Market research of conbehavior


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Market research of conbehavior

  1. 1. Pnl/september 2005 Consumer Behavior- Thru Market.Research 2-1
  2. 2. Quantitative Research • Descriptive in nature. • Enables marketers to “predict” consumer behavior. • Research methods include experiments, survey techniques, and observation. • Findings are descriptive, empirical and generalizable. 2-2
  3. 3. Qualitative Research • Consists of depth interviews, focus groups, metaphor analysis, collage research, and projective techniques. • Administered by highly trained intervieweranalysts. • Findings tend to be subjective. • Small sample sizes. 2-3
  4. 4. Figure 2.1 The Consumer Research Process Develop Objectives Collect Secondary Data Design Qualitative Research • Method • Screener questionnaire • Discussion guide Design Quantitative Research • Method • Sample design • Data collection instrument Conduct Research (Using highly trained interviewers) Collect Primary Data (Usually by field staff) Analyze Data (Subjective) Prepare Report 2-4 Exploratory Study Analyze Data (Objective) Prepare report
  5. 5. Developing Research Objectives • Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design. • A statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed. 2-5
  6. 6. Secondary Versus Primary Data • Secondary data: data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand 2-6 • Primary data: data collected by the researcher for the purpose of meeting specific objectives
  7. 7. Major Sources of Secondary Data Government Publications Internal Sources 2-7 Periodicals & Books Commercial Data
  8. 8. Data Collection Methods Observation Experimentation Surveys 2-8
  9. 9. Observational Research • Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products. • Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes. • Widely used by interpretivist researchers. 2-9
  10. 10. Experimentation • Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables. • Only one variable is manipulated at a time, keeping other elements constant. • Can be conducted in laboratories or in the field. 2-10
  11. 11. Survey Data Collection Methods Personal Interview Mail Telephone Online 2-11
  12. 12. Comparative Advantages MAIL Cost Speed Response rate Geographic flexibility Interviewer bias Interviewer supervision Quality of response 2-12 TELEPHONE Low Slow Moderate Immediate PERSONAL INTERVIEW High Slow Low Moderate High Excellent Good Difficult Excellent N/A Moderate Problematic N/A N/A Easy Difficult N/A Limited Limited Excellent Excellent ONLINE Low Fast Selfselection
  13. 13. Validity 2-13 The degree to which a measurement instrument accurately reflects what it is designed to measure.
  14. 14. Reliability 2-14 The degree to which a measurement instrument is consistent in what it measures.
  15. 15. Attitude Scales • Likert scales: easy for researchers to prepare and interpret, and simple for consumers to answer. • Rank-order scales: subjects rank items in order of preference in terms of some criteria. 2-15
  16. 16. Example of a Likert Scale Please place the number that best indicates how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about shopping online in the space to the left of the statement. 1 = Agree Strongly 2 = Agree 3 = Neither Agree or Disagree 4 = Disagree 5 = Disagree Strongly _____ a. It is fun to shop online. _____ b. Products often cost more online. _____ c. It is a good way to find out about new products. 2-16
  17. 17. Rank-Order Scales Rank the following computer manufacturers in terms of hotline help by placing a 1 next to the one who provides the best telephone help, a 2 next to the second best, until you have ranked all six. _____ IBM _____ Dell _____ Compaq 2-17 _____Hewlett Packard _____ Gateway _____ NEC
  18. 18. Qualitative Data Collection Methods InDepth Interviews Projective Techniques 2-18 Focus Groups
  19. 19. Focus Group 2-19 A qualitative research method in which eight to ten persons participate in an unstructured group interview about a product or service concept.
  20. 20. Projective Techniques 2-20 Research procedures designed to identify consumers’ subconscious feelings and motivations.
  21. 21. Customer Satisfaction Data Collection Instruments • Customer Satisfaction Surveys • Gap Analysis of Expectations versus Experience ( drug efficacy period) • Customer Complaint Analysis • Analysis of Customer Defections 2-21
  22. 22. Sampling Plan Decisions Whom to survey? How many? How & where to select them? 2-22
  23. 23. Probability Sampling Designs Simple random sample Every member of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected. Systematic random sample A member of the population is selected at random and then every “nth” person is selected. Stratified random sample The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as age groups), and random samples are drawn from each group. Cluster (area) sample The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as blocks), and the researcher draws a sample of the groups to interview. 2-23
  24. 24. Nonprobability Sampling Designs Convenience sample Judgment sample Quota sample 2-24 The researcher selects the most accessible population members from whom to obtain information (e.g., students in a classroom) The researcher uses his or her judgment to select population members who are good sources for accurate information (e.g., experts in the relevant field of study). The researcher interviews a prescribed number of people in each of several categories (e.g., 50 men and 5 women).