Drivers for Technology Enhanced Learning

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  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/22017189@N00/2621358221/, Tim Hamilton,
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rclupes/6729919585/,RicardCloupés
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrguep/4132947695/, Mr Guep
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/klubvibez/2868658168/, Whine and Dine
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/imh/3297961043/, Ian Hayhurst
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dgjones/2501023457/in/photostream/, DG Jones
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bubbo-tubbo/5704808752/, Bubbo.etsy.com
  • Whether or not we believe in technological determinism, the impact of technology within higher education is undeniable. Wehther that’s the change to publishing eBooks, open educational resources, the routine use of technology to supplement and support traditional teaching methods or harnessing technology to provide a fully online experience – technology *is* driving change.Schwartz, S (2012), ‘Ebooks: the format of the academic future’, The Guardian, available online from http://www.guardian.co.uk/higher-education-network/blog/2012/mar/15/ebooks-academic-future-universities-steven-schwartz (date accessed: 19/3/12)
  • “However, mobile learning is disruptive because it changes traditional roles. Is disruption good or bad? It could be a threat to the status quo, but also it could be a positive influence – refreshing and revitalizing teaching, making it more attuned to what learners need. People attracted to mobile learning are initially people who like to experiment. If a teacher is not of this disposition, changing one’s attitude may be really difficult. A great deal of change is going on in universities anyway so the introduction of mobile learning should be seen in the context of change.” (Kukulska-Hulme, 2012)Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2012), ‘Mobile Learning and the Future of Learning: An HETL Interview with Dr. Agnes Kukulska-Hulme’, Higher Education Teaching and Learning Portal, available from http://hetl.org/2012/02/28/mobile-learning-and-the-future-of-learning-an-hetl-interview-with-dr-agnes-kukulska-hulme/ (date accessed 19th March 2012)Image source: SantiMB, ‘Wired / Conectado’, http://www.flickr.com/photos/smb_flickr/2373172675/
  • Creativity – students are used to creating. When we were young we shared work with the people we could physically connect with – either face-to-face or with a significant time delay in the form of sending letters. Now, students are the producers. They are used to getting their content out there to a global audience. Whether that’s sharing photos on Facebook, creating images to share on Flickr, writing a blog, tweeting about their day, making and sharing videos… creativity can exist on a global scale at the push of a buttonImage source: photographer padawan, ‘Magic is true!’, http://www.flickr.com/photos/7933170@N03/2631820657/
  • “… smaller groups / seminars / practicals / interactivity being highlighted as something respondents wanted more of” (NUS, 2012) – mentions the use of interactive clickers as enhancing the lecture“There is a demand for being able to provide feedback online with 56.2% of students wanting to be able to feedback in this way” (NUS, 2012) – TEL can be used to facilitate communication / feedback with learners.“… another problem focus group respondents felt they suffered with their feedback was the timing, with some students highlighting the fact that their opportunity to feedback came only at the end of their course, when any subsequent improvements wouldn’t benefit their year” (NUS, 2012) – again, technology can help with facilitation / gathering of feedback to make it more valid and visible to learners“Students also increasingly want to use technology to communicate with their institution, and we must ensure that there are robust technology infrastructures in place to accommodate those students developing needs to have more interactions with university staff online” (NUS, 2012)“One might have thought that ‘flexible learning’ could have been identified as a potential improvement to student learning experiences and there was in fact an element of the focus groups that focused on this concept. Overall, however, it wasn’t particularly engaged with by the respondents and there was general confusion over the term, with most students confusing it with course / module choice.” (NUS, 2012)‘Students have to show us the way. They are often ahead of ‘us’ in using the technology. We need to tap into their knowledge – not only about technology but also about different ways of studying.’ (Kukulska-Hulme, 2012)Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2012), ‘Mobile Learning and the Future of Learning: An HETL Interview with Dr. Agnes Kukulska-Hulme’, Higher Education Teaching and Learning Portal, available from http://hetl.org/2012/02/28/mobile-learning-and-the-future-of-learning-an-hetl-interview-with-dr-agnes-kukulska-hulme/ (date accessed 19th March 2012)NUS, (2012), ‘Student Experience Research 2012 – Part 1: Teaching and Learning’, available from http://www.nus.org.uk/PageFiles/12238/2012_NUS_QAA_Teaching_and_Learning.pdf (date accessed 19th March 2012)
