Listed Disease related to RT
•Pulmonary Vascular Disease
It is an inflammation of the throat. In most cases it is quite painful, and is
the most common cause of a sore throat.
Joint pain and muscle aches
Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
Laryngitis - Swelling and irritation of the larynx
Colds or flu.
Acid reflux( gastroesophageal reflux disease).
Overuse of your voice, such as cheering at a sports event.
Irritation, such as from allergies or smoke.
Tonsillitis - Inflammation of the tonsils
Sing & Symptoms
a high temperature
white pus-filled spots on the tonsils
swollen and tender lymph nodes (glands)
Bronchitis - An infection in your bronchial tubules caused by
Symptoms-Coughing, Production of clear, white, yellow,
grey, or green mucus (sputum), Shortness of breath,
Wheezing, Fatigue, Fever and chills, Chest pain or
discomfort, Blocked or runny nose.
Pulmonary Function test
Drink warm water with Lemon & Honey
Drink warm fluids
Salted warm water gargles
Breathe warm, moist air
Avoid smoking & lung irritants
Pneumonia - An infection deep in your lungs affecting primarily the
microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. It is usually caused by
infection with viruses or bacteria.
Types of Pneumonia
1 Mycoplasma pneumoniae
2 Streptococcus pneumoniae
cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
Antibiotics - given by mouth as tablets or liquid
Pain relieving medications
Paracetamol to reduce fever
Antibiotics given intravenously (via a drip into a vein)
Oxygen therapy - to ensure the body gets the oxygen it needs
Intravenous fluids - to correct dehydration or if the person is too
unwell to eat or drink
Physiotherapy - to help clear the sputum from the lungs.
Bronchiectasis - Widening and destruction of the airways,
often caused by recurrent infection or inflammation
Inhalation of a foreign object into the lungs (if left untreated)
Inhalation of harmful chemicals eg: ammonia
Asthma - A chronic disease in which your airway walls become
sore and swollen, narrowing so that your lungs get less air
Symptoms- wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, shortness
of breath and sputum.
Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination
of genetic and environmental factors.
Associated Disorder- Gastro esophageal reflux
disease (GERD), rhino-sinusitis, and obstructive sleep
apnea. Psychological disorders are also more
common, with anxiety disorder and mood disorders.
• While there is no cure for asthma, symptoms can typically be
improved.A specific, customized plan for proactively monitoring and
managing symptoms should be created. This plan should include the
reduction of exposure to allergens, testing to assess the severity of
symptoms, and the usage of medications. The treatment plan should
be written down and advise adjustments to treatment according to
changes in symptoms.
• Bronchodilators are recommended for short-term relief of symptoms.
In those with occasional attacks, no other medication is needed. If
mild persistent disease is present (more than two attacks a week), low-
dose inhaled corticosteroids is recommended. For those who have
daily attacks, a higher dose of inhaled corticosteroids is used. In a
moderate or severe exacerbation, oral corticosteroids are added to
• Medications used to treat asthma are divided into two general classes:
quick-relief medications used to treat acute symptoms; and long-term
control medications used to prevent further exacerbation
1-short-acting beta – adrenoceptor agonist(SABA): such as
2-Anticholinergic medication- such as ipratropium bromide
• Long-term control:-
1-Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist(LABA)-such as
salmeterol and formoterol
2-Leukotriene Antagonists - such as montelucast and zafirlukast
3-Mast cell stabilizers- such as cromolyn sodium
Swine influenza(H1N1)- also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog
flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of
swine influenza viruses.
Stay at home
Get plenty of rest
Drink a lot of liquids
Do not smoke or drink alcohol
Antivirals e.g. Zanamivir and oseltamivir
Amantadine and Rimantadine.
Nose or throat swab
Influenza (the flu) - A virus that enters your body through
your nose and mouth and causes fever, headaches, muscle
aches and sore throat
Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
Wear a face mask
Antipyretics and analgesics (e.g. Acetaminophen,
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for fever.
Antiviral agents may also be considered for treatment or
Tuberculosis (TB) - A bacterial infection that attacks the lungs
and other parts of the body and can be deadly if not treated
Caused by various strains of mycobacterium, usually Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect
other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who
have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit
respiratory fluids through the air.
Symptoms- chronic cough,
fever, chills, night sweats, loss of
appetite, weight loss, and fatigue
and significant finger clubbing.
Affected Parts-Bones, Brain,
Spinal Cord, Urinary Tract,
Sexual Organs, Lymph nodes,
Intestine and even in skin.
Prevention- BCG Vaccination.
Treatment- DOTS (Directly
observed treatment Short-courses)
Treatment of TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria.
antibiotics most commonly used are isoniazid and rifampicin.
• six months of a combination of antibiotics containing rifampicin,
isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for the first two months.
• And only rifampicin and isoniazid for the last four months.
• Where resistance to isoniazid is high, ethambutol may be added for
the last four months as an alternative.
• Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
• Ethambutol (Myambutol)
• DOTS (Directly observed treatment Short-courses)
Emphysema - A type of COPD, usually caused by cigarette
smoke, which makes it hard to catch your breath
Pulmonary embolism (PE) - A blood clot that blocks a lung
artery because of surgery or long periods of inactivity
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Damage of the
airways and air sacs from cigarette smoke and other pollutants
that prevents airflow in and out of your lungs
Chest X-ray film:.
Computed tomography of the chest
Complete blood count
Shortness of breath
Decreased ability to exercise
Ankle, feet, and leg swelling
Steroids and anticholinergics
Surgery or Lung Transplant
Lung cancer - One of the most common cancers in the world,
usually caused by cigarette smoke
Treatment options for non-small cell lung
Stage Common options
I Surgery, sometimes chemotherapy
II Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation
III Combined chemotherapy and
radiation, chemotherapy alone,
sometimes surgery based on results
of other treatments
IV Chemotherapy, targeted drug
therapy, clinical trials, supportive
Treatment options for small cell lung cancers
Stage Common options
I Surgery when possible, but usually
combined chemotherapy and
II Combined chemotherapy and
III Combined chemotherapy and
radiation, clinical trials, supportive
IV Chemotherapy, clinical trials,