DISRUPTING AGED CARECha nge A DESIGN MANIFESTO         for      SARA RAD                      !
Table of Contents             Preface                         3   Acknowledgements                         4         Intro...
Preface                                                                                                                  A...
Introduction    To put the world in order, we must first put the    nation in order; to put the nation in order, we    mus...
followed international trends and were first operated      Martin, Lumpkin & Moschis, 1997).                              ...
ange!    in soiled pants. Of course, you can imagine the           loved ones have the right skillsets.    outrage and pai...
I                                                                       alone; instead they will be seen and heard, have a...
ONCE YOU’VE     Question                                                                                                  ...
Empathy         THROUGH                              eyes                their         LIFE      VIEW                After...
L EA D                                     within                                              from     When you have tune...
ransform                                                                                                            T YOUR...
TRANSFORM     SOCIETAL BELIEFS                                           ghter     IN AGED CARE, TO     ATTRACT A         ...
Visit my                                                                             grandparents                         ...
LET YOUR                                        START     IMAGINATION     FLOW     Whatever ideas you come up             ...
Be          present     and see the glimmer        his hereyes       in   or        Did you pay attention to the sparkle i...
A smile can         go a long way     We underestimate the power of a smile. For an elder sitting in isolation, a smile ha...
MAKE THEM LAUGH,     THEY WANT TO        No matter what, you can always connect to people.        All that is required is ...
Life is a celebration, the fun doesn’t     need to stop just because you’re     wiser than the rest.                      ...
EMPOWERING     YOUTH      AND             ELDERLY     Let the kids of today teach the elderly of tomorrow how to use techn...
DESIGNING     VOICE YOUR                                                                                     COMMUNITY    ...
SOCIAL        COHESION     How can we as a society create a brighter future? Perhaps churches and spiritual groups can    ...
AGEING                     Let the                                design     IN PLACE                 innovation     A SER...
PRODUCT          DESIGN            engenders                 IN PLACE             AGEING     Adapting elderly people’s hom...
There is no place like                                                                       home, but this could be     B...
EMPOWERI                                     RESID                                             NG                         ...
Education is essential                                                                                                    ...
Family,health,      exerciseand                                        fun      Encourage family members to participate wi...
TAI CHI, ANY PLACE ANYTIME     This form of exercise is appropriate for seniors of all ages; it uses elegant body movement...
Sdown       low                                                                                            STAY FOCUSED.  ...
Eales, J., Keating, N., & Damsma, A. (2001). Seniors’ experiences of                   Linda, L. N., & Les, R. (2007). Tra...
Disrupting Aged Care: A Design Manifesto for Change.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Disrupting Aged Care: A Design Manifesto for Change.

1,140 views

Published on

This is the final prototype that was completed for my Master's of Design at AUT and was showcased in the Sustainable City Showcase, 2012.

Published in: Design

Disrupting Aged Care: A Design Manifesto for Change.

  1. 1. DISRUPTING AGED CARECha nge A DESIGN MANIFESTO for SARA RAD !
