Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Shanghai tower

22,310 views

Published on

ppt about shanghai tower and its details........... explaining its structure design and structure system

Published in: Design

Shanghai tower

  1. 1. SHANGHAI TOWER MULTI-STOREYED STRUCTURE SUBMITTED BY: DIKSHA HANS SANSKRITI JINDAL
  2. 2. WORLD’S 20 TALLEST BUILDINGS BY 2020 FROM LEFT – RIGHT 1. KINGDOM TOWER, JEDDAH 2. BURJ KHALIFA, DUBAI 3. PING AN FINANC, SCHENZEN 4. SEOL LIGHT DMC TOWER 5. SIGNATURE TOWER, JAKARTA 6. SHANGHAI TOWER, SHANGHAI 7. WUHAN GREENLAND CENTER 8. MAKKAH ROYAL CLOCK TOWER HOTEL 9. GOLDEN FINANCE 117, TIANJIN 10. LOTTE WORLD TOWER, SEOUL 11. DOHA CONVENTION CENTER AND TOWER 12. ONE WOR;D TRADE CENTER, NY 13. CHOW TAI FOOK GUANGZHOW 14. TIANJIN CHOW TAI FOOK BINHAI CENTER 15. DALIAN GREENLAND CENTER 16. PEMTOMINIUM, DUBAI 17. BUSAN LOTTE TOWN TOWER 18. TAIPAI 101 19. KAISA FENG LOANG CENTER 20. SHANGHAI WFC
  3. 3. SHANGHAI GROWTH
  4. 4. SHANGHAI TOWER SITE: Location: Lujiazui finance and trade zone, Pudong District, Shanghai China Area: 30,370 sq. m. (7.5 acres) TOWER: Height: 632m (2,073 ft.) Stories: 121 occupied floors Area: 410,000 sq. m. above grade and 164,000 sq. m. below grade Program: Office, Luxury Hotel, Entertainment, Retail and Cultural Venues. PODIUM: Height: 36.9m (121 ft.) Stories: 5 stories above grade Areas: 46,000 sq. m. Program: Retail, Banking, Restaurant, Conference, Meeting and Banquet facilities. Below grade levels will house retail. 1800 parking spaces, services and MEP functions. SOM's 1,379-foot-tall Jin Mao Tower, KPF's 1,614-foot-tall Shanghai World Financial Centre, and Gensler's 2,073-foot-tall Shanghai Tower make up a trio of super tall buildings in Lujiazui.
  5. 5. SHANGHAI SKYLINE
  6. 6. LOCATION ON EARTH
  7. 7. BEST IN SHANGHAI TOWER ARCHITECTURAL WONDERS China’s first super high-rise to exceed 600 meters World’s first single building with a weight of 850,000 tons constructed on a soft ground Tallest green building Strictly followed the demands of green building certification, combined various green building technologies and strategies, in line with its commitment to environment protection Largest pouring work for the main building’s foundation surface Completing the concrete pour at one time by using 450 concrete mixer trucks, 8 pump stations of 4 districts throughout the city and 60,000 cubic meters of concrete within 63 hours Tower bearings with the biggest diameter Round-shaped, self-bearing, continuous walls as tower bearings with a diameter of 123.544m Curtain wall supporting steel structure system with the highest construction precision The most professional curtain wall sliding bearings, with an accuracy of up to 2 mm China’s largest construction cranes Four M1280D tower cranes to improve work efficiency Heaviest damper 1,200 tons EFFICIENT OPERATIONS Three sightseeing elevators with a maximum upward speed of 18 meters/second First super high-rise with cloud computing system Able to serve 15,000 to 20,000 people Most advanced energy management and control centre Integrating CHP, Ground Source Heat Pump, ice storage system, electric refrigeration, boiler room, and other facilities. The tower’s topmost levels (565m to 578m) will house 270 wind turbines with a capacity of 135 kW of power Diesel generator with Asia’s biggest capacity Reserve capacity of up to 10,000 kW, single capacity of 2500 kW Window cleaning equipment in the most complex path Spiral-path gondola installed on top of the tower TOP-CLASS FACILITIES Fastest elevator Highest wind turbines First Chinese-style luxury five-star hotel Co-branding with Jinjiang International Hotel Group – the J Hotel Highest panorama restaurant On the 120th floor, at the height of 556.7m Highest hotel lobby On the 101th floor, at the height of 470m Highest swimming pool On the 84th floor, at the height of 393.4m Highest sky lobby On the 101th floor, at the height of 470m
  8. 8. PROJECT MILESTONE December 28, 1993 Planning Scheme of Shanghai Lujiazui Zone was approved by the Shanghai Government in the No.[1993]77 Document. September 12, 2006 10 companies participated in the concept scheme solicitation and proposed 19 design plans and 21 design patterns December 5, 2007 Shanghai Tower Construction and Development Co., Ltd. was established. April 18, 2008 American architecture firm Gensler’s design was selected as the final scheme for Shanghai Tower. November 29, 2008 The construction of Shanghai Tower broke ground.. July 1, 2009 The pile foundation of the main building was finished. March 24, 2010 Shanghai Tower was awarded the LEED Gold Precertification by the US Green Building Council (USGBC) March 26-29, 2010 The 60,000 cubic meters of concrete was successfully poured into the main building backplane September 28, 2010 