is the art of getting things done
through and with the people in formally
Information is data that is processed and is
presented in a form which assists decision-makers.
Management Information refers to the quality of information in
terms of its timeliness, accuracy, completeness, relevance,
A set of elements which are joined together to achieve a
A group of interrelated or interacting elements forming a
Management Information System
Management Information system is a system
consisting of people, machine, procedure,
databases and data models, as its elements. The
system gathers data from the internal & external
sources of an organization; processes it and
supplies Management Information to assist
managers in the process of decision making.
MIS Functions, Cont.
Processing of Data
Storage of Information
Retrieval of Information
Dissemination of Management Information
Types of Systems
Data Processing System.
Transaction Processing System.
Need of System Analysis
Nature of the System.
Role of the system as an interface.
Participation of Users.
Understanding of Resource Needs.
Assessment of Feasibility.
System Development Life
Information needs specifications.
Coding and development.
Steps in System Design
entry of the transactions, masterdata –
A simple data entry as per the input design
Data validation – The data entry is validated
as per the input picture specification and
Transaction validation – Validates the
transactions for its type and for its internal
Steps in System Design, Cont.
Edit and update – The errors and new data to be
updated to complete the records.
Data processing – Shows at each stage the
process and the activities such as sort, merge,
collate and compute. It also shows the use of
files and creation of new files and its further use
in the system.
Output processing – Shows whether the output
is printed, displayed and stored. Shows the
device on which the output is processed.
Structured Systems Analysis
and Design (SSAD)
The structured systems analysis develops a conceptual,
logical, and graphical model of the system, if it is
developed with reference to the objective and taking into
consideration the constraints under which the system
operates. The model is developed with four symbols as
: The logical model of the customer order
processing and issuing the order acceptance
can be shown in the model.
Model illustrates :
Documentation in the system.
Sources of documents.
Process centre for converting the customer
order into the order acceptance.
Use of stored data in the process centre.
Output or documents provided by the process
centre and its destinations.
Data Flow Diagram
DFD provide a logical clarity in terms of input,
output, use of stored data or master data already
available in the organization.
DFD can be made by detailing the system in a
The main system is divided into three levels in its
logical order-Validating, commercial processing and
decision making for acceptance.
It conveys that unless the customer order is
validated and commercially accepted, it will not be
processed for an order acceptance decision.
In each level, the stored data in the system is used.
DFD of Customer Order
DFD of Payroll Processing
Data Dictionary is an assembly of the data used in the system
giving its picture definition and its use.
Eg.- The Candidate is a data entity and its presentation in the
dictionary will be defined with specifications. The Candidate
name is defined of thirty character length.
Three items of data present in a data dictionary:
Data Element : It is the smallest unit of data and cannot be
Data Structures : It is a group of data elements handled as a unit.
Data Flows and Data Stores : Data flows is data structure in
motion. Data stores are data structures at rest. OR Data stores
are locations where data structures are temporarily stored. Data
Dictionary is an integral part of the structured specifications.
Process Modelling :
The System designer define the process
of transformation in its logical order. It
includes the graphical representation.
Customer Order Validation
It’s the logic of the process which can easily be
represented using a graphic representation, which looks
like the branches of a tree. It is easy to construct, read
For Eg. A policy can be shown through a decision tree.
Size of Order
6 or more
Less than 6
50 or more
Less than 6
logic can be represented by using
structured English. It uses logical
construction and imperative sentences
designed to carry out instructions for actions.
Decisions are made through IF-THEN-ELSE