The odyssey(World Literature)

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The odyssey(World Literature)

  1. 1. Submitted by: Valdriz, Adrian Rex S. LIT 213 MATH12FB1 Submitted To: Mrs. Sarah Cruz
  2. 2. The tale begins on Mt. Olympus where Athena draws Zeus' attention to Odysseus whose journey has been halted on the island of Calypso. Zeus sends Hermes to have Odysseus released and Athena goes to Ithaca. In Ithaca she assumes a disguise and convinces Telemachus to go on a journey seeking news of his father. Telemachus calls an assembly announcing that the suitors who have besieged his house and have eaten his food for years are in the wrong. He goes to see Nestor at Pylos and Nestor does not know anything recent about his father. Nestor advises him to go to Sparta to see Menelaus. When he gets to Sparta, Menelaus tells him that the last thing he heard about Odysseus was that he was trapped on the island of Calypso. They feast together and talk into the night.
  3. 3. Athena reminds Zeus to send Hermes to Calypso and he tells her that Odysseus may leave but under strict conditions: he has to build his own raft. Calypso isn't happy about the command and Odysseus has problems believing her. Once he has built his raft, she gives him food and sends him off. He sails for seventeen days and then his raft is destroyed by Poseidon. He is aided by a nymph and floats for two days to land. He is found by Nausikaa and told to go to the house of her father Alcinous. Alcinous hears part of his tale and secures passage for him back to Ithaca. There are athletic games and feasts at which a minstrel sings. The minstrel's songs make Odysseus cry and this makes Alcinous even more curious about his situation. Alcinous asks Odysseus if any of his relatives died at Troy and Odysseus begins his tale.
  4. 4. He tells them how he left Troy and lost some men in a botched raiding party. Soon after this they came near the land of the Lotus eaters where some of his men were almost lost to the enchanting flower. Then camethe island of the cyclops. Odysseus led his men in to investigate and were trapped by Polyphemus, one of the cyclops. They had to blind him and sneak out in order to get away from him. They came to the island ofthe King of the winds, but when they approached Ithaca with his gift of the storm winds restrained, Odysseus men opened the bag of the winds thinking it was treasure sending them all the way back to the same island. The king refused to help them again. They ended up at Circe's island where the witch turns some of his men into pigs.
  5. 5. With the help of Hermes, Odysseus resisted her magic and impressed her. His men were restored and they remained on her island for a year. When they left, Circe told them they had to go to the land of the dead first. At the land of the dead they spoke with Tiresias who told them how to get home. They also spoke with many relatives and dead heroes. After they left the land of the dead, they returned to Circe's island and then made their way home. Even though they made it through Scylla and Charybdis, the men insisted on stopping at the island where the cattle of the sun were kept. Here they eventually disobeyed Odysseus and killed the cattle. This resulted in the destruction of their ship. Odysseus, the sole survivor, floated back through the dangers of the sea and ended up on Calypso's island.
  6. 6. Alcinous is moved by Odysseus story and he gives him more gifts. His men take Odysseus to Ithaca and he sleeps the entire way. Because of Poseidon's wrath, their ship is turned into stone when it nears their home harbor. Athena comes to Odysseus and tells him he is home. She instructs him to spend a night or two at the hut of the swineherd disguised as a beggar. She tells him that while he waits she will get Telemachus to return. Odysseus goes to the house of the swineherd and tells a long lie about his fall from riches to rags. The swineherd takes him in and gives him hospitality but refuses to believe any news about Odysseus. Telemachus leaves the house of Menelaus with gifts and avoids Pylos so that he will get home faster. He makes room for a seer in his ship and departs from his men near the house of the swineherd as Athena instructed. When they first meet, Odysseus is still a beggar, but after the swineherd leaves, Athena has Odysseus reveal himself. They plan out how they are going to get rid of the suitors. Odysseus is changed back into a beggar when the swineherd returns.
