Harmones of reproductive systems


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Harmones of reproductive systems

  1. 1. Hormones of Reproductive Systems Group Victors
  2. 2. S. No. Topics Presented By- 1. Introduction of Reproductive System Devendra Pandey 2. Menstrual Cycle Maulik Bhai Patel 3. Estrogen Axar Parmar 4. Progesterone Jagdish Prajapati 5. Follicle Stimulating Hormone Sanket Patel 6. L Hormone Reema Sansare 7. HCG Abhinandan Jadhav 8. Prolactin Trupti Mulik 9. Oxytocin Rohan Desai 10. Androgen Mayur Amin
  3. 3. • The ability to reproduce is one of the properties which distinguishes living from non-living matter. • The reproductive system is a system of organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of reproduction. • The Major organs includea. genitalia (penis and vulva) b. Internal organs (testicles and ovaries) • Both males and females produce specialised reproductive germ cells, called gametes. The male gametes are called spermatozoa and the female gametes are called ova.
  4. 4. Female Reproductive Systems Male Reproductive Systems • Formation of female gametes, ova • production of male gametes, spermatozoa • Reception of male gametes, spermatozoa •Provision of suitable environments for fertilisation of the ovum by spermatozoa and development of the resultant fetus • Parturition (childbirth) • Lactation, the production of breast milk, which provides complete nourishment for the baby in its early life. •transmission of spermatozoa to the female.
  5. 5. • • • • • • • Some Important Parts areScrotum Testes Spermatic Cords Seminal Vesicles Prostate Glands Urethra & Penis
  6. 6. • External Genitalia (Vulva)Labia majora, Labia minora, Clitoris, The vaginal orifice The vestibule, hymen and the vestibular glands. • Internal GenitaliaVagina Uterine Tube (Fallopian Tubes) Uterus Ovaries
  7. 7. • • • The breast is the upper ventral region of an animal’s torso, particularly that of mammals, including human beings. The breasts of a female primate’s body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants. 1 Anatomy – 1.1 Lymphatic drainage. – 1.2 Shape and support. – 1.3 Development. 2 Function – 2.1 Breastfeeding. – 2.2 Sexual role.
  9. 9. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE The cyclic events that take place in a rhythmic fashion during the reproductive period of woman’s life is called “Female Reproductive Cycle”. Duration: 28 days (24 - 35 days) – Absent upto 12-14 years – Again stops after 45-50 years Phases: – Menstrual Phase (1 – 5 day) – Pre ovulatory Phase (6 – 13 day) • Ovulation (14 day) – Post ovulatory Phase (15 – 28 day)
  10. 10. Biochemistry of gonadal hormones (Estrogen) By Axar Parmar
  11. 11. Estrogen • Estrus + gen/gonos • Steroid hormones produced predominantly by the ovaries. • Although the adrenals, placenta, and other organs may contribute. • Roles in both males and females. – Males: growth spurt, skeletal maturation, maturation of sperm, healthy libido. – Females: development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics, regulate menstrual cycle, skeletal maturation.
  12. 12. Types (1) Steroidal (2) Non-steroidal
  14. 14. Non-steroidal Estrogens • Xeno-estrogens • Phyto-estrogens • Myco-estrogens
  15. 15. Bio-synthesis • 1⁰-Developing follicles in the ovaries, the corpus luteum, and the placenta. • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). • Other tissues - Liver, adrenal glands, and the breasts.
