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Open data in a GIS-
perspective
Joep Crompvoets
(Bastiaan Van Loenen -
Knowledge centre Open Data / Delft
University of Te...
OBJECTIVE
“To be aware of the strengths of using open
data in the context of Geographical Information
Systems”
-Examples
-...
QUESTIONS
Why Open Geodata?
What are Open Geodata?
Are there examples of applications based on open data?
Can you license ...
Why open geodata?
OBJECTIVE
“To provide the European Commission with a
package of recommendations on policy
and management measures to addre...
EUROSION
Project funded by the
European Commission
OBJECTIVE EROSION
“To provide the European Commission with a
package of recommendations on policy
and management measures ...
Moderately vulnerable areas
Lowly vulnerable areas
Highly vulnerable areas (hotspot)
Assessment of European coastline
Exam...
Analysis
Vulnerable areas and
Monitoring indicators
In terms of
Lives at risk
Economy at risk
Nature at risk
ElevationBath...
Costs and access restrictions
Most existing datasets are “copyrighted”:
you do not buy information itself, but a right to
...
Costs and access restrictions
26% acquisition of licensed data (e.g. Elevation)
17% update of existing data (e.g. Coastal ...
Coastal erosion
Higher investment costs
Delayed implementation
Uncertain quality
dissemination constraints
What Is Open Geodata?
What Is “Open Geodata”?
Terminology is key to understanding
principles and defining policy.
What are we talking about whe...
Open data?
1. Data Must Be Complete
2. Data Must Be Primary
3. Data Must Be Timely
4. Data Must Be Accessible
5. Data Must...
Or simply
• Data without any restrictions in the use and provided for
free
What is Open Geodata?
Geodata: data referring to a location on earth
Geodata is open if any user is free to use, reuse, an...
Examples of geodata
Digital Elevation Model
Topography
Cadastral
Administrative boundaries
Land use
Soils
Climate
Demograp...
Are there examples of
applications based on open
data?
20
` Gem. inkomen vs WOZ waarde per wijk
Gem. vraagprijs per m2
woonruimte
Verkeersongevallen 2012
Source: Knowledge Centr...
21
Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
Energy atlas Gleisdorf:
solar energy and biomass potential
Thermografische opname
Op maandagavond 26 januari 2009 heeft Aerodata in opdracht van de
gemeente een thermografische opna...
Can You License ‘Open
Geodata’?
LICENSING OPEN GEODATA
 Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and
Licence (ODC PDDL)
 Domain of Application = Data
...
Licensing Open Data
How to Apply to ODC PDDL
•Insert prominently in all relevant locations
relating to the database (metad...
ODC PDDL – Human Readable
What License to Use?
• Conformant, Recommended
• Conformant, Non-reusable
• Conformant, but Little Used,
Discontinued or D...
What are the economic benefits
of geodata?
If Open data, then….
• 68 billion euro (Pira International, 2000)
• 27 billion euro (Dekkers et al., 2006)
• 40 billon eur...
If Open data, then…
Open data: Landsat imagery: 1 million downloads in 6
months v. 25,000 per year
Ordnance Survey Open Geodata
Economic Value Study (June 2013)
Economic Assessment
net increase in GDP of £13 to £28.5 mil...
Danish e-Government
Open (Geo-)data Study
Good Basic (Geo-)data for Everyone – A Driver for Growth
and Efficiency: E-gover...
Danish e-Government
Open (Geo-)data Study
Financial Benefits from Open Basic Data
Net returns for the public sector
“Once ...
MetroGIS Free & Open Data
Making Public GIS Data Free and Open: Benefits
and Challenges
by MetroGIS Data Producers Work Gr...
MetroGIS - Benefits
Benefits for Public Agencies
Cost savings (more efficient organizational operation).
Revenue enhance...
MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits
Improves the function of a democratic society
ensures the transparency of government and p...
MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits
Facilitates wider data use and enhances value
•speeds development of data-based services, t...
MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits
Creates opportunities to realize cost savings
•reduces or eliminates duplication of effort ...
MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits
Offer improved analysis and decision making
organizations can leverage shared data to driv...
MetroGIS – Challenges
Challenges to Making Data Available to Public
•Impacts on ability to engage in cost recovery for dat...
MetroGIS - Conclusions
 Agencies make a considerable investment of public funds
in GIS Data. The main challenge is to ens...
MetroGIS Conclusions
 Challenges can be overcome, but require organization-
wide commitment.
 Replacing revenue collecte...
Bears on the open geodata road
• Legal:
• Liability
• Privacy
• Intellectual property
• Competition law
• Energy law
• Tec...
QUESTIONS
Why Open Geodata?
What are Open Geodata?
Are there examples of applications based on open data?
Can you license ...
Thank You!