  2. 2. Table of Contents Preface 3 Acknowledgements 4 Introduction 5 Vision 11 References 57
  3. 3. Preface Acknowledgments This design manifesto has been prepared to assist concern, and declared she would never want to live visionaries, designers, entrepreneurs, local councils, in a nursing home, because she felt her experiences healthcare providers, caregivers, retirement industry of visiting friends in such environments were soul and families to bring about social change for the destroying. Her statement provoked an emotion of elderly as they approach retirement living. The aim fear deep inside of my stomach. It triggered a sense of this manifesto is to provoke societal thinking and outline an innovative blue ocean approach to elderly of urgency, which motivated me to devise a solution care. Additionally, its intention is to suggest a way that provides psychological security to the increasing for governances and policy makers to consider the numbers of baby boomers for their futures as elderly ageing population with dignity and imagination. people. Subsequently, I have devoted my Masters of I would like to thank my grandmother, Christine for the inspiration behind this manifesto. Additionally, my parents and partner for all of the support they have Design to this problem. I intend to illustrate how to The inspiration for this manifesto came during a visit provided during this programme. Without them, it could not have been possible. make a difference. This manifesto employs human with my 88-year-old grandmother. She turned on the television, which was broadcasting an advertisement centred design theory in combination with strategic about nursing homes. My grandmother conveyed design thinking, and offers a visionary perspective.3 4
  4. 4. Introduction To put the world in order, we must first put the nation in order; to put the nation in order, we must put the family in order; to put the family Humanity has travelled through many gruelling surrounding the delivery of aged care. The multifaceted in order, we must cultivate our personal life; challenges over the past few centuries, yet it is a part of human nature to never give up no matter how problems are complex and systemic, They originate from failed government policies, and include difficult the trials may seem. Currently, global sirens economics, retirement lifestyle providers, society, and to cultivate our personal life, we must are blasting, but no one seems to be listening to the environment, domestic relationships, elderly, human warning signals for the grey tsunami that swiftly rights inequality, district health boards, and healthcare first set our hearts right. Confucius (BC 551-BC 479) Chinese philosopher. approaches. This tsunami is representative of the ageing population, which is rapidly increasing on a and the delivery of medicine. global scale. A report written by the New Zealand Human Rights Commission expressed that some elderly (as well as This quote suggests that in order to be a potent change expressed the opinion that to inspire action we have Over the next few decades, the elderly will outnumber their caregivers) living in residential care facilities feel agency we need to lead from the inside out, for these to initiate the communication of our beliefs from within. young people due to advancements in medical undervalued, discarded, discriminated against changes to take place. It is vital that we re-educate This inspires others with a vision they can identify with technologies, increased longevity and lower fertility (Caring counts, 2012). In other words, victims of ageism. societal thinking and beliefs for growth. Of course, and allows them to make it their own. The followers rates. Baby boomers will age with a higher complexity this will not be an easy road to take. There will be will spread the word and attract like-minded people. of medical illnesses (Pool, 2007). There are numerous Also, the retirement industry has an unfavourable chaos, confusion and crisis, followed by sadness As more people join the cause, systemic transformation issues at hand. Society must address these issues and reputation that is connected to historical events. and acceptance. Simon Sinek, a leadership expert, will take place (Sinek, 2009). acknowledge the failure to manage existing pressures Originally, retirement villages in New Zealand5 6