  7. 7. The next day Telemachus returns to his house first and the swineherd follows with the beggar. On they way they are mocked by the goatherd. When they get to the house Odysseus is given food as a beggar but must withstand the taunts of the suitors. When he implies that they are generous because they are giving away somebody else's food, Antinous throws a stool at him. Odysseus continues to test the loyalty of people around him. He tells his story to Penelope and when his old nurse gives him a bath she recognizes his scar. Penelope tells him that she willchallenge the suitors to string Odysseus' bow and shoot it through twelve axeheads. Whoever does this may marry her. Odysseus is forced to box another beggar and is rewarded with blood pudding and wine when he wins. They sleep one night and the suitors return the next day.
  8. 8. When Penelope rises she retrieves the bow and the axeheads and announces the contest. Telemachus tries to bend the bow and almost can, but his father has him stop. None of the suitors can bend it and Antinous proposes they carry on with the contest tomorrow. Odysseus asks for a try and the suitors would have denied him but Telemachus demanded that he be allowed. Odysseus strings it and shoots through the axeheads easily then he begins to kill suitors. Telemachus joins him with the cowherd and the swineherd. The goatherd helps the suitors get weapons, but the other herders stop him. Athena joins the battle and they slaughter everyone but the minstrel and the herald.
  9. 9. Odysseus has the bodies piled up and he hangs the disloyal serving girls. He bathes and approaches Penelope who does not believe it is him until they speak ofsecret proof. They sleep together and tell each other their stories. In the morning, Odysseus instructs everyone to pretend there is a wedding feast so that no one will come looking for the suitors. He goes and finds his father and lies to him at first but then reveals his identity. Meanwhile, the town assembles, enraged at Odysseus' deeds. When the herald tells them that a god helped him, half of the townspeople calm down. The others go in search of Odysseus. There is a brief battle, but Athena stops it and persuades them to sign a pact which declares Odysseus the king.
  10. 10. Odysseus -  The protagonist of the Odyssey. Odysseus fought among the other Greek heroes at Troy and now struggles to return to his kingdom in Ithaca. Odysseus is the husband of Queen Penelope and the father of Prince Telemachus. Though a strong and courageous warrior, he is most renowned for his cunning. He is a favorite of the goddess Athena, who often sends him divine aid, but a bitter enemy of Poseidon, who frustrates his journey at every turn. Telemachus -  Odysseus’s son. An infant when Odysseus left for Troy, Telemachus is about twenty at the beginning of the story. He is a natural obstacle to the suitors desperately courting his mother, but despite his courage and good heart, he initially lacks the poise and confidence to oppose them. His maturation, especially during his trip to Pylos and Sparta in Books 3 and 4, provides a subplot to the epic. Athena often assists him. Penelope -  Wife of Odysseus and mother of Telemachus. Penelope spends her days in the palace pining for the husband who left for Troy twenty years earlier and never returned. Homer portrays her as sometimes flighty and excitable but also clever and steadfastly true to her husband.
  11. 11. Athena -  Daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom, purposeful battle, and the womanly arts. Athena assists Odysseus and Telemachus with divine powers throughout the epic, and she speaks up for them in the councils of the gods on Mount Olympus. She often appears in disguise as Mentor, an old friend of Odysseus. Poseidon -  God of the sea. As the suitors are Odysseus’s mortal antagonists, Poseidon is his divine antagonist. He despises Odysseus for blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, and constantly hampers his journey home. Ironically, Poseidon is the patron of the seafaring Phaeacians, who ultimately help to return Odysseus to Ithaca. Zeus -  King of gods and men, who mediates the disputes of the gods on Mount Olympus. Zeus is occasionally depicted as weighing men’s fates in his scales. He sometimes helps Odysseus or permits Athena to do the same. Antinous -  The most arrogant of Penelope’s suitors. Antinous leads the campaign to have Telemachus killed. Unlike the other suitors, he is never portrayed sympathetically, and he is the first to die when Odysseus returns.
