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Patterns of inequality in knowledge production: academic journals in the field of development studies

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This presentation provides an overview of my research on author affiliations and editorial boards in the field of development studies. The focus is the research question: to what extent are academics from developing countries participating in journals in the field of development studies as authors and as members of Editorial Boards?

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Patterns of inequality in knowledge production: academic journals in the field of development studies

  1. 1. Patterns of inequality in knowledge production Academic journals in the field of development studies Sarah Cummings, Knowledge Ecologist EADI General Conference 26 June 2014
  2. 2.  IKM Emergent and EADI IMWG  An interest in development knowledge and knowledge divides  Research at Radboud University Nijmegen with Prof. Paul Hoebink Background
  3. 3.  To what extent are academics from developing countries participating in journals in the field of development studies as authors and as members of Editorial Boards? Research question
  4. 4. Dahdouh-Gubas et al (2003)  2798 articles from the Current Contents database  Research carried out in the 48 least developed countries.  70% articles did not have co-authors from the developing country  Life Sciences having a much higher rate of collaboration (65%) than Basic and Applied Sciences (27%) and Social and Human Sciences (5%)  Explanations: lack of confidence, ignorance, negligence, or neo-colonial science Marginalisation of authors from developing countries
  5. 5.  10 journals, including EJDR  Web of Science interface for authors  Journal websites for Editorial Board (backed up with individual searches to identify gender)  300 editorial board members  1894 articles  Period 2010-2012 Data collection
  6. 6.  Responsibility in knowledge production as a ‘key rubric’ (Jazeel and McFarlane 2010)  Equity in development  Endogenous vs exogenous development (Robin Mansell 2012) Key concepts
  7. 7. Assemblages of journals, citation patterns, unequal distributions of academic resources – whether in finance, cultural capital or infrastructural capacity – as well as regimes of graduate and staff training, constitute the bricks and mortar through which research is conceived, conducted, produced and reviewed… These institutional limits raise a range of questions about how researchers in relatively privileged environs (in global North or South) might channel resources, capacity, training and research questions to ⁄ with colleagues who regularly drop off or are actively removed from the academic map (Jazeel and McFarlane 2010, p.121). Responsibility
  8. 8.  Countries in the author affiliation  Only papers  More affiliations than papers Author data
  9. 9. 2010 2011 2012 Total % of total Economic Development and Cultural Change 26 27 26 79 4.2 Journal of Development Studies 86 92 113 291 15.4 Development and Change 44 46 56 146 7.7 World Development 138 171 182 491 25.9 Third World Quarterly 76 98 102 276 14.6 Canadian Journal of Development Studies 66 28 30 124 6.5 Development Policy Review 35 39 38 112 5.9 Journal of International Development 66 65 73 204 10.8 European Journal of Development Research 36 38 40 114 6.0 Progress in Development Studies 21 18 18 57 3.0 Total 594 622 678 1894 100.0 Overview of articles included for the author sample
  10. 10. Percentage of total author locations from developing countries,
  11. 11. Total number of author locations per country % of 2509 total author locations USA 560 22.3 UK 530 21.1 Canada 146 5.8 Netherlands 113 4.5 Germany 99 3.9 Australia 81 3.2 France 68 2.7 Belgium 57 2.3 India 56 2.2 Denmark 49 2.0 Other countries 750 29.9 2509 100.0 Author locations by country for 10 journals for the 2010-2012 period
  12. 12. Percentage of total author locations from the USA, UK and other countries
  13. 13. Institutional author locations Country No of author s % of 2509 University of London UK 142 5.7 World Bank USA 89 3.5 University of Manchester UK 62 2.5 University of Oxford UK 50 2 University of Sussex UK 47 1.9 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) USA 46 1.8 University of California System USA 45 1.8 University of East Anglia UK 34 1.4 Erasmus University Rotterdam Netherlands 32 1.3 University of Reading UK 26 1 Wageningen University Research Centre Netherlands 26 1 University of Copenhagen Denmark 22 0.9 Michigan State University USA 21 0.8 University of Cambridge UK 21 0.8 American University USA 19 0.8 Cornell University USA 19 0.8 Open University UK 19 0.8 University of Birmingham UK 19 0.8 739 29.5 Top 18 institutional author locations for 10 journals, 2010-2012
  14. 14.  Authors located in developing countries on average 5- 20% of all affiliations  Top 10 countries responsible for 70.1% of all affiliations  Authors in UK and USA dominating with 55-25% 0f all affiliations (an average of 43.4%)  Dominance of key institutions Conclusions from author data
  15. 15.  Gatekeeper function  Location and institutions  From journal websites  Follow up on personal websites: gender and editorial board membership Editorial Board data
  16. 16. Abbreviation Total number of board members % Economic Development and Cultural Change EDCC 13 4.3 Journal of Development Studies JDS 43 14.3 Development and Change D&C 45 15.0 World Development WD 30 10.0 Third World Quarterly TWQ 30 10.0 Canadian Journal of Development Studies CJDS 25 8.3 Development Policy Review DPR 27 9.0 Journal of International Development JID 22 7.3 European Journal of Development Research EJDR 29 9.7 Progress in Development Studies PiDS 36 12.0 300 100.0 Editorial boards of the sample journals
  17. 17. Total number of board members No of countries Developing countries Which countries? Economic Development and Cultural Change 13 4 0 0 Journal of Development Studies 43 12 1 India Development and Change 45 14 5 China, Palestine, Bangladesh, South Africa, India World Development 30 13 2 India, South Africa Third World Quarterly 30 5 1 Thailand Canadian Journal of Development Studies 25 4 0 0 Development Policy Review 27 8 5 Uganda, Ghana, India, Bolivia, South Africa Journal of International Development 22 7 2 Zimbabwe, India European Journal of Development Research 29 16 3 India, South Africa, China Progress in Development Studies 36 11 2 India, Zimbabwe Average 30 9.4 2.1 Overview of editorial boards of the sample journals
  18. 18. Links between the top 11 institutions and the editorial boards of the 10 journals
  19. 19. Male Female Total No % No % No % Economic Development and Cultural Change 12 92.3 1 7.7 13 100.0 Journal of Development Studies 34 79.1 9 20.9 43 100.0 Development and Change 32 71.1 13 28.9 45 100.0 World Development 23 76.7 7 23.3 30 100.0 Third World Quarterly 26 86.7 4 13.3 30 100.0 Canadian Journal of Development Studies 15 60.0 10 40.0 25 100.0 Development Policy Review 20 74.1 7 25.9 27 100.0 Journal of International Development 11 50.0 11 50.0 22 100.0 European Journal of Development Research 21 72.4 8 27.6 29 100.0 Progress in Development Studies 26 72.2 9 25.0 36 100.0 220 73.3 79 26.3 300 100.0 Gender representation on editorial boards
  20. 20.  Dominance by key institutions  Limited representation of academics from developing countries and women Editorial board: conclusions
  21. 21. Values in academic publishing Equity Responsibility Academic excellence Values Exogenous development Combined exogenous and endogenous development Endogenous development Throughputof academicarticles Model of development Moredeveloped countryauthors Moredeveloping countryauthors
  22. 22. Development is, most of all, the result of the synergy among millions of innovative initiatives people take every day in their local societies, generating new and more effective ways of producing, trading, and managing their resources and their institutions. The work of policy makers and development agencies may contribute greatly to the success of those initiatives, may shape them, or may undermine those efforts. (Ferreira, 2009, p.99) Development is endogenous
  23. 23. Does this matter? Thank you for your attention!

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