  5. 5. followed international trends and were first operated Martin, Lumpkin & Moschis, 1997). formula for the service provider, because the average counts, 2012). Unfortunately, this will have a knock-on by religious welfare organisations. During the 1970s, occupancy to live in these facilities is six years and effect to the quality of care your loved ones might Since the 1980s, there has been a shift from the DHBs developers were contracted by the District Health there is a high demand for these services. To receive. According to the Aged Care Labour 2010 to private organisations which offer patient-centred Boards (DHBs) to build nursing homes for long-term demonstrate, the consumer buys a lease for X amount report, service in retirement villages (Eales, Keating, & care patients. Since the land and beds were subsidised, Damsma, 2001; Simpson & Cheney, 2007). As the (entry payment). Then, when they die or decide to A 2004 study of rest homes residents in Christchurch the developers created simple designs, which included demand for aged care steadily increases, large terminate their agreement, the service provider refunds found that simple preventive measures such as rudimentary buildings made up of extremely small companies such as Oceania, Metlifecare and an exit payment that is equal to the entry payment cleaning teeth and dentures are not carried out bedrooms with communal toilets. The building/design Rymands design beautiful, five star resort villages that minus a 30% ‘village contribution’. In addition to the effectively by older people or their carers (Labour, standards set by the Ministry of Health were not clearly attract wealthy consumers. However, the creation of entry and village contribution payments, there are 2010, p26). these villages is still driven by the developers of the further costs that cover care services, utilities and defined around the requirements of room dimensions, membership costs/fees. On departure, the service Therefore, inadequate oral hygiene can create a thus creating a loophole for developers. These 1970s. The buildings are still rudimentarily designed, provider will slap a new coat of paint on the walls, rip higher chance of general health risks to elderly and buildings became the benchmark for many nursing so only an absolute minimum number of staff are out the carpet, and spray some lavender air freshener increase primary healthcare costs. homes in Auckland for numerous years and based on required to work – therefore, saving costs for the service provider. It is common practice to only have one in the room, all at the consumer’s cost. From there, they A significant theme that emerged from submissions for the medical model whose environments conveyed a registered nurse to supervise a thirty-bed hospital, thirty- will research trends of increasing prices of the property the Aged Care Labour Report was that high demands sterile institutionalised and generic environment devoid bed rest home and a dementia unit (Caring counts, market and raise the price of the LTOs to match that were placed on staff in rest homes consequently of culture. Simultaneously, during this time there was 2012). Doesn’t that seem unacceptable, particularly property demands. This formula benefits the service restricted high quality care or even basic care (Labour, limited research of the aging process that caused when the services are so expensive? One would hope provider through increased profits at the cost of the 2010, p.26). misunderstanding and inconsistencies with the care that the highest standard of care is being managed consumers, not to mention the profit margins on all standards especially when dealing with chemical and There are many stories of neglect surrounding elderly and provided diligently. Family members and elderly other additional costs. physical restraints to ‘keep the patient safe.’ with dementia. A friend had similar experiences of purchase a lifestyle service that ranges from medicalisation Now you have an understanding of the retirement neglect towards her grandfather when he resided in a I am sure that you have also heard of some terrible to independent living; these are supposed to offer industry’s background, I will move on to a further major dementia care unit. One instance was when he was experiences either relating to your family or friend’s psychological security, safety, community participation, problem. There is a massive shortage of caregivers left to sit on a toilet for an hour before anyone returned family members. These stories are likely ones you social and entertainment activities, communal dining and and low recruitment rates with high turn-over of staff. to retrieve him. The second instance occurred on visit wished you never heard and cannot believe actually personalised care plans. Consequently, caregivers have considerable amounts where she observed her grandfather in an appalling happened. They are stories of neglect, abuse and Furthermore, the license to occupy (LTO) an apartment of internal pressure and responsibilities to juggle with condition. His hair was filthy and he had stains on his heartache, which rightfully give society a reason to or studio is a service model that is as far removed from little or no support. This increases stress levels, burnout clothes. He smelt tremendous because he had not consider nursing homes as a ‘last resort’ option (Karen human centred as possible. However, it is a winning and likely an unhealthy attitude towards work (Caring received a change of clothing in days and was siting7 8
