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Vincent Reed

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Vincent Reed

  1. 1. Vincent Reed Ltd Conservation & Restoration for Period Woodwork 10 September, 2013 Monday, 9 September 13
  2. 2. What we are going to talk about • The importance of conservation and restoration • Conservation and restoration of period woodwork • Case studies will be used to illustrate how to; • Identify original architectural woodwork • Understand the importance of Patina • Prepare the woodwork for refinishing • Identify and apply the correct finish to woodwork • Materials and techniques you can use - and those you must avoid! Monday, 9 September 13
  3. 3. What is the difference between conservation and restoration? Conservation To preserve against further deterioration Restoration To restore the original appearance and functionality - without erasing history! Monday, 9 September 13
  4. 4. Why is conservation and restoration so important? History Heritage Identity We can’t rewrite our history Our heritage is our unique identity and needs to be preserved How do we safeguard our heritage? Unified policy Wider education Sharing best practice Monday, 9 September 13
  5. 5. Identifying what you see and making the right decision What is the purpose of the woodwork? What type of finish is required - if any? Aesthetic Interior doors, panelling, mouldings, rails and furniture Durability Exterior doors, windows, floors and staircases Aesthetic Preparation will be gentle by hand Finish will be softer; Shellacs,Waxes and Oils Durability Preparation can be more vigorous Finish will be harder; Varnishes and Lacquers QUESTION QUESTIONANSWER ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER Monday, 9 September 13
  6. 6. Late 19th century exterior oak doors coated with a thick modern exterior lacquer Monday, 9 September 13
  7. 7. Dry Scrapping the modern ‘Finish’ Monday, 9 September 13
  8. 8. Water based exterior acrylic lacquer applied with synthetic brushes and a wax finish Monday, 9 September 13
  9. 9. Window Conservation and Restoration Ballie Scott House Monday, 9 September 13
  10. 10. Window Conservation and Restoration Ballie Scott House Monday, 9 September 13
  11. 11. Window Conservation and Restoration Ballie Scott House Monday, 9 September 13
  12. 12. Window Conservation and Restoration Ballie Scott House Monday, 9 September 13
  13. 13. Window Conservation and Restoration Ballie Scott House Monday, 9 September 13
  14. 14. Window Conservation and Restoration Ballie Scott House Monday, 9 September 13
  15. 15. Window Conservation and Restoration Ballie Scott House Monday, 9 September 13
  16. 16. An example of over cleaning a17th century staircase caustic soda Monday, 9 September 13
  17. 17. Preparation How to safely prepare a wood surface Solvent Strippers A traditional stripper still used in period woodwork restoration today Removes finishes gradually without damaging the surface No discolouration Patina can be partially preserved with care A finer cleaner finish Prevents irreversible damage Time consuming and costly Caustic Strippers NEVER used in period woodwork restoration Main ingredient sodium or potassium hydroxide - stains the wood surface by reacting with the natural acids Staining permanently masks all original patina Dissolves glues and weakens joints Eco Strippers A modern stripper used in period woodwork restoration today Removes finishes gradually without damaging the surface No discolouration Patina can be preserved with care A finer cleaner finish Prevents irreversible damage Time consuming and costly Methylated Spirits A modern stripper used in period woodwork restoration today Removes finishes gradually without damaging the surface No discolouration Patina is preserved A finer cleaner finish Prevents irreversible damage Time consuming and costly Reviver Solutions & Detergents A modern stripper used in period woodwork restoration today Removes finishes gradually without damaging the surface No discolouration Patina is preserved A finer cleaner finish Prevents irreversible damage Time consuming and costly CLEANING STRIPPING ONLY USE WHEN REVIVER SOLUTIONS, DETERGENTS AND METHYLATED SPIRITS ARE NOT STRONG ENOUGH NEVER USE ON PERIOD WOODWORK Monday, 9 September 13
  18. 18. Late17th century oak paneling painted with lead based paints at the turn of the century Monday, 9 September 13
  19. 19. Stripping back the lead based paint by hand Monday, 9 September 13
  20. 20. The original oak paneling fully restored Monday, 9 September 13
  21. 21. Materials and Techniques What to use and how to use it - and what to avoid Materials Preparations: Reviver solutions & Detergents Methylated Spirits Finishes: ConservationVarnish French Polishes Oils Shellacs Water Lacquers Waxes New timber for old repairs Techniques Hand cleaning with suitable preparations Blunt hand held scrappers Fine wire wools Stiff brushes Ultra fine sand paper - only to be used in very specific instances Hot air gun - with extreme caution SUITABLE NOT SUITABLE Materials Preparations: Caustic strippers Coarse sand paper Finishes: PolyurethaneVarnish Marine Paints MarineVarnishes Screw and nails to repair joints Irreversible glues to repair joints Techniques Sand blasting Sanding below 150 grit - unless extenuating circumstances Blow lamps Monday, 9 September 13
  22. 22. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of a late 18th century solid oak floor Monday, 9 September 13
  23. 23. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of a late 18th century oak floor Monday, 9 September 13
  24. 24. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of a late 18th century oak floor Monday, 9 September 13
  25. 25. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of a late 18th century oak floor Monday, 9 September 13
