds ‣ KFC ‣ Are they adopting a similar approach? ‣ Print media is heavily used by all three of the fast food giants. ‣ It is largely used for short term promotional offers for example when McDonalds have a different burger, from around the world, on each week of the month. ‣ Freudian symbolism is not use much competitors in the fast food market. ‣ This due to a large proportion of their target market are under the age of 18. ‣ Therefore this type of ‘suggestive’ advertising would not be deemed appropriate, which BK found out with the Singapore ad.
  24. 24. Could this be seen as Freud’s Theory?
  25. 25. What we have looked at today... ‣ The concept of consumer motivation ‣ Motivation Models; Maslow and Drive theory ‣ Freudian Symbolism, his theories ‣ How this is utilised by marketers ‣ Taken a look at three advertisements and evaluated them who have freudian symbolism with in them ‣ Their marketing objectives and the competition they face
  26. 26. References - Michael R. Solomon, Buying, Having and Being. 7th edition. - Xaxx, J. (2013) ‘What factor is most important in motivating a consumer’ Available form; http://smallbusiness.chron.com/factor-important-motivating-consumer-24743.html Jagg Xaxx (date accessed 20/10/13) - Coppock, D S. (2003) ‘Consumer Motivation’ Available From; http:// www.information-management.com/news/6553-1.html (date accessed 20/10/13) - Klara, R. (2012) ‘Advertising Shock Troops for Consumers, it’s a not-so-fine line between love and disgust’ [WWW], Available From: http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/advertisings-shock-troops-138377 [Accessed 31/10/13] - Salomo, M. Bamossy, G. Askegaard. Hogg, M K. (2006) ‘Consumer Behavior; A European Prospective’ , England, Pearson

×