The ability to reproduce is one of the properties which
distinguishes living from non-living matter.
The reproductive system is a system of organs
within an organism which work together for the
purpose of reproduction.
The Major organs includea. genitalia (penis and vulva)
b. Internal organs (testicles and ovaries)
Both males and females produce specialised
reproductive germ cells, called gametes. The male
gametes are called spermatozoa and the female
gametes are called ova.
Female Reproductive Systems
Male Reproductive Systems
• Formation of female gametes, ova
• production of male gametes, spermatozoa
• Reception of male gametes, spermatozoa
•Provision of suitable environments for
fertilisation of the ovum by spermatozoa and
development of the resultant fetus
• Parturition (childbirth)
• Lactation, the production of breast milk,
which provides complete nourishment for
the baby in its early life.
•transmission of spermatozoa to the female.
Some Important Parts areScrotum
Urethra & Penis
• External Genitalia (Vulva)Labia majora,
The vaginal orifice
hymen and the vestibular glands.
• Internal GenitaliaVagina
Uterine Tube (Fallopian Tubes)
The breast is the upper ventral region of an animal’s torso, particularly that
of mammals, including human beings. The breasts of a female primate’s
body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants.
– 1.1 Lymphatic drainage.
– 1.2 Shape and support.
– 1.3 Development.
– 2.1 Breastfeeding.
– 2.2 Sexual role.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE
The cyclic events that take place in a rhythmic fashion
during the reproductive period of woman’s life is called
“Female Reproductive Cycle”.
28 days (24 - 35 days)
– Absent upto 12-14 years
– Again stops after 45-50 years
– Menstrual Phase
(1 – 5 day)
– Pre ovulatory Phase (6 – 13 day)
– Post ovulatory Phase (15 – 28 day)
Biochemistry of gonadal
• Estrus + gen/gonos
• Steroid hormones produced predominantly by the
• Although the adrenals, placenta, and other organs
• Roles in both males and females.
– Males: growth spurt, skeletal maturation, maturation of
sperm, healthy libido.
– Females: development of female sex organs and
secondary sex characteristics, regulate menstrual cycle,
• 1⁰-Developing follicles in the ovaries, the
corpus luteum, and the placenta.
• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and
luteinizing hormone (LH).
• Other tissues - Liver, adrenal glands, and the
(produced in both male and female
here in testes)
(pathway continues to here
Pathways for the synthesis of testosterone (testes)
and the estrogens estradiol (ovaries) and estrone
Actions of estrogens
• On sexual organs (primary and secondary
• ovaries : stimulate follicular growth; small
doses cause an increase in weight of ovary;
large doses cause atrophy
• uterus: endometrial growth
• vagina: thickening and stratification of
• cervix: increase of cervical mucous with a
lowered viscosity (favoring sperm access)
Actions of estrogens
• Development and maintenance of internal
(fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina), and external
• skin: increase in vascularization, development
of soft, textured and smooth skin
• bone: increase osteoblastic activity
• electrolytes: retention of Na+, Cl- and water by
• cholesterol: hypocholesterolemic effect
• GI Tract: reduction of bowel motility
Medical Uses of Estrogen
• Oral contraceptives
• Menopausal hormone
therapy (Bone, Vagina, Heart)
• Breast Cancer
• Prostate Cancer
• Wound healing
Steroidal Estrogenic Drugs:
– Most active natural estrogen.
– Very short duration of action due to first pass metabolism.
– Mainly used for local effect on the uterus.
• Ethinyl estradiol:
– 15- 20 more potent than estradiol orally.
(Stertoidal Semisynthetic estrogen)
– The trans form is the active one.
As active as Estradiol.
Longer duration of action.
• Increase the risk of uterine cancer.
• Treatment of prostate cancer.
• Steroid hormone synthesized predominantly by the
corpus luteum and placenta during the
postovulatory or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
• During pregnancy, the placenta takes over the
production of progesterone.
• The adrenal cortex is also a source of small amounts
EFFECTS OG PROGESTERONE
Clinical uses of Progesterone
Adverse effects of Progesterone
Breast enlargement, headache, rise in body temp.,
oedema, acne & mood swings
Masculinization of external genitalia in the
Increased incidences of congenital abnormalities
Irregular bleeding or amenorrhea
Lower HDL (19-nortestosterone derivatives)
METABOLISM OF PROGESTERONE
• Progesterone undergoes high first pass metabolism.
Therefore synthetic preparations are more commonly
• Progesterone esters in oily solution for i.m.
• Plasma half life :- 5 minute
Blocks progest. &
During luteal phase:
Sensitize myocardium to PGs.
HCG production falls
Termination of early pregnancy – along
Once a month contraceptive
Progesterone sensitive tumors
Vomiting, diarrhoea, pelvic pain or
abdominal pain, about 5% have severe
Precaution: Not to be given to a woman with suspected ectopic
pregnancy, hematological disorders, receiving oral anticoagulants,
• It is synthesized and secreted by
gonadotropes of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.
• FSH regulates the development,
growth, pubertal maturation,
and reproductive processes
of the body.
• FSH and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
act synergistically in reproduction.
• FSH is a glycoprotein.
• The Protein Dimer contains 2 polypeptide units,
labeled alpha and beta subunits.
• The alpha subunits contain 92 amino acids.
• The beta subunits vary but generally contain 118
• The sugar part of the hormone is composed of
fructose, galactose, mannose, galactosamine,
glucosamine and sialic acid.
• The Half-life of FSH is 3-4 hours. Its molecular wt is
• In both males and females, FSH stimulates the
maturation of germ cells.