  • … how are we harnessing the potential of the devices they have and are familiar with? Anywhere, anytime and the ability to make authentic connections with their learning is a powerful driver. However, students may well have the devices, but do they know how to use them in an educational context? It’s not safe to assume this! (JISC, 2008)JISC (2008), ‘Google Generation is a myth, says new research’, JISC [online], available from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/news/stories/2008/01/googlegen.aspx (date accessed 20th March 2012)
  • ‘The aim of a ‘students as consumers’ model… invites students to navigate higher education as a market, making choices and judgements about value for money as they go; it emphasises student satisfaction and calls for institutions to respond to both students’ demands, as individual learners, and indeed student demand, in aggregate, in a constantly evolving market’ (Streeting and Wise, 2009)Streeting, W. and Wise, G. (2009), ‘Rethinking the values of higher education – consumption, partnership, community?’, The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, available from: http://www.qaa.ac.uk/Publications/InformationAndGuidance/Documents/Rethinking.pdf (date accessed: 19th March 2012)
  • Students needs to manage their digital footprint. They need to manage their online presence. They need to present themselves online. They can promote or dismiss an institution with their web of connections. Their viral marketing is something we can harness – but we have to understand it to use it.
  • It’s not just the fact that students are working, employability is also driving forwards technology enhanced learning. This is not just about gaining ICT skills, but also developing the flexibility, critical thinking and creativity required by employers, ‘In essence, the emphasis is on developing critical, reflective abilities, with a view to empowering and enhancing the learner.’ (Harvey, 2003 in Pegg et al 2012). TEL can support students on placements, it can help develop reflective skills, it can facilitate communication with employers and bring the professionals into the classroom. Employability may be a buzzword, but the role of TEL is tangible in making the connection between education and employment.Pegg, A., Waldock, J., Hendy-Isaac, S. and Lawton, R. (2012), ‘Pedagogy for employability’, The Higher Education Academy [online], available from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/employability/pedagogy_for_employability_update_2012.pdf (date accessed 20th March 2012)
  • From non-traditional students to those with additional requirements, taking into account the needs of learners is another driving factor. http://techdis.ac.uk
  • Whether it’s working with international students on campus or distance learning – again, the rise in demand for courses from international students also means that the strengths of TEL can come into play – personalisation, flexibility, mobility and the ability to deliver courses without always having to rely on a physical space in which to meet.
  • Geographically speaking at least! Technology can help learners feel more connected with their institution before, during and after their studies here. The need to bridge the physical gap opens the way for technological solutions
  • The impact of the changes to the fees students will be paying are already showing themselves – though you can’t say that the fee changes caused the drop in domestic applicants, by January 2012, the number had fallen by nearly 9% and there are fewer mature applicants too (source: The Guardian, 2012) Vasager, J. (2012), ‘Number of UK Applicants drops 8.7%, UCAS figures show’, The Guardian, 30th January 2012, available from http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2012/jan/30/uk-university-applications-drop-ucas (date accessed 20th March 2012)
  • And the impact will only continue to reveal itself. The financial changes don’t end there. Cuts to the teaching grant for universities of 18% from 2012 and potentially 24% in 2013-14 will have a huge impact across the sector (Russell, 2012). The pressure to ‘do things differently’ is also driving forwards technology enhanced learning as institutions view it as a tool to widen their reach / introduce efficiencies and deliver a better student experience (for example in the use of e-submission to streamline the return of assignments and improve the quality of feedback). Whether or not TEL will reduce costs is debatable, but there are efficiencies to be made– even simple methods such as the use of peer support / automated responses can reduce the amount of expensive staff time used – but whether this actually leads to any meaningful saving is questionable. (Mayes et al, p.50, 2009). It isn’t enough just to introduce technology as a supplemental factor – curriculum redesign instead enables the more effective embedding of TEL and if the drive towards TEL is financial, then