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Les blessés de guerre : du corps mutilé et abandonné à la réhabilation

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Département de sociologie – Université de Genève
valerie.gorin@socio.unige.ch

Présentation lors du séminaire méthodologique sur les images des 13 et 14 Novembre 2008 organisé par la Jeune Équipe de Recherche Santé Éducation et Situations de Handicap (JE 2516) à la Maison des Sciences de l''Homme Montpellier.

http://www.images-du-handicap.santesih.com

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Les blessés de guerre : du corps mutilé et abandonné à la réhabilation

  1. 1. Les blessés de guerre: du corps mutilé et abandonné à la réhabilitation
  2. 2. I. Introduction <ul><li>Iconographie des blessés de guerre dans la société étasunienne dans la 2 ème </li></ul><ul><li>moitié du 20 ème siècle </li></ul><ul><li>Approche comparative anachronique: du Vietnam à l’Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Objet d’étude : </li></ul><ul><li>* transdisciplinaire: anthropologie / médecine / histoire militaire / sociologie / </li></ul><ul><li>politique/ juridique / médias </li></ul><ul><li>* triangulaire: héros – nation - sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Méthodologie combinant une analyse de contenu thématique inductive et </li></ul><ul><li>une grille d’analyse de l’image sémio-pragmatique </li></ul><ul><li>corpus: grandes reportages de la presse magazine américaine </li></ul><ul><li>- Vision de la souffrance des autres (Sontag, 2002), représentation victimaire </li></ul><ul><li>(Mesnard, 2002), corps en guerre (Quasimodo, n°8 et 9, 2005), rhétorique de la </li></ul><ul><li>guerre propre (Gervereau, 2006) </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Introduction
  4. 4. I. Introduction
  5. 5. II. Du Vietnam… Time , juillet 1981 Time , avril 1995 « Hearts and minds – The Vietnam war touched millions of lives around the world, leaving many shattered, a few exhilarated and some still carrying emotional shrapnel. Twenty-three share their reflections, their recurring nightmares and the lessons they took away. » Time , avril 1985
  6. 6. II. Du Vietnam… Life , juin 1970
  7. 7. III. …à l’Iraq
  8. 8. III. …à l’Iraq <ul><li>reportage sur Michael Weisskopf dans Time (octobre 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>reportage photos “Scars of war” dans Time (mars 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>reportage photos “When war is over” dans Time (novembre 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>reportage sur la médecine militaire dans Nat ional Geographic (décembre 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>reportage “The city of broken men” dans GQ (juillet 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>- reportage « Our forgotten heroes » dans Life (juin 1970) </li></ul>
  9. 9. III. …à l’Iraq « How we treat returning soldiers once the parade have passed is a measure of a country’s character and a government’s competence. Often the war shadows the warriors: […] We’ve grown up since then, embraced complexity: it doesnt’ matter that nearly two-thirds of Americans say the Iraq war wasn’t worth fighting; three- quarters say the government is not doing enough to help returning vets. They protect us when we hand them a rifle and say, ‘Go fight the enemy.’ We betray them when we hand them a pencil and say, ‘Now go fight the bureaucracy.’ » ( Time , « Taking care of our vets », Nancy Gibbs, 15 mai 2008) Time , 2 octobre 2004
  10. 10. III. …à l’Iraq Part I: « The heroes, the healing »
  11. 11. III. …à l’Iraq
  12. 12. III. …à l’Iraq Time,
  13. 13. III. …à l’Iraq
  14. 14. IV. Méthodes et résultats CONTINUUM HISTORIQUE APPORTS ET CROISEMENTS INTERDISCIPLINAIRES Gervereau Duprat, 2008 Meunier et Peraya, 1993
  15. 15. IV. Méthodes et résultats
  16. 16. IV. Méthodes et résultats 27% Uniforme militaire SYMBOLE 27% Individu-médecin-handicap FOCALE 35% Espoir (réadaptation) SENTIMENT GENERAL 15% reconstruction TEXTE 28% hôpital LIEU 20% prothèse SOIN 35% amputation HANDICAP 40% seul ENTOURAGE 36% Homme, blanc, jeune INDIVIDU 30% Vertical-profondeur COMPOSITION 60% couleurs COULEUR 26% Plan d’ensemble CADRE 24% face ANGLE
  17. 17. VI. Méthodes et résultats
  18. 18. VI. Conclusion Mouvements d’opposition Vétérans de guerre Militantisme Réhabilitation Rapport au corps et à la mutilation Médiatisation/ censure Chirurgie/ Neurologie/ Psychiatrie Medevac/ Hôpitaux de guerre Armements/ Guerre propre HANDICAP DE GUERRE
  19. 19. VI. Conclusion <ul><li>Image = point de cristallisation </li></ul><ul><li>explication du contexte d’apparition peut-être plus importante qu’un déchiffrage </li></ul><ul><li>symbolique qui risque les stéréotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Dans notre cas, le texte individualise la souffrance, la définit (situation, causes), alors </li></ul><ul><li>que la photo ne fait qu’emblématiser cette souffrance dans une litanie de corps. </li></ul><ul><li>Elle souligne aussi la prise en charge du handicap, sa réadaptation, son espoir de </li></ul><ul><li>revivre parmi les autres. Le mutilé est encadré, il est rendu effectif et actif à nouveau. </li></ul><ul><li>Image positive inspirée du militantisme des associations de vétérans, mise en valeur </li></ul><ul><li>de la réinsertion professionnelle, de l’entourage familial, du sport </li></ul><ul><li>Peu de sentiments négatifs mis en avant </li></ul><ul><li>Pourtant les handicapés vivent dans un monde séparé, celui des spécialistes qui les </li></ul><ul><li>« réparent » </li></ul><ul><li>La photo atténue-t-elle la déficience? Gros plan sur le handicap, l’appareillage, </li></ul><ul><li>le soutien paramédical, une composition de lignes brisées </li></ul>

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