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Employee Safety Basics

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Employee Safety Basics

  1. 1. EMPLOYEE SAFETY BASICS M J S O R O R I T Y
  2. 2. O U T L I N E REVIEWING THE DATA Leading employee injury types MANAGING THE RISK Ways to prevent leading employee injuries FURTHER LEARNING Where to go to learn more
  3. 3. C A U S E S O F I N J U R Y B Y P O S I T I O N T Y P E Falls and cuts are by far the leading causes of injury across position type.
  4. 4. P E R C E N T A G E O F E M P L O Y E E I N J U R Y C L A I M S Falls 38% Cuts 20% Lifting 15% Struck By 7% Burns 4% Ergonomics 3% Auto 3% Other 10%
  5. 5. M O S T S E V E R E E M P L O Y E E I N J U R Y C L A I M S The most severe claims are often due to falls and lifting - two of the preventable types of injuries.
  6. 6. W H E R E D O F A L L S T Y P I C A L L Y O C C U R ? Stairs and Steps (inside and outside) Interior Floors (bathroom, kitchen) Slip/Trip (carpet, rug, item on floor, cords) Elevated (ladder, stool, chair) Exterior (driveway, steps, parking lot, porch) Off Site (in stores, parking lots) Other (carrying items, unloading vehicle, in freezers) 
  7. 7. A V O I D I N G F A L L S O N S T A I R S A N D S T E P S Maintain stairs/steps in good condition: free of obstacles/storage, good carpet/tread surfaces, good handrails. Maintain good lighting – inside and outside. Don’t carry so much as to have both hands full or to have your vision obstructed. Perform regular inspections.  Keep exterior steps free of ice/snow/water accumulations. Apply and maintain slip-resistive strips on exterior wooden steps. Don’t paint wooden steps with ordinary paint – can become slick when wet.  Use a slip-resistive paint or varnish. 
  8. 8. A V O I D I N G F A L L S - I N T E R I O R F L O O R S Install floor coverings that provide good traction. Clean-up spills promptly: liquids, ice cubes, dropped foods, spilled toiletries in bathrooms. Use “wet floor” signs as needed. Use mats/rugs with slip-resistive rubber backings.  Avoid use of ‘throw” rugs. Apply and remove floor cleaning chemicals properly so as not to leave a slick chemical residue on the floor.  Also, wax can be slippery.   Maintain carpets in good condition: watch for tears, fraying, holes, especially in high traffic areas. Wear shoes with slip-resistive soles. Don’t leave objects on the floor in normal walking areas. Don’t drape electrical cords and similar items on floors, especially at doors and walkways. 
  9. 9. A V O I D I N G F A L L S - F R O M E L E V A T I O N S Inspect the stepladder or stepstool before using it.  Look for damaged/missing steps and supports, missing rubber “feet” on the stepstool, cracks, bent sections, missing connections, and other similar concerns. Don’t use a stepladder or stepstool that is too short for your needs. Be sure to fully open the ladder or stepstool and to fully secure the spreader braces.  For stools with wheels, lock the wheels into place before using them. Position the stepladder or stepstool on a good steady and even surface.  Don’t place it on slippery surfaces, stairs/steps, and other such areas which might cause it to move while in use.      
  10. 10. A V O I D I N G F A L L S - F R O M E L E V A T I O N S C O N T I N U E D Don’t “overreach” the stepladder or stepstool by standing above the noted top standing step, or by reaching out to the side.  Get a taller unit to avoid reaching overhead and reposition the unit to avoid reaching to the side. Don’t use stepladders and stepstools at areas where falling from them might cause you to fall farther than the floor on which it is positioned, such as on balconies/decks, at the top of stairs, near large open windows, etc. Don’t use a “makeshift” ladder/stool.  Don’t stand on chairs, boxes, or other such items to perform an overhead task.  Always face the ladder or stool when ascending and descending.  