  16. 16. Cholesterol Progesterone Pregnenolone Androstenedione Aromatase Estrone (produced in both male and female adipose cells) Progesterone Testosterone (pathway ends here in testes) Aromatase Estradiol (pathway continues to here in ovaries) Pathways for the synthesis of testosterone (testes) and the estrogens estradiol (ovaries) and estrone (adipose cells)
  17. 17. Target Tissues in Females & Males Also: Colon (& Intestine) Bladder & Urogenital Tract Lung Korach, 2001
  18. 18. Actions of estrogens • On sexual organs (primary and secondary sexual characteristics) • ovaries : stimulate follicular growth; small doses cause an increase in weight of ovary; large doses cause atrophy • uterus: endometrial growth • vagina: thickening and stratification of epithelium • cervix: increase of cervical mucous with a lowered viscosity (favoring sperm access)
  19. 19. Actions of estrogens • Development and maintenance of internal (fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina), and external genitalia • skin: increase in vascularization, development of soft, textured and smooth skin • bone: increase osteoblastic activity • electrolytes: retention of Na+, Cl- and water by the kidney • cholesterol: hypocholesterolemic effect (↑HDL,↓ LDL) • GI Tract: reduction of bowel motility
  20. 20. Medical Uses of Estrogen • Oral contraceptives • Menopausal hormone therapy (Bone, Vagina, Heart) • Breast Cancer • Prostate Cancer • Hypoestrogenism • Wound healing
  21. 21. Steroidal Estrogenic Drugs: • Estradiol: – Most active natural estrogen. – Very short duration of action due to first pass metabolism. – Mainly used for local effect on the uterus. • Ethinyl estradiol: – 15- 20 more potent than estradiol orally. OH C CH OH HO HO 17β-estradiol Ethinyl estradiol (Stertoidal Semisynthetic estrogen)
  22. 22. Nonsteroidal Estrogens • Diethylstilbesterol: – The trans form is the active one. – Advantages: • • • • As active as Estradiol. Longer duration of action. Orally active Cheap. – Disadvantages: HO • Increase the risk of uterine cancer. – Uses: • Treatment of prostate cancer. OH
  24. 24. Progesterone (pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) • Steroid hormone synthesized predominantly by the corpus luteum and placenta during the postovulatory or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. • During pregnancy, the placenta takes over the production of progesterone. • The adrenal cortex is also a source of small amounts of progesterone.
  26. 26. EFFECTS OG PROGESTERONE • • • • Reproductive system Nervous system Thermogenic function Smooth muscle
  27. 27. Clinical uses of Progesterone • As OCS • Endometriosis • HRT • Threatened abortion • Dysmenorrhoea • • Premenstrual syndrome • post-partum lactation Endometrial cancer
  28. 28. Adverse effects of Progesterone • Breast enlargement, headache, rise in body temp., oedema, acne & mood swings • • • • • Masculinization of external genitalia in the foetus Increased incidences of congenital abnormalities Irregular bleeding or amenorrhea Lower HDL (19-nortestosterone derivatives) Hyperglycemia
  29. 29. METABOLISM OF PROGESTERONE • Progesterone undergoes high first pass metabolism. Therefore synthetic preparations are more commonly used. • Progesterone esters in oily solution for i.m. administration • Plasma half life :- 5 minute
  30. 30. DRUGS PROGESTERONE AGONISTS • Prometrium • Prochieve • Crinone PROGESTERONE ANTAGONISTS • Mifepristol
  31. 31. Mifepristone • 19-nor-steroid derivative • Mechanism: • Blocks progest. & glucocorticoid receptors • During luteal phase: Pregest. Uses: PGs Menstrual bleeding • Sensitize myocardium to PGs. • HCG production falls Termination of early pregnancy – along with prostaglandin • Post-coital contraceptive • Once a month contraceptive • Progesterone sensitive tumors • Cushing’s syndrome Side effects: Vomiting, diarrhoea, pelvic pain or abdominal pain, about 5% have severe vaginal bleeding Precaution: Not to be given to a woman with suspected ectopic pregnancy, hematological disorders, receiving oral anticoagulants, Liver/renal diseases
  32. 32. Follicle Stimulating Hormone By Sanket Patel
  33. 33. Introduction • It is synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes of the Anterior Pituitary Gland. • FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. • FSH and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction.
  34. 34. Biochemical Structure • FSH is a glycoprotein. • The Protein Dimer contains 2 polypeptide units, labeled alpha and beta subunits. • The alpha subunits contain 92 amino acids. • The beta subunits vary but generally contain 118 amino acids. • The sugar part of the hormone is composed of fructose, galactose, mannose, galactosamine, glucosamine and sialic acid. • The Half-life of FSH is 3-4 hours. Its molecular wt is 30,000.
  35. 35. Biochemical Functions • In both males and females, FSH stimulates the maturation of germ cells. • In males, FSH stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis. • In males, FSH enhances the production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes and is critical for spermatogenesis. • In females, FSH initiates follicular growth, increases the weight of the ovaries and enhances the production of estrogens.