  6. 6. ange! in soiled pants. Of course, you can imagine the loved ones have the right skillsets. outrage and pain this caused her and family, but also Let’s focus These are only a selection of issues that affect our he must have felt devalued and despair. This level of elderly and their carers. I do not want to dwell on care inexcusable, however I imagine that this is due to problems. We know there are many, to which we can Ch the limited time allocations in which caregivers must on relate through our own experiences or indirect complete their daily tasks. It is unbelievable to think experiences/stories of rest homes and nursing homes. that some residents may receive just one hour of care The main message that I want to express is that if we per day. continue to go about business as usual and keep our Recently, there has been some hype in the media with heads buried in the sand unprepared for the dramatic regard to the inequality of wages and pay parity increase of the ageing population, there will be a between caregivers from private and public sectors. strong backlash from the community, family and elderly. Caregivers who work for the DHBs earn higher wages than the caregivers that work for the service providers despite providing exactly the same services. I praise Let’s the people who want to work in this industry and help make a difference for our elderly. Surely they choose talk this line of work because of their passion for caring? Why else would they choose it? As I alluded to earlier, the hours are long and tedious with limited support, and carers are expected to work unpaid shifts when lutions. someone calls in sick. However, these positions need about so to be filled – because, if they aren’t, who will take care of our elderly? Someone needs to do it, if not him or her, then who? Should it be the unskilled workforce that society seems to automatically presume cares for our elderly? Perhaps that is the reason why it is the lowest paid profession in New Zealand? I have to believe that the people who take care of our cherished9 10
  7. 7. I alone; instead they will be seen and heard, have a sense of envision a future where all elderly will be cherished and belonging, be empowered, stimulated, happy, encouraged to celebrated; not only by their family members, but also by the live, celebrate life and to have meaningful experiences with their people that provide care services. I envisage a society that is local community. I picture a near future, where governance and welcoming and committed to creating a future where people policy makers are prepared and have a strategies/initiatives are treated equally with dignity and respect. I imagine a in place to support elderly persons ‘age in place’. I believe in society that is becoming more in tune with their inner self and a future where there is universal access to affordable services increasingly aware of what it means to lead from the heart that aid the ‘age in place’ model. I conceive of a future where while displaying compassion for others. I see a future where elderly persons, who can no longer take care of themselves, persons openly extend their hand to their fellow neighbours live in shared group housing set amongst mixed generational as a part of daily life, instead of only in a time of need. I neighbourhoods. I envision a future where local communities foresee a future where every elderly person who requires long- and neighbourhoods band together pulling down the walls of term care will receive a high calibre of service no matter what isolation and fostering opportunities to share wisdom and to socioeconomic circumstance they have. I envision a future bridge the generational gap. where there is a humanistic approach to the delivery of care, This future vision is achievable. We have everything and no longer will elderly persons feel fearful, forgotten and we need to take the first step. It starts here, with you.11 12
