What is cancer?
Abnormal cell growth (neoplasia)
Malignant as opposed to benign
Benign: slow growth, non-invasive, no metastasis
Malignant: rapid growth, invasive, potential for metastasis
What causes the mutations that lead to
Viruses: HPV --> cervical cancer
Bacteria: H. pylori --> gastric cancer
Chemicals --> B[a]P --> lung cancer
UV and ionizing radiation --> skin cancer
What do these agents have in common?
Viruses: insertional mutagenesis
Chemicals: DNA adducts
UV and ionizing radiation: single
and double strand DNA breaks
What types of genes get mutated in
Oncogenes are activated
Normal function: cell growth, gene transcription
Tumor suppressor genes are inactivated
Normal function: DNA repair, cell cycle control, cell death
Phenotype of a cancer cell
The Six Hallmarks of Cancer
Self-sufficient growth signals
Constitutively activated growth factor signalling
Resistance to anti-growth signals
Inactivated cell cycle checkpoint
Inactivated cell death pathway
Phenotype of a cancer cell (cont'd)
The Six Hallmarks of Cancer
Resistance to cell death
Activated anti- cell death signalling
Activated VEGF signalling
Invasion and metastasis
Loss of cell-to-cell interactions, etc.
p53—a classic tumor suppressor
“The guardian of the genome”
Senses genomic damage
Halts the cell cycle and initiates DNA repair
If the DNA is irreparable, p53 will initiate the cell
Esophageal cancer :-
Esophageal cancer usually develops in the inner layer cells
and grows outward.
Endoscopic treatments such
as photodynamic therapy
Sign & Symptoms :-
chronic irritation and inflammation
resulting from a backwash of acidic
Painful or difficult swallowing.
Pain behind the breastbone.
Hoarseness and cough.
Indigestion and heartburn.
What is Stomach Cancer?
Stomach Cancer (Gastric cancer)-malignant tumor arising
from the lining of the stomach.
Stomach cancers are classified according to the type of tissue
where they originate.
Most common type of stomach cancer-
Adenocarcinoma(Starts in the glandular tissue of the
Accounts-90% to 95% of all stomach cancers.
Other forms of stomach cancer-lymphomas, which involve
the lymphatic system, and sarcomas, which involve the
connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, or blood vessels).
Who Does it Effect?
Males over the age of 55.
A diet low in fruits and vegetables.
A diet high in salted, smoked, or preserved foods.
Family history of gastric cancer.
People who use tobacco or drink alcoholic beverages
Workers in certain industries-the coal mining, nickel
refining, and rubber and timber processing industries.
Gender - men have more than double the risk of getting stomach
cancer than women.
Genetics - genetic abnormalities and some inherited cancer
syndromes may increase your risk.
Advanced age -stomach cancer occurs more often around ages
70 and 74 in men and women, respectively.
Family history of gastric cancer can double or triple the risk of
Lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating a
diet low in fruits and vegetables or high in salted, smoked, or
nitrate-preserved foods may increase your risk
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. H.
pylori is a bacterium that infects the lining of the stomach and
causes chronic inflammation and ulcers.
Signs and Symptoms
In the early stages of stomach cancer,
Indigestion and stomach discomfort
A bloated feeling after eating
Loss of appetite
In more advanced cancer,
Discomfort in the upper or middle part of the abdomen.
Blood in the stool (which appears as black, tarry stools).
Vomiting or vomiting blood.
Pain or bloating in the stomach after eating.
Weakness or fatigue associated with mild anemia (a
deficiency in red blood cells).
Stomach Cancer Diagnosis
By physical examination-enlarged lymph nodes, an enlarged
liver, increased fluid in the abdomen (ascites), or abdominal
lumps felt during a rectal exam.
Test such as
Upper GI series
Gastroscopy and biopsy
CT scans, PET scans, bone scans, laparoscopy and
endoscopic ultrasound.( to check if cancer is spread)
How Is Stomach Cancer Treated?
Stomach cancer may be treated with the following, in
combination, or alone:
Surgery, called gastrectomy, to remove all or part of
the stomach, as well as some of the tissue surrounding
Prognosis/ Survival Rate
Prognosis depends on the stage of the disease.
Stomach cancer metastasizes in as many as 80% of
cases, resulting in a very poor prognosis.
In Japan, where stomach cancer often is diagnosed
early, the 5-year survival rate is about 50%.
In the United States and most of the Western world, the
5-year survival rate ranges from 5–15%.
Follow-up care is necessary for stomach cancer
Regular physical examination and tests (e.g., CT scan,
MRI scan) are used to detect recurrent or advanced
In addition, patient’s dietary intake must be monitored
regularly to promote health.
Liver cancer :-
•Starts somewhere else and spreads to the liver.
•Reason viral hepatitis
4 main types :-
A rare type of cancer that starts in the blood vessels of the liver.
Another rare type of liver cancer occurring chiefly in young
Which starts in the bile ducts
4) Hepatocellular carcinoma,
Also known as Hepatoma.
The most common liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma
which accounts for
approximately 84% of liver cancers.
As is the case with stomach cancer, liver cancer is hard to
Colorectal cancers :-
• Colorectal cancers are common, and occur more frequently in
people over the age of 50.
• Colorectal cancers are highly treatable when detected early,
but the symptoms are often not obvious in early stages.
Sign & Symptoms :-
•Blood (either bright red or very dark) in the stool.
•Diarrhea & constipation.
•Stools that are narrower than usual.
•Frequent gas pains, bloating, fullness, or cramps.
•Weight loss for no known reason.
•Feeling very tired.
•Surgery (most often a colectomy) to remove cancer cells
•Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
Chemotherapy drugs are :-
capecitabine, fluorouracil, irinotecan, leucovorin, oxaliplatin
•Radiation therapy to destroy cancerous tissue
Management of Cancer
Keep to a normal weight
Take regular exercise
Add Garlic to everything you Eat
Eat plenty of Fruits and Vegetables
Limit Fats and oily food
Avoid unnecessary Scans