  12. 12. Eurymachus -  A manipulative, deceitful suitor. Eurymachus’s charisma and duplicity allow him to exert some influence over the other suitors. Amphinomus -  Among the dozens of suitors, the only decent man seeking Penelope’s hand in marriage. Amphinomus sometimes speaks up for Odysseus and Telemachus, but he is killed like the rest of the suitors in the final fight. Eumaeus -  The loyal shepherd who, along with the cowherd Philoetius, helps Odysseus reclaim his throne after his return to Ithaca. Even though he does not know that the vagabond who appears at his hut is Odysseus, Eumaeus gives the man food and shelter. Eurycleia -  The aged and loyal servant who nursed Odysseus and Telemachus when they were babies. Eurycleia is well informed about palace intrigues and serves as confidante to her masters. She keeps Telemachus’s journey secret from Penelope, and she later keeps Odysseus’s identity a secret after she recognizes a scar on his leg. Melanthius -  The brother of Melantho. Melanthius is a treacherous and opportunistic goatherd who supports the suitors, especially Eurymachus, and abuses the beggar who appears in Odysseus’s palace, not realizing that the man is Odysseus himself. Melantho -  Sister of Melanthius and maidservant in Odysseus’s palace. Like her brother, Melantho abuses the beggar in the palace, not knowing that the man is Odysseus. She is having an affair with Eurymachus. Calypso -  The beautiful nymph who falls in love with Odysseus when he lands on her island-home of Ogygia. Calypso holds him prisoner there for seven years until Hermes, the messenger god, persuades her to let him go.
  13. 13. Polyphemus -  One of the Cyclopes (uncivilized one-eyed giants) whose island Odysseus comes to soon after leaving Troy. Polyphemus imprisons Odysseus and his crew and tries to eat them, but Odysseus blinds him through a clever ruse and manages to escape. In doing so, however, Odysseus angers Polyphemus’s father, Poseidon. Circe -  The beautiful witch-goddess who transforms Odysseus’s crew into swine when he lands on her island. With Hermes’ help, Odysseus resists Circe’s powers and then becomes her lover, living in luxury at her side for a year. Laertes -  Odysseus’s aging father, who resides on a farm in Ithaca. In despair and physical decline, Laertes regains his spirit when Odysseus returns and eventually kills Antinous’s father. Tiresias -  A Theban prophet who inhabits the underworld. Tiresias meets Odysseus when Odysseus journeys to the underworld in Book 11. He shows Odysseus how to get back to Ithaca and allows Odysseus to communicate with the other souls in Hades. Nestor -  King of Pylos and a former warrior in the Trojan War. Like Odysseus, Nestor is known as a clever speaker. Telemachus visits him in Book 3 to ask about his father, but Nestor knows little of Odysseus’s whereabouts. Menelaus -  King of Sparta, brother of Agamemnon, and husband of Helen, he helped lead the Greeks in the Trojan War. He offers Telemachus assistance in his quest to find Odysseus when Telemachus visits him in Book 4.
  14. 14. Helen -  Wife of Menelaus and queen of Sparta. Helen’s abduction from Sparta by the Trojans sparked the Trojan War. Her beauty is without parallel, but she is criticized for giving in to her Trojan captors and thereby costing many Greek men their lives. She offers Telemachus assistance in his quest to find his father. Agamemnon -  Former king of Mycenae, brother of Menelaus, and commander of the Achaean forces at Troy. Odysseus encounters Agamemnon’s spirit in Hades. Agamemnon was murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus, upon his return from the war. He was later avenged by his son Orestes. Their story is constantly repeated in theOdyssey to offer an inverted image of the fortunes of Odysseus and Telemachus. Nausicaa -  The beautiful daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of the Phaeacians. Nausicaa discovers Odysseus on the beach at Scheria and, out of budding affection for him, ensures his warm reception at her parents’ palace. Alcinous -  King of the Phaeacians, who offers Odysseus hospitality in his island kingdom of Scheria. Alcinous hears the story of Odysseus’s wanderings and provides him with safe passage back to Ithaca. Arete -  Queen of the Phaeacians, wife of Alcinous, and mother of Nausicaa. Arete is intelligent and influential. Nausicaa tells Odysseus to make his appeal for assistance to Arete.
  15. 15. Themes: -The Power of Cunning over Strength -The Pitfalls of Temptation Motifs: -Storytelling -Disguises -Seductresses Symbols: -Food -The Wedding Bed

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