  11. 11. A V O I D I N G F A L L S - F R O M E L E V A T I O N S Don’t ascend or descend a ladder or stool while carrying items.  Get help as needed. Don’t use a ladder or stool at points where passer-bys could knock you off.  Block/lock doors as needed, post signs, or use a “look-out” person. Don’t attempt to move a ladder or stool while still standing on it by “hopping” it to the next needed area. Don’t use boards, boxes, or other items to give the ladder or stool extra height. Ladders and stools are designed for use by only one person per time unless they are specifically marked for use by 2 persons.
  12. 12. A V O I D I N G F A L L S - E X T E R I O R A R E A S Watch for uneven surfaces and damage to walks and driveways, such as cracks, raised portions, etc.  Make repairs as needed. Be sure to remove ice/snow from steps, walks, driveways, and other walking surfaces promptly. Maintain good lighting in walking areas. Avoid directing gutters and downspouts to empty over walkways.  Water can make the walking area slick and might also later turn into ice.  Stay on designated walking areas. Grassy areas and other non-walking surfaces might contain hidden holes or other imperfections. Maintain good rails on porches.  Don’t sit on porch rails, lean against them, or climb onto/over them.  
  13. 13. A V O I D I N G F A L L S - O F F S I T E   Off site locations (e. g. retail stores) can present various potentials for falls. Watch for, and avoid, the same areas noted above: icy walking surfaces, damaged walking surfaces, spilled items in retails aisles. Try to park only in well lighted areas after dark. 
  14. 14. H O W D O L I F T I N G I N J U R I E S T Y P I C A L L Y O C C U R ? Lifting and carrying (boxes, furniture, unloading vehicles, luggage, trash containers, milk crates, appliances, frozen foods, food pans from ovens). Work motions (bending/kneeling to clean, twisting at the waist, breaking-up ice, shoveling snow, other housekeeping duties).  
  15. 15. T H I N G S T O C O N S I D E R W H E N L I F T I N G   Weight, size, and shape of the item to be lifted. Distance of the load from the body. Height of the load at the start and at the finish (lift overhead?  Lift item from floor?) Twisting of the torso.
  16. 16. L I F T I N G : K E E P O B J E C T S C L O S E T O Y O U R B O D Y Lifting a 10 pound object puts 10 pounds of force on your lower back if the object is kept close to your body. However, if the 10 pound object is held-out from your body, 100 pounds of force is placed on your lower back during the lift. So, if you weigh 105 pounds and lift a 10 pound object from the floor away from your body, you place 1150 pounds of force onto your lower back (force to lift 10 pounds is 100 pounds of force + force to lift your body requires 1050 pounds of force). 
  17. 17. Danger Zone The ideal lifting range is between the shoulders and the knees. Avoid heavy lifts above the shoulders and below the knees. Place heavier goods on middle shelves and lighter goods on upper and lower shelves. E R G O N O M I C P R I N C I P L E F O R L I F T I N G Danger Zone
  18. 18. Do NOT twist at the torso Twisting places significant force on the lower back, especially when lifting and carrying items. Pivot with your feet, not with your body. B A S I C L I F T I N G C O N C E P T S
  19. 19. When moving items without lifting (e. g. using a cart), it is better to push than to pull. Pulling places a lot of force on the lower back and can more quickly lead to injury. Use carts with good wheel diameter.  Carts with larger diameter wheels require less force to move than do ones with small diameter wheels. Use carts with good handles. Don’t overload the cart so as not to obstruct your vision. P U S H I N G V E R S U S P U L L I N G
  20. 20. Plan ahead and prepare for a safe carry. Check the load.  Heavy?  Awkward? Can you see around it? Is the weight evenly distributed?  Need help?  Need to break- down the load? Check your path of travel: Clear path?  Doors to open?  Good walking surface? Up or down stairs?  Need to make more than one trip? C A R R Y I N G L O A D S  
  21. 21. W H Y N O T B A C K B E L T S ? Workers gain a false sense of security. Persons might attempt to lift heavier weights than they would without a belt. Belts that are worn incorrectly (too high, too low, too tightly) can place forces on internal organs and can result in injury.
