Nanotechnology & its Nanowires Application (By-Saquib Khan)
By- SAQUIB KHAN
Nanotechnology is the
manipulation of matter
at the nanometer scale
to create novel
structures, devices and
Nanowires are microscopic wires that have a
width measured in nanometers.
Diameter: 1-100 nanometers (10-9 m)
Length: microns (10-6 m)
Typical aspect ratios of 1000 or more.
Crystal structures close to that of the bulk material
Promising framework for applying the “bottomup”
approach for the design of nanostructures
What Are Nanowires Made of ?
Nanowires are metal just like other, regular wires.
The only real difference in concept is their size. They
also vary in complexity and uses. While they can do
many of the same things, they have many other
capabilities beyond those of regular wire.
How are nanowires made ?
There are varying methods used to create
nanowires. The most common involve either
growing them or using DNA as a template. For
the latter method, a solution containing the
desired metal is mixed with DNA and then
exposed to UV light. When exposed, the metal in
the mixture bonds to the DNA and forms a
microscopic wire, a nanowire. It’s width is
dependent upon how concentrated the solution of
the metal is. The more concentrated the metal
solution, the wider the nanowire; likewise, the
less concentrated, the thinner the wire will be.
What good are nanowires ?
Some uses of nanowires include:
Data storage/transfer - transfer data up to 1,000 times faster, and store data for as long as
100,000 years without degradation
Batteries/generators - tiny, efficient solar panels, turning light into energy, able to hold 10
times the charge of existing batteries
Heat-pumping Thermoelectric devices
Nanowires : Applications
Field Effect Transistors Chemical, biological sensors
Primary vs. Secondary Batteries
Primary batteries are disposable because their
electrochemical reaction cannot be reversed.
Secondary batteries are rechargeable, because
their electrochemical reaction can be reversed by
applying a certain voltage to the battery in the
opposite direction of the discharge.
Economics of Nanowire Batteries
Silicon is abundant and cheap
Leverage extensive silicon production infrastructure
Don’t need high purity (expensive) Si
Nanowire growth substrate is also current collector
Leads to simpler/easier battery design/manufacture (one step
Nanowire growth is mature and scalable technique
J.-G. Zhang et al., “Large-Scale Production of Si-Nanowires for
Lithium Ion Battery Applications” (Pacific Northwest National
9 sq. mi. factory = batteries for 100,000 cars/day
Why Are Nanowires Batteries Not Being
Nanowire are not being heavily manufactured because
they are still in the development stage and are only
produced in the laboratory.
Until production has been streamlined, made easier
and faster, they will not be heavily manufactured for
The small NW diameter allows for better accommodation of the large
volume changes without the initiation of fracture that can occur in bulk
or micron-sized materials.
NWs have direct 1D electronic pathways allowing for efficient charge
In nanowire electrodes the carriers can move efficiently down the length
of each wire.
Nanowires can be grown directly on the metallic current collector.
Protects from explosions.
High storage capacity(4200mAh).
NWs must be assembled into a composite containing conducting
carbon and binders to maintain good electronic conduction
It is expensive.
Only anodes are manufactured by nanowires.
In future, ordinary batteries will be replaced by Nanowire based
By the use of Nanowire batteries in future, we can have devices
having high battery life.
By invention of some new mechanism and technology , we can get
Nanowire batteries have more than 10times the ordinary battery.
www.wikipedia.com/nanotechnoloy www.nano.gov/nanotech-101 www.nanotechgroup.org
www.googlescholar.com/ application of nanotechnology
Electrochemical Nanowire Devices for Energy Storage Liqiang Mai, Qiulong Wei, Xiaocong
Tian, Yunlong Zhao, and Qinyou An IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY,
VOL. 13, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014
Nanowire Batteries for Next Generation Electronics Candace K. Chan, Stephen T. Connor,
Yuan Yang, Ching-Mei Hsu, Robert A. Huggins, and Yi Cui