Open Data in a GIS-perspective - Dr. Joep Crompvoets
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Open Data in a GIS-perspective - Dr. Joep Crompvoets

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Presentation at Data Days 2014 in Ghent, Belgium

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Open Data in a GIS-perspective - Dr. Joep Crompvoets

  1. 1. Open data in a GIS- perspective Joep Crompvoets (Bastiaan Van Loenen - Knowledge centre Open Data / Delft University of Technology)
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE “To be aware of the strengths of using open data in the context of Geographical Information Systems” -Examples -Definitions / Principles -Policies -Economic benefits
  3. 3. QUESTIONS Why Open Geodata? What are Open Geodata? Are there examples of applications based on open data? Can you license Open Geodata? What are the economic benefits of Open Geodata?
  4. 4. Why open geodata?
  5. 5. OBJECTIVE “To provide the European Commission with a package of recommendations on policy and management measures to address coastal erosion in the EU. These recommendations should be based on a thorough assessment of the state of coastline and of the response options available at each level of administration.”
  6. 6. EUROSION Project funded by the European Commission
  7. 7. OBJECTIVE EROSION “To provide the European Commission with a package of recommendations on policy and management measures to address coastal erosion in the EU. These recommendations should be based on a thorough assessment of the state of coastline and of the response options available at each level of administration.”
  8. 8. Moderately vulnerable areas Lowly vulnerable areas Highly vulnerable areas (hotspot) Assessment of European coastline Example of Ajaccio Bay
  9. 9. Analysis Vulnerable areas and Monitoring indicators In terms of Lives at risk Economy at risk Nature at risk ElevationBathymetryAdministrative boundariesHydrographyInfrastructureErosion patterns (CCEr)Sediment discharges from riversHydrodynamics and sea level riseLand cover (LC) and LC changesLaws and decreesNationally designated areasSocial and economical profiles From Data to Information
  10. 10. Costs and access restrictions Most existing datasets are “copyrighted”: you do not buy information itself, but a right to use it (“license”) Dissemination of end-products is restricted (sometimes, end-products have to be “degraded”) Quality “label” are not commonly adopted : uncertainty about the products
  11. 11. Costs and access restrictions 26% acquisition of licensed data (e.g. Elevation) 17% update of existing data (e.g. Coastal Erosion) 33% production of missing data (e.g. Hydrodynamics) 24% Format conversion, integration, and quality control EUROSION database = 2 Millions Euros
  12. 12. Coastal erosion Higher investment costs Delayed implementation Uncertain quality dissemination constraints
  13. 13. What Is Open Geodata?
  14. 14. What Is “Open Geodata”? Terminology is key to understanding principles and defining policy. What are we talking about when we use the term ‘open geodata’? Are all stakeholders using the term equally?
  15. 15. Open data? 1. Data Must Be Complete 2. Data Must Be Primary 3. Data Must Be Timely 4. Data Must Be Accessible 5. Data Must Be Machine processable 6. Access Must Be Non-Discriminatory 7. Data Formats Must Be Non-Proprietary 8. Data Must Be License-free 9. Compliance must be reviewable. 10. The work shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost
  16. 16. Or simply • Data without any restrictions in the use and provided for free
  17. 17. What is Open Geodata? Geodata: data referring to a location on earth Geodata is open if any user is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it 17
  18. 18. Examples of geodata Digital Elevation Model Topography Cadastral Administrative boundaries Land use Soils Climate Demography
  19. 19. Are there examples of applications based on open data?
  20. 20. 20 ` Gem. inkomen vs WOZ waarde per wijk Gem. vraagprijs per m2 woonruimte Verkeersongevallen 2012 Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
  21. 21. 21 Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
  22. 22. Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
  23. 23. Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
  24. 24. Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
  25. 25. Source: Knowledge Centre Open Data – Delft University of Technology
  26. 26. Energy atlas Gleisdorf: solar energy and biomass potential
  27. 27. Thermografische opname Op maandagavond 26 januari 2009 heeft Aerodata in opdracht van de gemeente een thermografische opname van Delft gemaakt . Het was die avond helder weer , zonder wind, de gemiddelde dagtemperatuur (weerstation Rotterdam ) was 1,1 ° C, met een minimum van –2,2°C. Door beeldbewerking van de camera -opnamen is de warmte -uitstraling omgezet naar 6 overzichtelijke kleuren van donkerblauw tot rood. Deze kleuren zijn geen absolute maat , maar er is uitgegaan van de gemiddelde warmte -uitstraling in Delft. De opname is zo gedetailleerd dat duidelijk is welk deel van het dak de meeste warmte -uitstraling heeft , of waar zich een schoorsteen bevindt . www.gemeentedelft.info
  28. 28. Can You License ‘Open Geodata’?
  29. 29. LICENSING OPEN GEODATA  Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (ODC PDDL)  Domain of Application = Data  Full Text is at:  http://www.opendatacommons.org/odc-public-domain- dedication-and-licence/  How to Apply is at:  http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/
  30. 30. Licensing Open Data How to Apply to ODC PDDL •Insert prominently in all relevant locations relating to the database (metadata) a statement such as: This {DATA(BASE)} is made available under the Public Domain Dedication and License v1.0 whose full text can be found at: http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/ 1.0/
  31. 31. ODC PDDL – Human Readable
  32. 32. What License to Use? • Conformant, Recommended • Conformant, Non-reusable • Conformant, but Little Used, Discontinued or Deprecated • Non-Conformant Licenses o Creative Commons No-Derivatives Licenses o Creative Commons NonCommercial o Project Gutenberg License • Discontinued License
  33. 33. What are the economic benefits of geodata?
