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Unit 4 introduction to fuels and combustion

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Unit 4 introduction to fuels and combustion

  1. 1. Unit-4: Fuels & Combustion Mr. Santosh Damkondwar Monday, January 20, 2014
  2. 2. Introduction • Fuels • Non-renewable Conventional Sources • In Mechanical, Electrical & Chemical operations.
  3. 3. Characteristics of Good Fuels: • • • • • • • • • High Calorific Values Moderate Ignition Temperature Low Moisture Content Low Ash Content Moderate Velocity of Combustion Should not produce harmful products Low Cost Easy Storage & Transportation Easily Controllable
  4. 4. Classification • Natural or Primary Fuels Solid e.g. Wood, Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal, Dung Liquid e.g. Crude Oil, Vegetable Oil Gaseous e.g. Natural Gas
  5. 5. Classification Solid e.g. Coke, Charcoal, Liquid e.g. Tar, Kerosene, Diesel, Petrol, Gaseous e.g. Coal Gas, Water Gas, Bio-Gas
  6. 6. Calorific Values: • Calorific Value of fuel is the total quantity of heat liberated by complete combustion of a unit mass (or volume) of the fuel. • It can be expressed for Solid Fuels in terms of : Cal/gm (CGS Unit) Kcal/Kg (MKS Unit) J/Kg (SI Unit) B.Th.U. / lb (British Thermal Unit)
  7. 7. Calorific Values
  8. 8. Calorific Values: • Calorific Value of fuel is the total quantity of heat liberated by complete combustion of a unit mass (or volume) of the fuel. • It can be expressed for Gaseous Fuels in terms of : Cal/lit (CGS Unit) Kcal/m3 (MKS Unit) J/m3 (SI Unit) B.Th.U. / Ft3 (British Thermal Unit)
  9. 9. Calorific Values
  10. 10. Calorific Values
  11. 11. Calorific Values
  12. 12. Higher Calorific Values: • It is the total amount of heat liberated, when unit mass / volume of the fuel is burnt completely and the products of combustion have been cooled to room temperature (i.e. 15oC).
  13. 13. Lower Calorific Values: • It is the net amount of heat liberated, when unit mass / volume of the fuel is burnt completely and the products of combustion are allowed to escape.
  14. 14. Relation between GCV & LCV: • These can be related as: NCV = GCV – Latent heat of water vapor formed or = GCV – (Mass of Hydrogen × Latent heat of steam) = GCV – [(9 × Mass of hydrogen) × Latent heat of steam] If mass of hydrogen is expressed as % of H, then NCV = GCV – [9× H/100 × 587] cal/gm
  15. 15. Determination of Calorific Value: • Calorific Value of the fuel is determined by heating known amount of fuel, in presence of oxygen in calorimeter. • Principle o Total heat liberated by complete combustion of known amount of fuel is absorbed by the known mass of water in calorimeter. From the rise in temperature of water, the calorific value of fuel is determined.

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