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Nanotechnology & its Nanowires Application (By-Saquib Khan)


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Appropriate presentation for Nanotechnology & Nanowires Application. along with Nanowiresbattery.

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Nanotechnology & its Nanowires Application (By-Saquib Khan)

  2. 2. Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale to create novel structures, devices and systems. Structures (e.g.materials) Devices (e.g. sensors) Systems (e.g. NEMS)
  3. 3. Nanowires Nanowires are microscopic wires that have a width measured in nanometers.  1D structures Diameter: 1-100 nanometers (10-9 m) Length: microns (10-6 m) Typical aspect ratios of 1000 or more.  Crystal structures close to that of the bulk material  Promising framework for applying the “bottomup” approach for the design of nanostructures
  4. 4. What Are Nanowires Made of ?  Nanowires are metal just like other, regular wires. The only real difference in concept is their size. They also vary in complexity and uses. While they can do many of the same things, they have many other capabilities beyond those of regular wire.
  5. 5. How are nanowires made ?  There are varying methods used to create nanowires. The most common involve either growing them or using DNA as a template. For the latter method, a solution containing the desired metal is mixed with DNA and then exposed to UV light. When exposed, the metal in the mixture bonds to the DNA and forms a microscopic wire, a nanowire. It’s width is dependent upon how concentrated the solution of the metal is. The more concentrated the metal solution, the wider the nanowire; likewise, the less concentrated, the thinner the wire will be.
  6. 6. What good are nanowires ? Some uses of nanowires include:  Data storage/transfer - transfer data up to 1,000 times faster, and store data for as long as 100,000 years without degradation  Batteries/generators - tiny, efficient solar panels, turning light into energy, able to hold 10 times the charge of existing batteries  Transistors  LED’s  Optoelectronic devices  Biochemical sensors  Heat-pumping Thermoelectric devices
  7. 7. Nanowires : Applications Field Effect Transistors Chemical, biological sensors Logic gates Magnetic devices Nanogenerators Nanowire Batteries
  8. 8. Nanowire Battery Primary vs. Secondary Batteries  Primary batteries are disposable because their electrochemical reaction cannot be reversed.  Secondary batteries are rechargeable, because their electrochemical reaction can be reversed by applying a certain voltage to the battery in the opposite direction of the discharge.
  9. 9. Battery Types NICKEL-CADIUM (NiCd) Rechargeable Memory Effect NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE (NiMH) Rechargeable No Memory Effect LITHIUM-ION (Li-ion) Rechargable No Memory Effect
  10. 10. Economics of Nanowire Batteries  Silicon is abundant and cheap  Leverage extensive silicon production infrastructure  Don’t need high purity (expensive) Si  Nanowire growth substrate is also current collector  Leads to simpler/easier battery design/manufacture (one step synthesis)  Nanowire growth is mature and scalable technique  J.-G. Zhang et al., “Large-Scale Production of Si-Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Applications” (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  9 sq. mi. factory = batteries for 100,000 cars/day
  11. 11. Why Are Nanowires Batteries Not Being Implemented?  Nanowire are not being heavily manufactured because they are still in the development stage and are only produced in the laboratory.  Until production has been streamlined, made easier and faster, they will not be heavily manufactured for commercial purposes.
  12. 12. Advantages  The small NW diameter allows for better accommodation of the large volume changes without the initiation of fracture that can occur in bulk or micron-sized materials.  NWs have direct 1D electronic pathways allowing for efficient charge transport.  In nanowire electrodes the carriers can move efficiently down the length of each wire.  Nanowires can be grown directly on the metallic current collector.  Protects from explosions.  High storage capacity(4200mAh).
  13. 13. Disadvantage  NWs must be assembled into a composite containing conducting carbon and binders to maintain good electronic conduction throughout.  It is expensive.  Only anodes are manufactured by nanowires.
  14. 14. Future scope  In future, ordinary batteries will be replaced by Nanowire based batteries completely.  By the use of Nanowire batteries in future, we can have devices having high battery life.  By invention of some new mechanism and technology , we can get Nanowire batteries have more than 10times the ordinary battery.
  15. 15. References you/nanotechnology-nanowires application of nanotechnology Electrochemical Nanowire Devices for Energy Storage Liqiang Mai, Qiulong Wei, Xiaocong Tian, Yunlong Zhao, and Qinyou An IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 13, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 Nanowire Batteries for Next Generation Electronics Candace K. Chan, Stephen T. Connor, Yuan Yang, Ching-Mei Hsu, Robert A. Huggins, and Yi Cui
  16. 16. By- SAQUIB KHAN