the whole process of course delivery needs examination (Twigg, 2009)Mayes, T., Morrison, D, Mellar, H., Bullen, P. and Oliver, M. (2009), ‘Transforming higher education through Technology-Enhanced Learning’, The Higher Education Academy [online], available from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/learningandtech/Transforming.pdf (date accessed 19th March 2012)Russell, V. (2012), ‘English universities face 18% cut in teaching grants’, PublicFinance [online], 26th January 2012, available from http://www.publicfinance.co.uk/news/2012/01/english-universities-face-18-cut-in-teaching-grants/ (date accessed 20th March 2012)Twigg, C. (2009), ‘Improving Learning and Reducing Costs: New Models for Online Learning’, Educause Review, Sept/Oct 2009, available from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0352.pdf (date accessed 19th March 2012)
  • And where does the teaching coming in? Are changing teaching practices also driving the adoption of Technology Enhanced Learning? Is this all about a strategic direction / student expectations? It can seem that the actual processes of learning and teaching can get left behind, but they are vital in exploring what’s driving TEL. Feedback practicesAssessment practicesLearner-centred curriculumBlended learningOpen Educational ResourcesMOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses)
  • “… smaller groups / seminars / practicals / interactivity being highlighted as something respondents wanted more of” (NUS, 2012) – mentions the use of interactive clickers as enhancing the lecture“There is a demand for being able to provide feedback online with 56.2% of students wanting to be able to feedback in this way” (NUS, 2012) – TEL can be used to facilitate communication / feedback with learners.“… another problem focus group respondents felt they suffered with their feedback was the timing, with some students highlighting the fact that their opportunity to feedback came only at the end of their course, when any subsequent improvements wouldn’t benefit their year” (NUS, 2012) – again, technology can help with facilitation / gathering of feedback to make it more valid and visible to learners“Students also increasingly want to use technology to communicate with their institution, and we must ensure that there are robust technology infrastructures in place to accommodate those students developing needs to have more interactions with university staff online” (NUS, 2012)“One might have thought that ‘flexible learning’ could have been identified as a potential improvement to student learning experiences and there was in fact an element of the focus groups that focused on this concept. Overall, however, it wasn’t particularly engaged with by the respondents and there was general confusion over the term, with most students confusing it with course / module choice.” (NUS, 2012)‘Students have to show us the way. They are often ahead of ‘us’ in using the technology. We need to tap into their knowledge – not only about technology but also about different ways of studying.’ (Kukulska-Hulme, 2012)Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2012), ‘Mobile Learning and the Future of Learning: An HETL Interview with Dr. Agnes Kukulska-Hulme’, Higher Education Teaching and Learning Portal, available from http://hetl.org/2012/02/28/mobile-learning-and-the-future-of-learning-an-hetl-interview-with-dr-agnes-kukulska-hulme/ (date accessed 19th March 2012)NUS, (2012), ‘Student Experience Research 2012 – Part 1: Teaching and Learning’, available from http://www.nus.org.uk/PageFiles/12238/2012_NUS_QAA_Teaching_and_Learning.pdf (date accessed 19th March 2012)Image source: Max Braun, ‘Heinrich’, www.flickr.com/photos/maxbraun/104431360/
  • Is teaching keeping up with the cultural, technological, fiscal, societal, logistical, geographical demands placed on it? Have we got the skills to be able to keep on developing and changing our practice to accommodate these changes? If the future is technology enhanced learning, are we able to be part of that future? What support and development will we need to get there? And if we’re already behind, how can we make up the lost time and distance?Image source: David Blackwell, ‘Afterwards Tom and Eric weren’t exactly sure at which point during the discussion the elephant had entered the room’, http://www.flickr.com/photos/mobilestreetlife/4179063482/
  • Image source: eduardomineo, ‘26/7/2009’, http://www.flickr.com/photos/eduardom/3759050855/JISC (2008), ‘Great Expectations of ICT’, JISC Ipsos MORI, available from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/jiscgreatexpectationsfinalreportjune08.pdf (date accessed 19th March 2012)
