Printing technologies compared

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Printing technologies compared

  1. 1. Printing technologies compared Source : Frank Dieckhoff fd@digi-com.org The digital universe of paper and printing knowledge www.sappi.com/houston
  2. 2. Analogous printing processes• Silk screen printing• Planography (offset printing)• Letterpress printing (flexo, typesetting)• Gravure printing
  3. 3. Offset printing Printing unit 1.Ink fountain 2.Ink fountain roller 3.Film roller 4.Ink transfer roller 5.Ink oscillator roller 6.Ink form roller (oscillating) 7.Ink form roller (oscillating) 8.Water fountain pan 9.Water fountain roller 10.Dampening transfer roller (oscillating) 11.Dampening form roller (oscillating) 12.Oscillator 13.Plate cylinder 14.Blanket cylinder 15.Paper webSource: manroland
  4. 4. Reel offset printing• Coldset process(newspaper print)
  5. 5. Reel offset printing - History • Offset replaces lead typesetting (1970) • Increasing use of colour in newspaper offset print (1980) • 8-Couple printing towers and satellites replace arch type and 6-cylinder units
  6. 6. Reel offset printing - History • Speed increase: – 20.000 Rev./hour in 1980 – 35.000 Rev./hour in 1995 – 50.000 Rev./hour in 2010
  7. 7. Current state of affairs in reel offset print• Web speed up to 17.2 m/second (1032m/minute)• Machine width approx. 2 meters• Gapless single drive• MIS-systems• 6/2 configurations
  8. 8. Digital printing processes• Electrophotography• Ionography• Inkjet• Magnetography• Nanography• Thermoprocessing– Thermotransfer– Thermosublimation
  9. 9. Electrophotography Source: bvdm
  10. 10. Electrophotographical processes– Dry toner• Kodak Nexpress• Océ ColorStream• Xerox iGen• Xeikon– Liquid toner• HP Indigo• Océ Infinity-Stream• Xeikon “Trillium study“
  11. 11. ElectrophotographyHigh-speed digital printing presses based on theelectrophotographical principles:- Nexpress SE 3900- Océ-Infinity-Stream- Xeikon-8800
  12. 12. Nexpress SE 3900
  13. 13. Toner sheet pressesKodak- Nexpress SE 3600- 5c printer- Printable surface 340 x 510 mm- Speed 3600 sheets/hour (A3) 131 sheets/minute (A4)- Resolution 600 dpi- Optional: reels instead of sheets; gold, silver and safety colours
  14. 14. Océ-Infinity-Stream
  15. 15. Toner web pressesOcé- InfinityStream- High-viscosity liquid toner- Machine width 710 mm- Speed up to 120 meters/minute (approx. 7200 B1 sheets/hour)
  16. 16. Xeikon-8800
  17. 17. Toner web pressesXeikon- Xeikon-8800- 5/5c printer- Machine width 512 mm (print range 504 mm)- Speed up to 260 sheets/minute (A4, depending on substrate)- Resolution 1200 x 3600 dpi (240 lpi)
  18. 18. Inkjet technologies • Continous Inkjet • Thermal • Piezo
  19. 19. Inkjet processes– Drop on Demand • Thermo – Dye/pigment » HP Txxx • Piezo – Mostly dye/pigment » InfoPrint 5000 » Océ JetStream » Kodak VL– Continuous – Dye/pigment » Kodak Prosper
  20. 20. Short history of inkjet technology• First continuous inkjet printhead (Mead Printhead, 1970)• Versamark printhead (1982-1986) – 1600 jets, 120 dpi• Scitex printhead (1992-1996) – 1024 jets, 240 dpi
  21. 21. Current state of affairs in inkjet technology• Machine widths 0.5 to 0.8 meters• Resolution 600 to 1200 dpi• 4 Grey shades (sometimes)• Pigment and colourant inks• Infrared dryers• Speed up to 220 meters/minute
  22. 22. Web pressesMachine Width Speed Pages/ Resolution (cm) (m/min) minute (dpi) (A4)HP T400 106.6 183 4926 1200 x 1200Kodak 62.4 200 3600 900 x 600Prosper6000 XLOcé 76.2 150 3030 600 x 600JetStream3300Screen 57 220 2917 720 x 360TruepressJet 520ZZKodak S10 10.56 306 600 x 600Xeikon 51.2 17 Max. 230 1200 x 12008000
  23. 23. Production systems Quelle: manroland
  24. 24. HP T410
  25. 25. Inkjet web pressesHP- T410- 4c printer- Machine width 106 cm- Speed 183 meters/minute (4C) 244 meters/minute (B/W)- Speed 1200 x 600 dpi
  26. 26. Impika iPrint eXtreme
  27. 27. Inkjet web pressesImpika Inkjet Solutions- iPrint eXtreme- 4c printer- Machine width 71.1 cm- Up to 375 m/min- Resolution 600 x 600 dpi
  28. 28. KBA RotaJet 76
  29. 29. Inkjet web pressesKBA- RotaJet 76- 4c printer- Machine width 78.1 cm- Up to 150 m/min approx. 3000 pages/minute (A4)- Resolution 600 x 600 dpi variable drop size
  30. 30. Xerox CiPress 500
  31. 31. Inkjet web pressesXerox- CiPress 500- 4c/4c printer- 152 m/min Up to 2050 pages/minute (A4)- Resolution 600 x 400 dpi- Granular resin ink
  32. 32. Landa W50
  33. 33. Inkjet web pressesLanda- W50- 4c printer- Machine width 56 cm- Up to 200 m/min- 40-300 g/m2- Resolution 600 x 600 dpi
  34. 34. Nanographyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVrCvocyC2o&feature=endscreen&NR=1
  35. 35. Nanography
  36. 36. Advantages and disadvantages– Thin ink layers/low ink consumption– Suitable for most substrates– Fast print runs (?)– High quality (??)– Possible health hazards (???)
  37. 37. The 4 elements of nanography• Nano ink• Printing process• Printing presses• Partnerships
  38. 38. Ink layer thicknessProcedure Wet DryScreen printing 15-50 µm 15-50 µmOffset 4,5 µm 1.1 - 8 µmElec.photography, -- µm 18 µmdry tonerElec.photography, 18 µm 4.5 µmliquid tonerInkjet 20 µm 1.5 µm(water based)Nanography ?? µm 0.5 µm
  39. 39. Ink layer thickness
  40. 40. Nano inks• Colour pigments (10 nanometer)• Water based inkjet print• Good light reflection• Brilliant colours• Dry ink film• Good dot definition• Gloss depending on substrate
  41. 41. Nano inks• Dot definition • Dot definition
  42. 42. Nanography• Kyocera piezo inkjet printheads „ink ejectors“• 600 dpi• Striped print samples• Sheet presses have Komori paper transport mechanisms
  43. 43. Nanography
  44. 44. Nanography• Partners: • Komori • Manroland sheetfed • Heidelberg
  45. 45. Nano inks
  46. 46. Thank you for your attention !

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