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Introduction to Planning.pptx

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Introduction to Planning.pptx

  1. 1. Dr. Shahid Ali Khan Director (Planning & Development)/ University Green Office PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi +92-51-9292140 1 MANDATORY PRE-PROMOTION TRAINING DIVISIONAL FOREST OFFICER (DFO) TO CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS(CF) Introduction to Planning, Program & Project Preparation, Overview of Planning in Pakistan
  2. 2. 2 WHAT IS PLANNING A systematic visioning of a desired future, and translating this vision into broadly defined goals, objectives and a sequence of actions for social, economic, technical and scientific development.
  4. 4. PURPOSE OF PLANNING Develop resources (of the country) as to:  Promote people welfare  Provide adequate living standards and social services  Secure social justice  Provision of Equal opportunity/No gender bias  Equitable distribution of national resources/wealth 4
  5. 5. 5 PLANNING FRAMEWORK-KEY QUESTIONS “ What to do” ? “ Why to do” ? “ How to do” ?
  6. 6. 6 MAJOR KINDS OF PLANNING Tactical Planning : focus at achieving narrowly defined interim objectives with predetermined means. Strategic Planning : looks at the wider picture and is flexible in choice of its means. Begins with the desired-end and works backward to the current status. Long Term Planning : begins with the current status and lays down a path to meet estimated future needs.
  7. 7. 7 TYPES OF PLANNING o Land use planning o Urban planning o Landscape planning o Life planning o Marketing plan o Business planning o Contingency planning o Comprehensive planning o Economic planning o Environmental planning o Financial planning o Industrial planning o Educational planning o Architectural planning o Regional planning o Strategic planning o Operational planning
  8. 8. 8 PLANNING PROCESS We Make Plans
  9. 9. WHAT IS A PLAN A package of social , economic, technical and scientific policies expressed with clear objectives and quantifiable targets to be achieved during a specified period. 9
  10. 10. MAJOR TYPES OF PLANS  Five year Plan  Medium Term Plan/Three Years Plan  Annual Plan 10
  11. 11. PLANNING MACHINERY 11 NATIONAL  Development Board-1948 (Economic Affairs Division)  National Planning Board-1953  Planning Commission-1959 (Headed by the President)  Planning Commission (Restructured)-2006 (Headed by the Deputy Chairman , Planning Commission) PROVINCIAL P&D Board – Punjab (Headed by the Chairman, P&D Board) P&D Department (Sindh, KPK, Balochistan, GB, AJK) (Headed by the Additional Chief Secretary (Development))
  12. 12. STAKEHOLDERS A stakeholder is either an individual, group or organization who is impacted by the outcome of a project or a business venture. They have an interest in the success of the project and can be within or outside the organization that is sponsoring the project. Stakeholders are very important because they can have a positive or negative influence on the project with their decisions. There are also critical or key stakeholders, whose support is needed for the project to exist.
  13. 13. TYPES OF STAKEHOLDERS Internal Stakeholders: Internal stakeholders are those who are within the organization. The project directly impacts them as they serve and are employed by the organization managing it. These can include employees, owners, the board of directors, project managers, investors and more. External Stakeholders: External stakeholders are those people who are outside of the organization and are indirectly impacted by the project. They are, however, influenced by the organization’s work but are not employees of the organization. These people can be suppliers, customers, creditors, clients, intermediaries, competitors, society, government and more.
  14. 14. STAKEHOLDERS EXAMPLES Investors: These are stakeholders looking for a financial return. They can be shareholders and debt holders. They have invested capital in the business and want a return on that investment. Employees: These stakeholders rely on their employment and job security. They have a direct stake in the organization as it supports them and provides them with benefits Customers: These stakeholders want the product or service that the project delivers and they expect it to be of quality and contain a value for themselves.
  15. 15. STAKEHOLDERS EXAMPLES………. Suppliers and Vendors: These stakeholders have their revenue tied up with the project as they sell goods and services to the business managing the project. Project success means more business for them. Communities: These stakeholders want the project not to negatively impact their health, safety or economic development. The organizations that are housed in their communities or working on projects in their communities can impact job creation, spending and much more. Government: These stakeholders get taxes and gross domestic product from a project. They are major stakeholders as they collect taxes from both the company on a corporate level and individually from those it employs.