  • What are the benefits for academic staff which are driving forward technology enhanced learning? Efficiencies – the use of e-assessment to free up staff time, the use of e-submission to streamline administrative processes etc. Flexibility – sharing resources / tapping into existing resources (i.e. JISC Design Studio). Not being tied to a physical space for teaching purposes. Personalisation – ability to adapt the curriculum to specific learner needs. Employability – developing critical, reflective abilities, giving skills to students which will benefit them in the workplace (HEA, 2012). Tools such as blogs, wikis, data visualisation, supporting placements etc are prime areas for the use of technology – it’s not just about students being able to use a computer!Enriches the curriculum and can be a catalyst for design and redesign – however, embedding technology in the curriculum can only be done by understanding it and harnessing the potential… which students need too! (JISC, 2008). Better student satisfaction – for example, the use of e-submission and e-feedback are highlighted by the NUS as being important to students and work from other institutions is showing how important the role of TEL is in improving student satisfaction (University of Greenwich, ‘Map my programme – visualising assessment’ work for example)Image source: The Wee Bear, ‘rape and the tree’, http://www.flickr.com/photos/54270409@N08/5670928980/JISC (2008), ‘Great Expectations of ICT: How Higher Education Institutions are Measuring Up’, JISC Ipsos MORI, available from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/jiscgreatexpectationsfinalreportjune08.pdf (date accessed: 19th March 2012)Pegg, A.,Waldock, J., Hendy-Isaac, S. and Lawton, R. (2012), ‘Pedagogy for Employability’, The Higher Education Academy, available from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/employability/pedagogy_for_employability_update_2012.pdf (date accessed: 19th March 2012)
  • What’s driving technology enhanced learning in your own context?How does institutional strategy impact the use of TEL? What about your professional context? What about Faculty-level strategy? How do you personally feel about it?Image source: Eduardo Amorim, ‘Andando…’,http://www.flickr.com/photos/bombeador/4238718222
  • Drivers for Technology Enhanced Learning

    1. 1. What are the drivers forTechnology Enhanced Learning?Sarah HorriganLearning Technologies Manager
    2. 2. Are students learning in a different way?Is teaching changing? What is the advantage of TEL?What about money? Can we avoid TEL? Some big questions… Is this all just strategy? Should technology be driving change? What do students expect? Where does employability fit in?Do we need to change? Where are our students from?
    3. 3. Let’s start with this question…
    4. 4. Q. What do the following 7 things have in common?
    5. 5. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/22017189@N00/2621358221/
    6. 6. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rclupes/6729919585/
    7. 7. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrguep/4132947695/
    8. 8. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/klubvibez/2868658168/
    9. 9. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/imh/3297961043/
    10. 10. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dgjones/2501023457/in/photostream/
    11. 11. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bubbo-tubbo/5704808752/
    12. 12. A. My kids have no idea what they are
    13. 13. In 5 years time… nor will your students
    14. 14. Digital is the norm
    15. 15. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/34157260@N00/6829509/ “… a technological revolution is taking place and it will go ahead with or without us” Steven Schwartz, The Guardian, 2012
    16. 16. “Technology isdisruptive becauseit changestraditional roles”Agnes Kukulska-Hulme, 2012 Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/smb_flickr/2373172675/
    17. 17. Creativity belongsto everyone Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/7933170@N03/2631820657/
    18. 18. What do studentswant?
    19. 19. Timely feedbackWhat do studentswant? Interactivity Us to catch up!To shape content Transferable skills Quality teaching Mobile learning Flexible delivery – ish!Two-way communication A personal experience Connections
    20. 20. What about the studentsthemselves?
    21. 21. Students are changing
    22. 22. Students are mobile
    23. 23. Students are ‘customers’
    24. 24. Students are connected
    25. 25. Students are employees
    26. 26. Students are diverse
    27. 27. Students are international
    28. 28. Students are dispersed
    29. 29. Students are in debt
    30. 30. Students are in LOTS of debt
    31. 31. “Students want academic staff to develop theirteaching styles to be more engaging, interactiveand use technology and props to make thesubject more accessible and interesting”Source: NUS, 2012 Image source: www.flickr.com/photos/maxbraun/104431360/
    32. 32. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mobilestreetlife/4179063482/ Teaching and learningWhat about the elephant?
    33. 33. “… universities are not currently perceived tobe leading the way in developing new wayspeople can learn.”JISC, 2008 Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/eduardom/3759050855/
    34. 34. What’s in itfor us? Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/54270409@N08/5670928980/
    35. 35. Image source:http://www.flickr.com/photos/bombeador/4238718222

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