  22. 22. S T A N D A R D L I F T I N G T E C H N I Q U E S Stand close to the load with your feet slightly apart for good balance. Bend your knees and keep your back straight. Grip the load firmly with your entire hand, not just with your fingers. Avoid “jerky” lifting motions. Keep the load close to your body. When turning, move your feet – don’t twist! Reverse these steps to sit-down the load.
  23. 23. L I F T I N G W I T H T W O P E R S O N S Lifters should be of similar height to distribute the load evenly. Before starting, plan your strategy and decide who will take charge. Long loads – Each person should carry the load on the same side and walk out of step to avoid excess bounce if the item is flexible (e. g. roll of carpeting). Up and down stairs – If possible, the tallest and/or strongest person should be on the bottom, where the load is heaviest.   
  24. 24. S H O V E L I N G S N O W Shift your weight to your rear foot, keeping the load close to your body. Turn your feet in the direction of the throw – don’t twist! Don’t pick-up too much snow at one time. 
  25. 25. Avoid prolonged bending and stooping while cleaning. If you must kneel and the floor surface is hard, use knee pads. Check for “stuck” windows before opening them to clean. E R G O N O M I C C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : C L E A N I N G
  26. 26. C O M M O N C A U S E S O F C U T S Handling knives Using slicers Using box openers Contact with broken dish/glass (in sink, in trash) Sharp can lids Contact with shrink wrap box edge
  27. 27. Don’t use knives with dull blades. Don’t attempt to catch a falling knife. Don’t use knives with loose/broken handles. Don’t leave knives in a sink, especially if filled with water. K N I V E S : D O S A N D D O N ' T S Cut in a direction away from your body. Store knives in a knife block, on a magnetic bar, or in sheaths when not in use. Use knives only for their intended purpose – not as screwdrivers, can openers, ice picks, etc. Carry knives with the tips pointed toward the floor. Wear a wire mesh cutting glove on the hand not holding the knife.   D O S : D O N ' T S :
  28. 28. S L I C E R S : D O S A N D D O N ' T S Use slicers only with the blade guards in place. Don’t place your hand on the top of the blade guard while operating the slicer. Be sure to replace the blade guard after cleaning and after making adjustments. Be sure to power-off and unplug the slicer before cleaning, adjusting, and when not in use. Wear a wire mesh glove when cleaning the blade.   R E M I N D E R S :
  29. 29. Don’t place glass drinking glasses inside each other. Don’t use a drinking glass to scoop ice. Don’t submerge a hot glass into cold water or a cold glass into hot water. Don’t place broken dishware loosely into a trash bag.  Place it first into a heavy box or other item that it won’t penetrate, then place that item into the trash bag.  G L A S S E S & D I S H W A R E : D O S A N D D O N ' T S Visually inspect glasses and dishes before handling for cracks, chips, sharp edges. D O S : D O N ' T S :
  30. 30. A D D I T I O N A L T I P S T O P R E V E N T C U T S Use only a box cutter that has a retractable blade, and keep the blade retracted when not using the opener. Don’t pull the box opener toward your body. If it slips, the blade could strike you. Watch hand placement when removing wrapping material from a dispenser that has a serrated edge.   
  31. 31. H O W D O B U R N S T Y P I C A L L Y O C C U R ? Contact with a hot liquid: water, juices, gravy, tea, grease. Handling hot pans/plates. Removing pans from ovens. Contact with a heated oven, burner, or hot plate.
  32. 32. A V O I D I N G B U R N S Don’t place heated pots and pans on a stove with the handles protruding over the edge. Fill pots, pans, and buckets with heated liquids or liquids to be heated no more than 2/3 full. When adding ingredients to hot liquids (especially cooking oils), add a small portion per time, and slowly, to prevent splashing. Transport hot liquids only in closed containers. Use a cart to move large hot items – coffee urns, containers of heated food, etc.