  36. 36. High FSH Levels • Premature menopause also known as Premature Ovarian Failure • Poor ovarian reserve also known as Premature Ovarian Aging • Gonadal Dysgenesis or Turner syndrome • Castration • Certain forms of CAH • Testicular failure.
  37. 37. Low FSH Levels • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome + Obesity + Hirsutism + Infertility • Kallmann syndrome • Hypothalamic suppression • Hypopituitarism • Hyperprolactinemia • Gonadotropin Deficiency
  38. 38. •Luteinizing Hormone
  39. 39. Definition • Luteinizing hormone (LH), also known as lutropin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. • In the female, an acute rise LH – the LH surge – triggers ovulation. • In the male, where LH had also been called Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH),it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.
  40. 40. Functions • In Female, – it controls the length and sequence of the female menstrual cycle, – including ovulation, – preparation the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, and – ovarian production of both estrogen and progesterone. • In males, – it stimulates the testes to produce androgen.
  41. 41. STRUCTURE • LH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein. • Each monomeric unit is a glycoprotein molecule; – one alpha and – one beta subunit make the full, functional protein. • The protein dimer contains 2 glycopeptidic subunits, labeled alpha and beta subunits, that are noncovalently associated (i.e. without any disulfide bridge linking them).
  42. 42. STRUCTURE Cont… • The alpha subunits of LH contain 92 amino acids in human but 96 amino acids in almost all other vertebrate species (glycoprotein hormones do not exist in invertebrates). • The beta subunits vary. LH has a beta subunit of 121 amino acids (LHB) that confers its specific biologic action and is responsible for the specificity of the interaction with the LH receptor.
  43. 43. SYNTHESIS
  44. 44. AVAILABILITY • LH is available mixed with FSH in the form of Pergonal, and other forms of urinary gonadotropins . • Recombinant LH is available as lutropin alfa (Luveris). • All these medications have to be given parenterally. • They are commonly used in infertility therapy to stimulate follicular development, notably in IVF therapy.
  45. 45. Diseases related with the efficiency of LH • Diminished secretion of LH can result in failure of gonadal function (hypogonadism). • This condition is typically manifest in males as failure in production of normal numbers of sperm. • In females, amenorrhea is commonly observed.
  46. 46. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
  47. 47. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin • A hormone produced by the placenta that during the pregnancy • HCG is shows up in urine and in blood (HCG is what shows up in pregnancy tests) • HCG is measured in term of mlu/ml.
  48. 48. Structure of HCG
  49. 49. Weeks after LMP HCG levels for single baby ( in mIU/ml ) 3 weeks 0 to 5 4 weeks 5 to 426 5 weeks 18 to 7340 6 weeks 1080 to 56500 7-8 weeks 7650 to 229000 9-12 weeks 25700 to 288000 13 to 16 weeks 13300 to 254000 17 to 24 weeks 4060 to 165400 25 weeks to childbirth 3640 to 117000
  50. 50. How HCG level increases HCG level in mIU/ml Requited time to double Below 1200 48-72 hrs Between 1200-6000 72-96 Above 6000 96<
  51. 51. How HCG help in pregnancy report HCG level in mlu/ml Report 5 Negative 5-25 Positive / Negative 25< Positive
  52. 52. Functions 1. To support the corpus luteum producing progesterone when conception occurs. 2. Accelerate ovulation & formulation of corpus luteum & to increase animal sexual desire. 3. Stimulation of ovulation in females. 4. In hypogonadism ( lack of function of the gonad ovaries).
  53. 53. Side effects 1 Gynecomastia (the development of abnormally large mammary gland in males) 2 Head ache 3 Depression 4 Restlessness & tiredness 5 Oedema
  54. 54. PROLACTIN
  55. 55. PROLACTIN  Prolactin (PRL) or Luteotropic hormone (LTH) is a peptide hormone discovered by Dr. Henry Friesen.  Prolactin is secreted by the anterior pitutary gland.  Prolactin stimulates in milk production and secretion.