  16. 16. OUTCOME OF PLANS Development of Programs and Projects
  17. 17. Programme is defined as a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain cumulative benefit not available from managing the projects individually. PROGRAMME
  18. 18. Project is a set of interrelated activities having:  specific time frame  specific objectives  available resources  defined deliverables 18 PROJECT
  19. 19. A project refers to an investment of resources to create assets which will produce benefits over an expanded period of time using the project cycle approach.
  20. 20. PROJECT CYCLE 20 Sequence of tasks and functions performed in the life span of a project. It commonly contains stages of design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
  21. 21. 21 Evaluation Monitoring Implementation Preparation Identification Approval Appraisal Project Cycle
  23. 23. PROJECT FORMULATION PROCESS Logical Steps Key Questions Steps Why a project ? Statement of problems What will it achieve ? Immediate Objectives / effect indicators What are the activities and resources needed ? Activities/Inputs/Financial Resources What will it produce ? Expected Outputs/output indicators What are the external factors? Threats, risks, complementarities etc What will be the impact ? Articulation of long-term Development Objectives / impact indicators
  24. 24. HOW PROJECTS ARE IDENTIFIED • To meet the unsatisfied Demand • Exploitation of unused Resources • Application of Technology • Goal Approach • Strategy Approach • Comparison with other countries • Donor Driven • Politically Motivated
  25. 25. MAJOR PROJECT COMPONENTS • Technical Aspect • Financial Aspect • Institutional Aspect • Economic Aspect • Social Aspect • Environmental Aspect
  26. 26. PROJECT FRAMEWORK Input Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact
  27. 27. FUNCTIONAL PROCESS Input  Cost  Human  Material  Technology Output  Revenue  Services  Technology  HRD  Rural Dev  Area Dev  Poverty PROJECT Time Achievement of Objectives
  28. 28. PROJECT PREPARATION INSTRUMENTS 28 PC-I Project Preparation PC-II Survey and Investigation PC-III (a & b) Annual Targets and Progress Reporting PC-IV Project Completion Report PC-V Annual Operational Report after completion of Project
  29. 29. BRIEF HISTORY OF PC-I  Original PC-I 1952  1st Revision 1961 One Composite Form  2nd Revision 1974 - 12 Sectoral PC-Is  3rd Revision 1995 - 14 Sectoral PC-Is  4th Revision 2005 – 3 PC-Is
  30. 30. LIST OF 14 PC-Is i. Agriculture Extension ii. Agriculture Production iii. Culture, Sports, Tourism, Youth and Mass Media iv. Education Training and Management v. Energy (Sub Sector Fuel) vi. Energy (Sub Sector Power) vii. Health, Family Planning and Social Welfare viii.Housing, Buildings & Town Planning ix. Industry Sector x. Irrigation Drainage and Flood Control xi. Research xii. Tele-Communication xiii.Transport & Communication xiv.Water and Sewerage Projects
  31. 31. Latest Revision of PC-Is  14 PC-Is converted 03 Sectoral PC-Is:  Production Sectors  Infrastructure Sectors  Social Sectors
  32. 32. Line Departments of Province P&D Department PDWP headed by ACS (Dev) Planning Commission CDWP headed by Dy. Chairman ECNEC headed by Finance Minister PROCESS OF PROJECT PREPARATION (PROVINCIAL)
  34. 34. Name of the Forum Chaired by Sanctioning Powers ECNEC Finance Minister Over Rs.10.00 billion. CDWP Dy. Chairman, Planning Commission Upto Rs.10.00 billion PDWP* Chairman, P&D Board/ Addl. Chief Secretary (Dev.) of the Province Upto Rs.10.00 billion other than irrigation/ water sector DDWP Secretary of the Federal Ministries Upto Rs. 2.00 billion DDSC Provincial Secretary Upto Rs. 400.00 million *If cost of the project includes 25% or more foreign exchange / foreign assistance, the approving forum will be CDWP/ECNEC irrespective of the cost of the project.
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