The construction of the subsurface structure of the main building was completed with 2 layers above the ground and 632 meters there for construction. June 20, 2011 Shanghai Tower exceeded 100 meters. December 6, 2011 Shanghai Tower exceeded 200 meters. May 16, 2012 Shanghai Tower exceeded 300 meters. August 2, 2012 The erection of the curtain wall of the main building was officially launched September 13, 2012 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development officially awarded Shanghai Tower the “3-Star Green Building Design Identity Certificate”. December, 2012 Shanghai Tower exceeded 400 meters. April 11, 2013 Shanghai Tower exceeded 500 meters. August 3, 2013 Shanghai Tower topping out August 3, 2014 Shanghai Tower reached the designed height of 632 meters
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION  Shanghai Tower, located at the core of Pudong’s, Lujiazui Finance and Trade Area in Shanghai  632 meters tall, with 121 floors above ground, 5 floors underground and a total construction area of 576,000 square meters.  It is a vertical city and a mixed-use structure, with office space, a hotel, exhibition halls and both business and tourism functionalities.  It gradually spirals with 120 deg. Inclination.  Its curved façade and spiraling form, symbolizes the dynamic appearance of modern china.  The building strictly adheres to green building design standards. Building employs various green building techniques and a high greening ratio of 33%.  Together with its neighbours, the 420-meter Jinmao Tower and the 492-meter Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai Tower and its graceful spiralling design completes the urban triumvirate. Location: Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone, Pudong, Shanghai, China Area: 30,370 square meters Architectural composition: Main tower + podium Main Tower: Height: 632 meters Floors structural height: 580 meters 125 floors, 121 usable floors Area: Approximately 576,000 square meters (410,000 square meters above ground, 166,000 square meters underground) Function: Office, hotels, recreation, sightseeing, retail and cultural spaces Podium: Height: 38 meters Floor: 5 Floors Area: Approximately 60,100 square meters Function: boutique retail, catering, hotel entrance, exhibitions and banquets. Retail, parking lot, service and electromechanically facilities are available in the basement area. Owner / Developer: Shanghai Tower Construction and Development Co., Ltd. Shareholder: With a RMB 8.6 billion registered capital, the company is jointly funded by Shanghai Chengtou Corporation (51%), Shanghai Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone Development Co., Ltd. (45%) and Shanghai Construction Group Co., Ltd. (4%).
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION  At completion, Shanghai Tower will have 121 occupied floors, 4.09 million square feet (380,000 sq. m) of area above grade and 1.52 million square feet (141,000 sq. m) of area below grade, and 106 elevators.  With nine zones, each comprising 12 to 15 stories and dedicated to retail, office, hotel, and observation/cultural facility uses, Shanghai Tower will be a self-contained city. The circular building is wrapped in a second, exterior skin, which spirals around it in a series of triangular shapes. The angles of these triangles afford 21 public atriums, each 12 to 14 stories high.  With a direct tie into a subway stop, the building has a transit-oriented design.  The dual-skin feature of the structure is important aesthetically, environmentally, and financially. The exterior skin tapers and twists as it goes up the core, extending out into space at points.  The outer skin sort of acts like a coat; it tempers that space.” Warm air will be drawn from the occupied spaces into the atrium, where a chimney effect allows the heat to escape.
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION  The aerodynamics of the spiral shape sharply reduce the wind load on the building, allowing designers to use about one-third less structural steel than in a conventional building.  A 120-degree twist was adopted for the building exterior profile.  The wind flows around the building in a completely different way.  The form also represents the emergence of Shanghai as a financial centre.
  12. 12. BUILDING FACTS  2nd tallest building in the world, and tallest building in china.  120 deg. turn: from base to top, the tower makes a rotation that is optimal for minimising wind loads. The geometry of the building saved 58 million dollars in costly structural materials.  Innovation skin: the circular inner-glass façade requires 14% less glass than a square building of the same total floor area.  6 meter deep(18 foot) matt foundation: trucks pumped concrete during a continuous 63 hours pour in 2010.  Power generation: A 2, 130kW natural gas-fired cogeneration system on the site will provide electricity and heat energy for the low zone areas.