  33. 33. Always use oven mitts when removing hot pans from an oven or when adding pans to a heated oven. Be sure to turn-off ovens and burners when finished, and make sure surfaces have cooled before touching them. Allow adequate cool- down time before cleaning. Don’t overfill the fryer.  Fill it only to the indicated maximum fill level mark. Always use tongs to add/remove items from fryers.  Don’t add food with your bare hand and don’t remove food from a fryer with a fork. When filtering the oil, make sure it has cooled and always wear appropriate eye, face, and hand protection.  B U R N P R E V E N T I O N F O R D E E P F R Y E R SF O R O V E N S
  34. 34. T Y P I C A L C A U S E S O F S T R U C K B Y / A G A I N S T I N J U R I E S Struck in head while removing stock from an upper shelf. Dropped item onto foot or leg. Caught hand between a door and a jamb. 
  35. 35. A V O I D I N G S T R U C K B Y / A G A I N S T I N J U R I E S Avoiding placing heavy/bulky items on overhead shelves or any items onto shelves where you can’t see. Lift/handle/move items correctly, as previously discussed under lifting safety, to avoid dropping them onto your legs or feet. Watch placement of hands and fingers.
  36. 36. A study found that 80% of all vehicle accidents and 65% of near-crashes involved some type of driver inattention within 3 seconds of the crash. Looking away from the forward roadway for more than 2 seconds doubles the risk of a crash or near-crash compared with normal baseline driving. Reaching for an object (e. g. food item, item falling from the seat) increased the risk of a crash or near-crash nine-fold. Drivers are 3 times as likely to be involved in a crash or near- crash when engaged in a secondary complex task (e. g. using a cell phone or texting). Driver inattention contributes to more than 45% of all crashes and near-crashes in urban environments. M O T O R V E H I C L E A C C I D E N T S
  37. 37. P R E V E N T I N G D R I V I N G D I S T R A C T I O N S Stay focused on your driving and look away from the road only as infrequently as necessary. Secure items in the vehicle in a manner so that they are unlikely to fall or move as you are driving. Use you cell phone to make/answer calls and to text only when safely parked off of the road.
  38. 38. I N J U R Y M A N A G E M E N T SEVEN  KEY STEPS TO HELP CONTROL EMPLOYEE INJURY COSTS Insure prompt medical treatment. Notify immediately. Provide information to the treating physician. If the injured worker does not return to work the same day, make contact within 24 hours. Follow-up with the physician within 24 hours. Maintain contact with the injured worker while he/she is off from work. Establish a return-to-work / light duty policy. 
  39. 39. BENEFITS OF A LIGHT DUTY POLICY Increases productivity of the employees. Helps reduce costs due to fewer lost work days. Minimizes wages lost by injured workers. Helps maintain good employee morale and communications.
  40. 40. H O W D O L I F T I N G I N J U R I E S T Y P I C A L L Y O C C U R ? Lifting and carrying (boxes, furniture, unloading vehicles, luggage, trash containers, milk crates, appliances, frozen foods, food pans from ovens). Work motions (bending/kneeling to clean, twisting at the waist, breaking-up ice, shoveling snow, other housekeeping duties).  
  41. 41. L I F T I N G W I T H T W O P E R S O N S Lifters should be of similar height to distribute the load evenly. Before starting, plan your strategy and decide who will take charge. Long loads – Each person should carry the load on the same side and walk out of step to avoid excess bounce if the item is flexible (e. g. roll of carpeting). Up and down stairs – If possible, the tallest and/or strongest person should be on the bottom, where the load is heaviest.   
  42. 42. S H O V E L I N G S N O W Shift your weight to your rear foot, keeping the load close to your body. Turn your feet in the direction of the throw – don’t twist! Don’t pick-up too much snow at one time. 
  43. 43. F U R T H E R L E A R N I N G Numerous articles and other safety materials on the MJ Sorority website: www.mjsorority.com. Numerous educational materials and safety resources on Travelers’ website: http://tinyurl.com/travelersworkplace

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