  8. 8. ONCE YOU’VE Question FINISHED QUESTIONING EVERYTHING START RESEARCHING Question your thinking, question the words I have written on these pages, question the stories you have heard, question the policy’s surrounding the ageing population, question current systems and Be open and explore everything, be a sponge and absorb all the facts, notice how you start processes of aged care, question the service providers of the retirement industry and question the to feel when you discover a piece of information that doesn’t sit well with you and be a communities. witness to your emotions.13 14
  9. 9. Empathy THROUGH eyes their LIFE VIEW After you have gathered your evidence, be still and allow your imagination to take you on a journey. Be a witness to your emotions, how are you feeling now? Listen to your inner voice. Tune in, do you hear it?15 16
  10. 10. L EA D within from When you have tuned into your inner voice and have heard a repetitive message, acknowledge it and embrace it in a loving way; take action and use it for the greater good in order to inspire others.17 18
  11. 11. ransform T YOUR compassionate mind We are one. Remember the golden rule – to care for others, as we would want to be cared for ourselves, is not too much to request. Additionally, when we help others, we help ourselves; Our minds are extremely powerful tools, if we want to inspire change, we must consciously experiences like these feed our soul. adjust our thought patterns to visualise a positive, healthy and meaningful future for our elderly.19 20
  12. 12. TRANSFORM SOCIETAL BELIEFS ghter IN AGED CARE, TO ATTRACT A Br i F uture Our belief systems are intertwined with the past and the future. At present, we believe that the elderly will become frail, lose their facilities and develop long-term illnesses therefore attracting less pleasurable experiences. But, what if I told you it is possible to recondition our thinking by challenging our youth, adults and elderly belief systems towards a healthier, happier future where elderly celebrate their remaining years. Would you believe me?21 22
  13. 13. Visit my grandparents Be a Animal companion therapy HOW CAN I their stories support services Listen to MAKE A Offer home DIFFERENCE? Celebrate Develop mixed LEARN A NEW elderly fundraisers generational programmes in LANGUAGE the community A good place to start is by brainstorming and writing a list of ideas that could contain activities, Follow your heart and adjust your language to shape your behaviour. unmet needs, companionship, events, learning, entertainment and volunteer experiences.23 24
  14. 14. LET YOUR START IMAGINATION FLOW Whatever ideas you come up TODAY with on your list will be better than no ideas at all. Pick a couple of ideas and get to it. Set aside some time and pay a spontaneous visit to an elderly person in your life; engage them, make them smile and show them you care.25 26
  15. 15. Be present and see the glimmer his hereyes in or Did you pay attention to the sparkle in their eyes when you visited with them? How about when you all laughed together?27 28
  16. 16. A smile can go a long way We underestimate the power of a smile. For an elder sitting in isolation, a smile has the opportunity to brighten their day, acknowledges that you see and care for them and lets them know they are not alone or invisible.29 30
  17. 17. MAKE THEM LAUGH, THEY WANT TO No matter what, you can always connect to people. All that is required is shifting the energy of the situation.31 32
  18. 18. Life is a celebration, the fun doesn’t need to stop just because you’re wiser than the rest. LOVE Without it, we are nothing. Only love is required in fostering life experiences and growth. It makes the world go round; a universal language that needs no translation.33 34
  19. 19. EMPOWERING YOUTH AND ELDERLY Let the kids of today teach the elderly of tomorrow how to use technology.35 36
  20. 20. DESIGNING VOICE YOUR COMMUNITY OPINION TO SERVICES THAT YOUR LOCAL RECOGNISES DIVERSITIES COUNCIL IN THE AGEING POPULATION Communicate your needs so that they can implement community programmes, events and Local councils could facilitate co-design workshops with elderly persons from age specific services that are accessible for elderly lifestyles. categories to gain insights into their needs and then design services accordingly.37 38
  21. 21. SOCIAL COHESION How can we as a society create a brighter future? Perhaps churches and spiritual groups can come forward to engage community members to care for elderly persons. Or involve local iwi to help build stronger communities and social cohesion. Maraes could aid in the delivery of aged care; allowing elderly to have a sense of belonging, where people celebrate, welcome the living and say goodbye to the people that have moved on. The facilities have the capabilities to cater and accommodate for large groups of people.39 40