  34. 34. If Open data, then…. • 68 billion euro (Pira International, 2000) • 27 billion euro (Dekkers et al., 2006) • 40 billon euro (Vickery, 2011)
  35. 35. If Open data, then… Open data: Landsat imagery: 1 million downloads in 6 months v. 25,000 per year
  36. 36. Ordnance Survey Open Geodata Economic Value Study (June 2013) Economic Assessment net increase in GDP of £13 to £28.5 million in 2016, from:  net productivity gains (£8 – £18.2 million)  additional real tax revenues (£4.4 – £8.3 million). increase in real GNP in the range £10.2 – £24.1 million by 2016 “… an improved level of productivity in the economy, and higher overall levels of output, directly attributable to making OS OpenData free at the point of delivery.”
  37. 37. Danish e-Government Open (Geo-)data Study Good Basic (Geo-)data for Everyone – A Driver for Growth and Efficiency: E-government Strategy 2011-2015 (October 2012) Basic data to be part of e-Government Strategy 2011-2015 Basic data to be common foundation for public sector administration Open basic data will benefit public sector efficiency and drive innovation and value creation. Basic data in digital form will lead to new commercial products and public information services.
  38. 38. Danish e-Government Open (Geo-)data Study Financial Benefits from Open Basic Data Net returns for the public sector “Once the initiative has been completely phased in, in 2020, there are expected savings for the public sector of about DKK 250 million per year (34 million euro ) as a result of lower administration costs.”
  39. 39. MetroGIS Free & Open Data Making Public GIS Data Free and Open: Benefits and Challenges by MetroGIS Data Producers Work Group, April 2013 MetroGIS: local geographic information systems initiative serving the seven-county Minneapolis-St. Paul (Minnesota) metropolitan area
  40. 40. MetroGIS - Benefits Benefits for Public Agencies Cost savings (more efficient organizational operation). Revenue enhancement (more efficient means to collect taxes or revenue from regulatory enforcement). More efficient delivery of services to the public & efficient means of conducting agency business Improved analytical and decision making capabilities. Enhanced ability to communicate and quantify the work of agencies to the public and policy makers.
  41. 41. MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits Improves the function of a democratic society ensures the transparency of government and public process enables an informed & participatory citizenry and accountable government fosters building of relationships between organizations, public and private improved emergency planning preparation = increased public safety
  42. 42. MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits Facilitates wider data use and enhances value •speeds development of data-based services, tools, and applications •promotes innovation and entrepreneurship •promotes and facilitates planning, development and maintenance of physical infrastructure •promotes and facilitates understanding and preservation of natural environment •helps increase quality of the data for all, by reporting potential errors
  43. 43. MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits Creates opportunities to realize cost savings •reduces or eliminates duplication of effort for data development •data partnerships result in cost savings on acquisition and maintenance of data •allows organizations to more effectively deploy their resources = reduced cost
  44. 44. MetroGIS – Intangible Benefits Offer improved analysis and decision making organizations can leverage shared data to drive core business decisions promotes more consistent cross-jurisdictional and cross-organizational analysis and decision making promotes use of data from authoritative government sources makes results available to a wider audience = increased confidence in the analysis and data used
  45. 45. MetroGIS – Challenges Challenges to Making Data Available to Public •Impacts on ability to engage in cost recovery for data development •Creates liability issues due to errors, omissions, and misuse •Results in a loss of control over data •Fails to provide clear, direct (financial) benefit to data providers
  46. 46. MetroGIS - Conclusions  Agencies make a considerable investment of public funds in GIS Data. The main challenge is to ensure that this investment produces the greatest benefit to the most people.  Public capacity to leverage this investment is growing due to advances in computing & GIS technology, and the technical capabilities of the general public (e.g. crowdsourcing, ‘location aware’ devices, etc.).  Free and open data access is a key factor in leveraging this investment.  Open and free access to data requires knowledge of the broader benefits and a commitment from the County to actively address the challenges.
  47. 47. MetroGIS Conclusions  Challenges can be overcome, but require organization- wide commitment.  Replacing revenue collected from sale of GIS data is a challenge to address.  Counties that desire benefits for their citizens, businesses, schools, and other institutions through free and open access to data must make decisions regarding how to fund this loss of agency revenue.  Government GIS data should be available to everyone, not just those who can afford it or for projects with sufficient ROI to justify it.
  48. 48. Bears on the open geodata road • Legal: • Liability • Privacy • Intellectual property • Competition law • Energy law • Technology • Organisational issues • Extra costs • …
  49. 49. QUESTIONS Why Open Geodata? What are Open Geodata? Are there examples of applications based on open data? Can you license Open Geodata? What are the economic benefits of Open Data?
  50. 50. Thank You!

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