Preparation of Synthetic Fuels
by Underground Coal Gasification
Pakistan Engineering Students Festival
Society of Polymer and Petrochemical Engineers
NED university Karachi
Engr. Abdul Waheed Bhutto
Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering
Dawood University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi.
Syed Saqib Ali Zaidi
Muhammad Tajmeel Feroze
Muhammad Ali Memon
Muhammad Yousuf Memon
Dawood University of Engineering and Technology
Pakistan Oil Consumption
Pakistan consumes 371 thousand Bbl. of Oil per day.
35% of Pakistan's energy Demand provides by Oil.
90 % is utilized for Transportation.
Its Demand is Growing day by day due to Rapid
Growth in vehicle Ownership.
• Pakistan has 310 millions Bbl. proven oil
• Currently produces 67 thousand BPD.
• Pakistan's oil and gas reserves are not
enough to achieve self sufficiency in this
• In oil sector Pakistan depends on foreign
sources of oil and Imports 80 % oil of its
Alternative Liquid Fuels
In current conditions Pakistan need to look forward alternate oil
sources. Alternate liquid fuels can be produced from:
• Coal reserves of Pakistan can help balance his
future dependence of Oil.
• Thar coal contains 175 billion tons of Lignite B
to sub-bituminous A, which is most suitable
• High quality sulfur free gasoline and low mass
olefins can be prepared by Thar coal.
Chemical Analysis of Thar coal
Fischer – Tropsch
(10,000 bpd @ 85% availability)
• Capital cost
(750 million dollars)
• Operating + Raw material cost
(123 million dollars per year)
(116 million dollars @ 20% discount rates)
• Consumer profit
(~ 500 dollars per year @ average mile age)
In the current situation of Pakistan as it is
facing energy crisis in power sector and
depends on foreign sources of oil while
having vast amount of coal in its reserves.
This technology is a viable option to offset
its future dependence on foreign sources
of oil and gas.
Weighted Average Chemical Analyses of Thar Coal
As Received values (%)
Heating Values (BTU/lb)
Underground Coal Gasification
• Drilling Technology:
Controlled Retractable Injection Point(CRIP)
Two Phase(Steam & Air) gasification
Water gas (CO+H2)
Synthetic Gas Cleaning & Conditioning
(Removal of steam, solid particles, sulfur and nitrogen
compounds and CO2)
(Maintain H2:CO ratio for fischer tropsch process. A
H2:CO > 2 is ideal)
(Iron based High Temperature Fischer Tropsch)
(Fixed Fluidized Bed)
(Gasoline with low mass Olefins)
HTFT reactor mixture contains hydrocarbons
ranging C1 to C20 which may be separate out
by simple atmospheric pressure fractional