It is a philosophical movementof the 18th century thatemphasized the use of reason toscrutinize previously accepteddoctrines and traditions andthat brought about manyhumanitarian reforms.
- the Enlightenment was also aperiod of great optimism andexpectation that the world andhumanity were entering upon anew era of reason, ofenlightenment and of knowledge.
There were major sources of ideasunderlying the Enlightenmentoutlook:it owed a great deal to theRenaissance and the recovery andrevival of Classical learning; thistradition emphasised humanreason and rationality
as a path to knowledge and as away of life It focused upondeductive logic and reasoning;there was a new emphasis uponbeing human and upondeveloping and honouring boththe human mind and the humanbody.
Much of earlier Christianity hadtried to strive to be less humanand more saint like or like theangels.
The Beginnig of the enlightenmentcame from theology. This Theologyof Maimonides, Thomas, andCalvin, enabled philosophers tothink systematically.
A Lot of scholars, Christians andJews, came to Europe. In 1648 the30 years war ended in Europe andreligious wars ended. Also after somany Christians had been killingChristians, interest in Christianitydeclined.
In England Francis Baconproposed the idea that Sciencecould solve a number ofproblems that had neverpreviously been solved.His thinking wouldinfluence theEnlightenment
Thomas Hobbes came up withhis ideas on materialism and law.They would have an influence.Then John Locke stepped intothe void. With his ideas, theenlightenment began.
David Hume continued it. InFrance, it influenced Voltaireand Rousseau. As peopleinvolved in the Enlightenmentvisited other nations, it spreadthere.
Then in France it turned intothe French Revolution. TheRomantic Movement was areaction against theEnlightenment.
How did enlightenment spread ?Ideas of the Enlightenmentperiod were printed innewspapers, pamphlets, and inprotest songs. However theChurch and French governmentdid their best to stop these ideasfrom spreading.
Art, literature, and politics in thisAge explain Enlightenment ideas.The Arts1. Denis Diderot : spreadenlightened thinking inall areas by publishingthe Encyclopedia
2. Franz Joseph Haydn :broke from traditionally ornatemusical forms and developedthe sonata and symphony
3.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:set a new standard for eleganceand originality with his variedand numerous musicalcompositions
4. Ludwig van Beethoven :exhibited great range in hisworks; moved from the classicalstyle of Mozart to begin newtrend that carried music intothe Age of Romanticism
5. Samuel Richardson : wrotePamela, the first English novel
Government:6. Frederick the Great : committed himselfto the goal of reforming andstrengthening his country; granted manyreligious freedoms,reduced censorship,improved education and the justicesystem, and abolished torture;considered that the king shouldbe “first servant of thestate”
7. Joseph II : abolished serfdom,initiated legal reforms, introducedfreedom of the press, supportedfreedom of religion
8. Catherine the Great tried tomodernize and reform Russiaaccording to thewritings of thephilosophes;accomplishedlimited reforms
• 1. Joseph II : abolished serfdom• 2. Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven : composed classical music
• 3. : ruled Russia as an enlightened despot• 4. Frederick the Great : ruled Prussia as an enlightened despot• 5. Joseph II : ruled Austria as an enlightened despot
• 6. Denis Diderot :edited and published the Encyclopedia• 7. Catherine the Great :brutally crushed a massive uprising of serfs• 8. Catherine the Great: gave the nobility absolute power over the serfs
• 9. Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, and Daniel Defoe : developed many of the features of the modern novel• 10. Marie-Thérèse Geoffrin ran the most influential of Paris salons during the Enlightenment
It ended about 50 years agowhen philosophers began tounderstand that you cannot"prove" anything. You cannotprove that the universe
didnt pop into existence 5minutes ago and that all yourmemories arent fake. Youcannot prove that you are notjust a brain in a nutrient-filledvat plugged into a computerprogram that you perceive as"reality."
The only people who think in thatold 18th century way any moreare atheists and evolutionists,arrogant uneducated fools whodont realize their "faith" isalready on historys scrap pile.
Everything everyone believes,we believe by faith.Everything. Everyone. Lets getused to it.