  56. 56. PROLACTIN (PRL)
  57. 57. PRESCRIPTION DRUGS FOR INCREASING MILK SUPPLY  Metoclopramide  Domperidone  Sulpiride
  58. 58. ANOVULATION DEFINITION Anovulation is a condition in which the ovary does not release a ripened egg each month as part of a woman's normal cycle in her reproductive years. Naturally, with no egg available for sperm, a woman cannot become pregnant. Thus, anovulation is a prime factor in infertility.
  59. 59. CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS  Hyperprolactinemia.  Excessive exercise and weight loss. Suppresses the output of hormones called gonadotropins from the hypothalamus in the brain.  Oral contraceptive pills. Disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, suppressing ovulation and thereby preventing pregnancy.
  60. 60. DRUGS  Bromocriptine - suppresses prolactin level  Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) - induces ovulation, by relaese of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
  61. 61. OXYTOCIN
  62. 62. Oxytocin (sold as Pitocin, Syntocinon) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain.
  63. 63. OXYTOCIN: Produced predominantly by the Para Ventricular Nucleus (PVN) of the Hypothalamus.
  64. 64. STRUCTURE
  65. 65. Chemical Data FORMULA C43H66N12O12S2 MOLECULAR MASS 1007.19g/mol HALF-LIFE 3 minutes in blood
  66. 66. SyntheSiS Oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus In the pituitary gland, oxytocin is packaged in large, dense-core vesicles, where it is bound to neurophysin I Oxytocin is also made by some neurons in the paraventricular nucleus that project to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord
  67. 67. Oxytocin structure. Inset shows oxytocin bound to neurophysin
  68. 68. DrugS form & DrugS containing oxytocin Trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon Dosage form: injectables & nasal spray Injected oxytocin analogues are used to induce labor and support labor in case of nonprogression of parturition.
  69. 69. OXYTOCIN : FUNCTIONS It is best known for its roles in female reproduction: released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and vagina during labor, and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to facilitate birth and to increase milk production.
  70. 70. OXYTOCIN : FUNCTIONS contd ON THE BREAST : Causes Milk ejection and secretion through a Neuroendocrine reflex.
  71. 71. OXYTOCIN: FUNCTIONS contd ON THE NON PREGNANT UTERUS: – Movement of the Female Genital Tract – Transport of the Sperm – Fertilization
  72. 72. OXYTOCIN:FUNCTIONS contd ON THE PREGNANT UTERUS: Initiates Parturition or Labour. Enhances Uterine contractions during labor. Stretches the birth canal by a Positive feedback mechanism Causes involution of the Uterus after delivery.
  73. 73. ANDROGENS (Male Sex Hormones) Mayur Amin
  74. 74. TYPES OF ANDROGENS • Testosterone • Dehydroepiandrosterone • Dehydroisoandrosterone • Androstenedione
  76. 76. Cholesterol Pregnenolone Progesterone 17-α-Hydroxy Progesterone 17-α-Hydroxy Progesterone Dehydroepiandrosterone Androstenedione Dehydrogenase/ Isomerase Testosterone
  77. 77. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS Sex related physiological functions Growth, Development & Maintenance Sexual Differentiation Spermatogenesis Aggressive Behavior
  78. 78. BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS Effects on protein metabolism Effects on carbohydrate and fat metabolism Effects on mineral metabolism
  79. 79. TESTOSTERONE DEFICIENCY Hypogonadism
  80. 80. Klinefelter’s syndrome
  81. 81. Kallmann’s syndrome
  82. 82. Gynaecomastia
  83. 83. Gynaecomastia • • • • Enlargement of the breast tissue beneath the areola Common among elderly men Associated weight gain. Half of males experience enlargement of one or both breasts • Can be the first sign of testicular tumor Medical evaluation is always indicated when Breast enlargement occurs • More common in patients with klinefelter's syndrome • Pseudogynaecomastia breast enlargement due to fat accumulation.
  84. 84. Bibliography • The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics by Goodman and Gilman • • • • • • “Perspective: Female Steroid Hormone Action” by Dr. Orla Conneely <http://wikipedia.com> “Progesterone vs Progestin” by Dr. Steven Hotze <http://www.cancer.gov> “Advances in HRT: Weight benefits of drospirenone, a 17α –spirolactone-derived progestogen” by Foidart, et al. “Estrogens and the skin” by Brincat, et al. • <http://www.providence.org>