  22. 22. AGEING Let the design IN PLACE innovation A SERVICE begin! DESIGN? How can designers enhance elderly lifestyles to foster ageing in place? Some daily life touchpoints include friends and family visits, GP appointments, homecare, dentist check-ups, hospital visits, blood tests, car, driving, bank, pharmacy, telephone, animals, lawyer, financial assistance, entertainment, TV, hobbies, social participation, board games, music, independence, cooking, meals on wheels, supermarket, afternoon drinks, housekeeping, cleaners, washing, emergency services.41 42
  23. 23. PRODUCT DESIGN engenders IN PLACE AGEING Adapting elderly people’s homes to met their needs in a economical approach. Understanding ergonomics specific to 80+ years. How about installing dishwashers at waist level, providing light weight kitchen utensils that support weaker physiques, adjusting the height of shelving and light switches, control systems with verbal reminders.43 44
  24. 24. There is no place like home, but this could be BREATHING the next best thing LIFE INTO MEDICAL MODELS OF CARE These small group family homes have relaxed atmospheres where caregivers are not required to where uniforms. Additionally, these homes can sleep up to five residents and provide each Let us transform institutional lifestyles into family homes with a private bedroom and shared bathrooms. Caregivers view the residents as their equals situated in mixed generational neighbourhoods. therefore providing a healthy amount of required care.45 46
  25. 25. EMPOWERI RESID NG ENTS WITH IN life THE FAMILY HOMES The of the happens in the party kitchen Home is where the kitchen is. It is a space that fosters social cohesion; sitting around the kitchen table participating in some great storytelling sessions and smelling warm aromas circulating Residents have an active role and responsibility in these homes thus allowing each to make around the house of fresh baked bread or roasted coffee for example. The subtle smells their own decisions. They are encouraged to bring their pets to live with them and participate trigger childhood memories and uplift moods, enhance overall wellbeing, motivate and in family dinners. increase productivity, not to mention an appetite to eat a hearty meal.47 48
  26. 26. Education is essential re Socio leasures P for quality ca Embracing a culture where caregivers are valued and supported by facilitating continuing Spend time with family and friends, and embrace the pleasurable and memorable experiences. training interventions to address complex health requirements of elderly persons.49 50
  27. 27. Family,health, exerciseand fun Encourage family members to participate with their grandparents in community activities that promote health, wellness and exercise. Co-design staffing ON REV OLUTI systems A human centred design approach using a multitude of methods in participatory settings can generate insights to influence the design development phases. Co-design workshops can facilitate a cohesive and creative atmosphere between stakeholders and team members. Additionally provide them a sense of ownership over and a buy-in during the design process.51 52
  28. 28. TAI CHI, ANY PLACE ANYTIME This form of exercise is appropriate for seniors of all ages; it uses elegant body movements Community gardens are a great outlet to foster meaningful experiences between generations that engage the mind, body and soul. Reducing stress, imbalances, falls and lower back by passing on traditions and sharing stories. Not only does this activity provide fun for pain; while enhancing confidence and uplifting moods (Consult with your GP prior). everyone, but it also stimulates growth for environmental, social and economic systems.53 54
  29. 29. Sdown low STAY FOCUSED. Our society is propelling into a technologically advance world. As the younger generations embrace this tech-savvy lifestyle family values are evolving. However there is a danger of Manifesting change takes time and commitment to transform complex systems, but with the losing sight of what it means to truly care, to be empathetic towards others, having patience, support of like minds and a strong desire to help make a difference for our elderly, and showing respect and dignity for our elders. anything is possible.55 56
