Factors Affective ESP Course Design
Nature of Particular Target and Learning Situation
1. Target Needs :
- What are the target needs?
- Gathering information about target needs?
2. Learning Needs :
- Learning needs
- Analysing learning needs
Why do Learners need to
Needs can be specified
“Concern on awareness
1. What are Target Needs?
What the learner needs to do in the target situation
Observing what situation the learner will need to
function in and then analysing the constituent parts
Need to know the learner already, so that you can then
decide which of the necessities the learners lack
“…. Need doesn’t not exist independent of a person. It is people
who build their images of their need in the basis of data
relating to themselves and their environment.”
View of needs can, and do, conflict, with a consequent de-stabilising
2. Gathering Information about
There are a number of ways in which information can be gathered about needs :
Not a once-for-all activity
Constantly checked and re-assesed
A Target Situation Analysis Framework
Why is the language needed?
How will the language be used?
What will the content areas be?
Who will the learners use the language with?
Where will the language be used?
When will the language be used?
Interpretations of needs can vary according
to the point of view of the particular
3. Learning Needs
In ESP Classroom
Make it more interesting or
In General English
The Target Situation
Not reliable indicator of what is
needed or useful in the ESP Learning
• Can determine destination
• As a compass to give general direction
Choose our route :
The vehicles guides available
(The conditions of the learning situation)
The learner’s mind
(Their knowledge, skill & strategies)
The learner’s motivation
4. Analysing Learning Needs
To analyse learning needs, we can use a similar
checklist to that used for target situation analysis :
Why are the learners taking the course?
How do the learners learn?
What resources are available?
Who are the learners?
Where will the ESP course take place?
When will the ESP course take place?
TARGET SITUATION NEED
Concerned with language use
Approach to need analysis
Must be taken into account
Why do these learners
need to learn English?
What the different General
English and ESP?
What do we mean by