• In males, FSH stimulates maturation of
seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis.
• In males, FSH enhances the production of
androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of
the testes and is critical for spermatogenesis.
• In females, FSH initiates follicular growth,
increases the weight of the ovaries and enhances
the production of estrogens.
High FSH Levels
• Premature menopause also known as
Premature Ovarian Failure
• Poor ovarian reserve also known as Premature
• Gonadal Dysgenesis or Turner syndrome
• Certain forms of CAH
• Testicular failure.
• Luteinizing hormone (LH), also known as lutropin is
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland.
• In the female, an acute rise LH – the LH surge –
• In the male, where LH had also been called
Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH),it
stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.
• In Female,
– it controls the length and sequence of the female
– including ovulation,
– preparation the uterus for implantation of a
fertilized egg, and
– ovarian production of both estrogen and
• In males,
– it stimulates the testes to produce androgen.
• LH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein.
• Each monomeric unit is a glycoprotein molecule;
– one alpha and
– one beta subunit make the full, functional protein.
• The protein dimer contains 2 glycopeptidic subunits,
labeled alpha and beta subunits, that are noncovalently associated (i.e. without any disulfide
bridge linking them).
• The alpha subunits of LH contain 92 amino acids in
human but 96 amino acids in almost all other
vertebrate species (glycoprotein hormones do not
exist in invertebrates).
• The beta subunits vary. LH has a beta subunit of 121
amino acids (LHB) that confers its specific biologic
action and is responsible for the specificity of the
interaction with the LH receptor.
• LH is available mixed with FSH in the form of
Pergonal, and other forms of urinary
• Recombinant LH is available as lutropin alfa
• All these medications have to be given
• They are commonly used in infertility therapy
to stimulate follicular development, notably in
Diseases related with the efficiency of
• Diminished secretion of LH can result in failure of
gonadal function (hypogonadism).
• This condition is typically manifest in males as
failure in production of normal numbers of
• In females, amenorrhea is commonly observed.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
• A hormone produced by the placenta that
during the pregnancy
• HCG is shows up in urine and in blood (HCG is
what shows up in pregnancy tests)
• HCG is measured in term of mlu/ml.
Weeks after LMP HCG levels for single baby
( in mIU/ml )
0 to 5
5 to 426
18 to 7340
1080 to 56500
7650 to 229000
25700 to 288000
13 to 16 weeks
13300 to 254000
17 to 24 weeks
4060 to 165400
25 weeks to
3640 to 117000
How HCG level increases
HCG level in mIU/ml
Requited time to double
How HCG help in pregnancy report
HCG level in mlu/ml
Positive / Negative
1. To support the corpus luteum producing
progesterone when conception occurs.
2. Accelerate ovulation & formulation of
corpus luteum & to increase animal sexual
3. Stimulation of ovulation in females.
4. In hypogonadism ( lack of function of the
1 Gynecomastia (the development of
abnormally large mammary gland in males)
2 Head ache
4 Restlessness & tiredness
Prolactin (PRL) or Luteotropic hormone (LTH) is a
peptide hormone discovered by Dr. Henry Friesen.
Prolactin is secreted by the anterior pitutary
Prolactin stimulates in milk production and
Anovulation is a condition in which the ovary
does not release a ripened egg each month as
part of a woman's normal cycle in her
reproductive years. Naturally, with no egg
available for sperm, a woman cannot become
pregnant. Thus, anovulation is a prime factor in
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS
Excessive exercise and weight loss.
Suppresses the output of hormones called
gonadotropins from the hypothalamus in the
Oral contraceptive pills.
Disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian
axis, suppressing ovulation and thereby
3 minutes in blood
Oxytocin is made in magnocellular
neurosecretory cells of the
supraoptic and paraventricular
nuclei of the hypothalamus
In the pituitary gland, oxytocin is
packaged in large, dense-core
vesicles, where it is bound to
Oxytocin is also made by some
neurons in the paraventricular
nucleus that project to other parts
of the brain and to the spinal cord
Oxytocin structure. Inset shows oxytocin bound to neurophysin
DrugS form & DrugS containing oxytocin
Trade names Pitocin and
Dosage form: injectables
& nasal spray
analogues are used to
induce labor and support
labor in case of nonprogression of
OXYTOCIN : FUNCTIONS
It is best known for its roles in female
released in large amounts after distension of the
cervix and vagina during labor, and after stimulation
of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding.
Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to
facilitate birth and to increase milk production.
OXYTOCIN : FUNCTIONS contd
ON THE BREAST :
Causes Milk ejection
through a Neuroendocrine reflex.
OXYTOCIN: FUNCTIONS contd
ON THE NON PREGNANT UTERUS:
– Movement of the Female Genital Tract
– Transport of the Sperm
ON THE PREGNANT UTERUS:
Initiates Parturition or Labour.
Enhances Uterine contractions during labor.
Stretches the birth canal by a Positive
Causes involution of the Uterus after delivery.
Enlargement of the breast tissue beneath the areola
Common among elderly men
Associated weight gain.
Half of males experience enlargement of one or both
• Can be the first sign of testicular tumor
Medical evaluation is always indicated when
Breast enlargement occurs
• More common in patients with klinefelter's syndrome
breast enlargement due to fat accumulation.
The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics by Goodman and Gilman
“Perspective: Female Steroid Hormone Action” by Dr. Orla Conneely
“Progesterone vs Progestin” by Dr. Steven Hotze
“Advances in HRT: Weight benefits of drospirenone, a 17α –spirolactone-derived
progestogen” by Foidart, et al.
“Estrogens and the skin” by Brincat, et al.