  30. 30. Eales, J., Keating, N., & Damsma, A. (2001). Seniors’ experiences of Linda, L. N., & Les, R. (2007). Transforming Nursing Homes Into . . . Homes? SL, W., HX, B., NG, K., E, M., C, C., & T, C. (1996). Reducing frailty and client-centred residential care. Ageing & Society, 21(03), 279-296. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 99(4), 15. falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized doi:10.1017/S0144686X01008236 McLaughlin, L. A., & Braun, K. L. (1998). Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: References Ebrahim, S. (1996). Ethnic Elders. British Medical Journal, 313(7057), 610. Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making. Health & Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. Journal of the American Social Work, 23(2), 116-126. Geriactrics Society (JAGS), 44(5), 489-497. Hannemann, B. T. (2006). Creativity with Dementia Patients :Can Creativity and Art Stimulate Dementia Patients Positively? Gerontology, 52(1), MSD. (2001). New Zealand Positive Ageing Strategy (2001) [website]. Smith, D. J., & McCallion, P. (1997). Alleviating Stress for Family Caregivers of 59-65. Retrieved May 26, 2012, from http://www.msd.govt.nz/about- Frail Elders Using Horticultural Therapy. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, Aged Residential Care Service Review. (2010): New Zealand Aged Care 22(1-2), 93-105. doi:10.1300/J016v22n01_08 Heller, S. (2011). I Want My Manifesto! [Image]. Retrieved August 13, 2012, msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/planning-strategy/positive- Association. Retrieved from http://nzaca.org.nz/publication/ ageing/index.html Stichler, J. F. D., RN, FACHE, FAAN. (2009). Wicked Problems in Designing documents/ARSCR.pdf from http://imprint.printmag.com/inspiration/i-want-my-manifesto/ Mukherjee, K. (2010). Better nursing home medical care needed says gps. Healthcare Facilities [Departments: Healthcare Facilities]. JONA: The Berry, L. L., & Bendapudi, N. (2003). Clueing In Customers [pdf]. Retrieved Homma, A. (2003). Improving quality of life for elderly people with Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(10), 405-408. doi:10.1097/ dementia. Psychogeriatrics, 3(3), 93-96. doi:10.1111/j.1479- Retrieved 6 May, 2012, from http://topnews.net.nz/content/23128- from http://www.slingstone.us/uploads/Mayo_Clinic_Clueing_In_ better-nursing-home-medical-care-needed-says-gps NNA.0b013e3181b9228f (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.) Customers.pdf 8301.2003.00022.x Nicholas, G. C., Jamie, C. F., & Kevin, H. (2009). HUMANISM IN Tetreault, M.-H., & Passini, R. (2003). ARCHITECTS USE OF INFORMATION Jeffrey, L. G., Jeffery, D. H., Christopher, P. N., & Eric, C. M. (2011). IN DESIGNING THERAPEUTIC ENVIRONMENTS [Article]. Journal of Bruce, M. (1999). An Incomplete Manifesto for Growth. I D, 46(2), 56-59. NURSING HOMES: THE IMPACT OF TOP MANAGEMENT. Journal Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.s "I Have a Dream" Speech as a Tool Architectural & Planning Research, 20(1), 48. Caring counts. (2012). Wellington, New Zealand: Human Rights for Teaching Transformational Leadership and Vision. Journal of of Health and Human Services Administration, 31(4), 483. Commission. Retrieved from http://www.neon.org.nz/documents/ Organizational Behavior Education : JOBE, 4, 23-41. Notter, J. (2012). Taking the community into the home. van Hoof, J., Kort, H. S. M., van Waarde, H., & Blom, M. M. (2010). FinalReport2012_web.pdf Environmental Interventions and the Design of Homes for Older Jenkins, K. R., Pienta, A. M., & Horgas, A. L. (2002). Activity and health- Othaganont, P., Sinthuvorakan, C., & Jensupakarn, P. (2002). Daily Living Adults With Dementia: An Overview. American Journal of Castle, N. G. (2008). Nursing Home Caregiver Staffing Levels and Quality related quality of life in continuity care retirement communities. Research Practice of the Life-Satisfied Thai Elderly. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Alzheimers Disease and Other Dementias, 25(3), 202-232. of Care: A Literature Review. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 27(4), on Aging, 24, 124-149. 