  26. 26. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of a late 18th century oak floor Monday, 9 September 13
  27. 27. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of late 18th century oak floor – a repair Monday, 9 September 13
  28. 28. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of a late 18th century oak floor – applying the correct finish by hand Monday, 9 September 13
  29. 29. New timber for old repairs New timber for old repairs Restoration of late 18th century oak floor – fully restored Monday, 9 September 13
  30. 30. Sandpaper What really happens when coarse sandpaper is used on wood? Example of how polish ‘pools’ in the grooves made by the sandpaper scoring the surface of the wood Example of how polish is displaced evenly across the surface of wood that has been sympathetically cleaned back and stripped by hand Wood Surface POLISH Wood Surface Sanding causes damage the fibre in the wood The surface becomes rough to the touch Absorbency factor of the wood is increased significantly As a result polish applied will cause the fibres to expand - resulting in an uneven finish This is called ‘furring the grain’ The original patina is permanently lost Monday, 9 September 13
  31. 31. Sandblasting What happens when a sand blasting machine is used on wood? Advantages of sandblasting What sandblasting really does Quick Cheap Natural character destroyed Quality destroyed Patina destroyed Mouldings and details destroyed Fibers are damaged Pitted surface that cannot be cleaned Monday, 9 September 13
  32. 32. An unfortunate example of the costly devastation that sand blasting causes Monday, 9 September 13
  33. 33. An unfortunate example of the costly devastation that sand blasting causes – continued! Monday, 9 September 13
  34. 34. The paneling when fully restored Monday, 9 September 13
  35. 35. A careful reminder Monday, 9 September 13
  36. 36. Stains Different types of stains and how to use them correctly Soluble when mixed with methylated spirits Light fast Typically used for general colour change Suitable for use on all wood surfaces Methanol Stains Nitro Stains Water StainsSpirit StainsFumesEarth PigmentsOil Stains Soluble when mixed with turpentine or thinners Can be used to colour polishes applied with a spray gun Slightly more aggressive than methanol based stains Soluble when mixed with turpentine Widely used in all manner of staining Ideal for use as a ‘base colour’ - a milds stain that provides an even base colour over which a main colour can be built Naturally occurring minerals - mostly iron oxides E.g. Ochre, Umber, Sienna Used since prehistoric times - cave paintings Used to produce a ‘blind’ to block grain Raises the grain Bichromate of potash Potassium permanganate Ammonia Nitric acid Staining of wood is caused by a chemical reaction with the wood Used on woods prone to uneven natural colouring E.g. Pine Soluble when mixed with methylated spirits Quick to dry Can be mixed with shellac based polishes to provide colour Probe to fading Soluble when mixed with water Produces the best quality colours Slow to dry Can NOT be used with unsealed wood - it will ‘fur’ and raise the grain Ideal for use on antique wood with good patina Professional use only NON AGGRESSIVE AGGRESSIVE VERY AGGRESSIVE Monday, 9 September 13
  37. 37. Finishes Different types of finish and how to use them Soluble when mixed with turpentine Typically used as a ‘barrier’ to preserve the surface of the wood from the final finish being applied Conservation Varnish Waxes Oils Water Lacquers Shellac Polishes French Polishes Soluble when mixed with turpentine Can be used on interior woodwork that does not need re- polishing Applied as a final step to all manner of finishes for it’s silky appearance Soluble when mixed with methylated spirits Widely used for all types of interior woodwork Can be applied in thin coats - low build Not suitable for hard wearing surfaces that require a durable finish E.g. floors Applied by hand with a ‘Rubber’ - cotton wool wrapped in a cotton sheet Boiled Linseed Oil: Soluble when mixed with turpentine Widely used for all types of interior woodwork Slow to dry - up to 1 week per coat Flooring Oil: Quick to dry Tough and durable - high build REVERSIBILITY EXCELLENT Soluble when mixed with methylated spirits Widely used for all types of interior woodwork Can be applied in thin coats - low build Not suitable for hard wearing surfaces that require a durable finish E.g. floors REVERSIBILITY GOOD Soluble when mixed with water Widely used for floor finishing - Tough and durable - high build REVERSIBILITY OK Monday, 9 September 13
  38. 38. Important things to remember . . . 1. Conservation of the remaining original woodwork 2. Conservation of any original patina 3. Sympathetic cleaning methods 4. Reversibility of methods and the correct materials to use 5. Never use a sandblaster! 6. ALWAYS consult a professional conservator restorer! Monday, 9 September 13
  39. 39. Sharing best practice starts with you English Heritage PM Contractor Architect Local Authority Restorer Surveyor Monday, 9 September 13
  40. 40. Questions . . . Vincent Reed Ltd Little Washbrook Farm Brighton Road Hurstpierpoint West Sussex BN6 9EF Tel: 01273 833 869 / 07815 751 005 email: info@vincentreed.com Monday, 9 September 13
  41. 41. Some recommended ‘light’ reading . . • The Elements of Style: A Practical Encyclopedia of Interior Architectural Details, from 1485 to the Present • Stephen Calloway (Editor), Elizabeth Cromley (Editor) • Period House Fixtures and Fittings 1300-1900 (England's Living History) [Paperback] • Linda Hall (Author) • The Victorian House Explained (England's Living History) [Paperback] • Trevor Yorke (Author) • Three Centuries of Architectural Craftsmanship (Library of Period Detailing) [Paperback] • C AMERY (Author) Monday, 9 September 13

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