13(1), 24-29. doi:10.1177/104365960201300105 doi:10.1177/1533317509358885 375-405. doi:10.1177/0733464808321596 Jensen, R. (1999). The Dream Society: How the Coming Shift from Information The Planetree Model. (n.d). Retrieved June 5, 2012, from http://planetree. When Teenage Meets Old Age. (n.d). [image]. Retrieved June 5, 2012, Change Quotes - Quotations and Famous Quotes on Chnage. (n.d). [Website]. to Imagination will Transform your Business. New York: McGraw-Hill. org/?page_id=510 from http://www.livingchannel.co.nz/Resources/library/ Retrieved September 10, 2012, from http://en.proverbia.net/ Jordan, P. W. (2003). Designing Pleasurable Products. An introduction to the Polivka-West, L., & Okano, K. (2008). Nursing Home Regulation and Shows/2012_3March/WhenTeenageMeetsOldAge.jpg citastema.asp?tematica=174&page=2 new human factors. Philadelphia: Taylor & Frances e-library. Quality Assurance in the States: Seeking Greater Effectiveness for Wiegand, M. (1997). Using Design to Create a Healing Environment. Cheek, J., Ballantyne, A., Byers, L., & Quan, J. (2007). From retirement village Better Care. Generations, 32(3), 62-66. Karen Martin, G., Lumpkin, J. R., & Moschis, G. P. (1997). Mature consumer Complementary Health Practice Review, 3(1), 39-40. to residential aged care: what older people and their families say. Pool, I. (2007). The baby boom in New Zealand and other western awareness and attitudes toward retirement housing and long-term care doi:10.1177/153321019700300108 Health & Social Care in the Community, 15(1), 8-17. doi:10.1111/ alternatives. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 31(1), 113-138. developmed countries: [This paper is a revised version of the Australian j.1365-2524.2006.00646.x Population Association Borrie Lecture (2006).]. Journal of Population Krishna, A., & M. O. Lwin & M. Wijaya. (2010). Sensory Marketing: All images were purchased from shutterstock.com Chen, K.-M., & Snyde, M. (1999). A Research-Based Use of Tai Chi/ researching on the sensuality of products [Do scents evoke the same Research (Canberra, ACT), 24(2), 141-161. Movement Therapy as a Nursing Intervention. Journal of Holistic feelings across cultures.]. New York, New York Routledge: Taylor & Rantz, M. J., Zwygart-Stauffacher, M., Popejoy, L., Grando, V. T., Mehr, D. Nursing, 17(3), 267-279. doi:10.1177/089801019901700304 Francis Group. R., Hicks, L. L., ... Scott, J. (1999). Nursing home care quality: a (Sage Publications) multidimensional theoretical model integrating the views of consumers Kumar, S. (2004). Human-scale Education: Re-inventing schools to meet real Chopra, D. (2010). The Soul of Leadership: Unlocking Your Potential for needs [Commentary]. Green Teacher(73), 9-11,13. and providers. Journal of nursing care quality, 14(1), 16-37. Greatness (Unabridged) [Audio Book] doi:10.1097/00001786-199910000-00004 Kupe, V. (2000). Relocating for Retirement Or What makes for a happy Christa, H. (2010). The VAs Transformation of Nursing Home Care: From retirement? Sydney: University of South Australia. Retrieved from http:// Scharlach, A.-R. J. B. R. (2000). EDUCATING SOCIAL WORKERS FOR AN Nursing Homes to Community Living Centers. Generations, 34(2), 43. www.prres.net/Papers/Kupke_Relocating_for_retirement.pdf AGING SOCIETY: A VISION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY [Article]. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(3), 521-538. Coleman, L. J., Hladikova, M., & Savelyeva, M. (2006). The baby boomer Labour. (2010). A Report into Aged Care: What does the future hold for older market. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, New Zealanders. Retrieved from http://www.labour.org.nz/sites/ Shippee, T. P. P. (2009). "But I Am Not Moving": Residents Perspectives on 14(3), 191-209. labour.org.nz/files/Aged Care Report.pdf Transitions Within a Continuing Care Retirement Community. The Gerontologist, 49(3), 418-427. Daykin, N., Byrne, E., Soteriou, T., & OConnor, S. (2008). Review: Lee, Y., Yoon, H., Lim, S., An, S., & Hwang, J. (2012). Housing Alternatives The impact of art, design and environment in mental healthcare: to Promote Holistic Health of the Fragile Aged. Indoor and Built Simpson, M., & Cheney, G. (2007). Marketisation, participation, and a systematic review of the literature. The Journal of the Environment, 21(1), 191-204. doi:10.1177/1420326x11419349 communication within New Zealand retirement villages: a critical‚ Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 128(2), 85-94. rhetorical and discursive analysis. Discourse & Communication, 1(2), Lin, Y., Chu, H., Yang, C.-Y., Chen, C.-H., Chen, S.-G., Chang, H.-J., ... 191-222. doi:10.1177/1750481307076006 doi:10.1177/1466424007087806 Chou, K.-R. (2011). Effectiveness of group music intervention against Donoghue, C. (2010). Nursing Home Staff Turnover and Retention: An agitated behavior in elderly persons with dementia. International Sinek, S. (2009). How great leaders inspire action [Video]. Retrieved Analysis of National Level Data. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 29(1), Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(7), 670-678. doi:10.1002/ September 2, 2012, from http://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_ 89-106. doi:10.1177/0733464809334899 gps.2580 how_great_leaders_inspire_action.html57 58

×