  13. 13. DURING THE CONSTRUCTION IMAGE @ JUNE 2009 IMAGE @ 28 AUGUST 2011
  14. 14. DURING THE CONSTRUCTION BASEMENT CONSTRUCTED ON THE SITE The configuration of Shanghai Tower, with circular office and hotel floors stacked between triangular mechanical floors, has just begun to reveal itself on the construction site.
  15. 15. The notch in the triangular mechanical floor plates helps mitigate vortex shedding. DURING THE CONSTRUCTION Hydraulic platform for hanging the glass panels Exterior curtain wall hanging system
  16. 16. BEST IN SHANGHAI TOWER Three important strategies were adopted for the design: i. He tower’s asymmetrical form ii. Is tapering profile iii. Its rounded corners Green strategies: i. Daylighting: the c]glass sin admits maximum daylight, reducing the need for electrical lighting. ii. Landscaping: one-third of the site is green space, with extensive landscaping that cools the site. iii. Wind turbines: exterior lighting for the tower will be powered by 270 wind driven generators.  Shanghai towers sustainable strategies will reduce the building’s carbon footprint by 34k metric tons per year. Technical innovation: The tower has world’s fastest elevator with the speed equivalent to 40mph. Structural efficiency: the simplifies mega-frame structure is an economical approach. Counteracting sway: a tunes mass damper near the top of the tower improves the occupant's comfort.
  17. 17. CENTRAL CORE MEGA COLUMNS FLOOR PLATES INNER SKIN OUTER-WALL STRUCTURE SECOND SKIN Uses 32 – 35% less structural materials ( concrete and steel ) than any other conventional buildings. It results in savings of 58million US$ STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM
  18. 18. DRAWING OF THE SHANGHAI TOWER GROUND FLOOR PLAN ROOF PLAN
  19. 19. DRAWING OF THE SHANGHAI TOWER LEVEL NINE PLAN LEVEL NINETY-EIGHT PLAN
  20. 20. FLOOR PLANS : AREAS LEVEL AREA (sq. m.) LEVEL AREA (sq. m.) 8 6440 68 3479 9-19 4640 69-81 2424 22 5575 84 2955 23-34 3954 86-98 2047 37 4780 101 2497 38-49 3380 106-110 1755 52 4098 119 2080 53-65 2865
  21. 21. FUNCTIONALITY & ZONE DISTRIBUTION As a vertical city comprised of 9 zones, Shanghai Tower serves five key functions: 1. It provides international-standard, Grade-A offices. The area from Zone 2 to Zone 6 is comprised of approximately 220,000 square meters of office area. In each zone, there is a trade floor providing corporations with fully-equipped space for financial trade businesses. To meet the differentiated demands of the financial service sector such as banks, insurances, securities and funds, and regional headquarters of transnational corporations together with modern new-type service industries for offices, it offers 24/7, customized office space, system and service. 2. It houses a luxury five-star hotel and facilities. Zone 7 and Zone 8 will house J Hotel-- a luxury five-star hotel originating in China, with approximately 80000 square meters in total. This hotel, run by top international hotel management companies will offer high-end customers personalized service, an experiential accommodation environment and a luxurious space to meet their every need. Different zones of the tower includes the following: • Zone 1: Retail • Zone 2: Office • Zone 3: Office • Zone 4: Office • Zone 5: Office • Zone 6: Office • Zone 7: Hotel • Zone 8: Hotel & Boutique Office • Zone 9: Observation & Cultural Facilities Shanghai Tower will become the landmark of the Finance and Trade Area in Lujiazui and an important foundation for the financial service sector in Shanghai. Shanghai Tower also plays an important role in optimizing the overall planning of the Lujiazui area, perfecting city space, improving comprehensive business functions and accelerating the offerings of this modern service sector.
  22. 22. FUNCTIONALITY & ZONE DISTRIBUTION 3. It provides space for themed boutique businesses. The main function of B1, B2 and the annex lies in commerce, with an area of approximately 50,000 square meters. It involves unique commercial facilities such as brand retail stores, specialized restaurants, business service centres and lifestyle space, providing office staff, business people and residents with all-around, high-quality products and services. 4. it offers sightseeing, cultural and recreational facilities. The sightseeing area on the top of Zone 9 covers an area of 4,000 square meters. Bringing to life the concept of an interactive, high-rise sightseeing, the city’s beauty can be observed and taken in with this vantage point. The city’s residents and visitors alike can take a break outside of working hours in this space, where business meets culture for sightseeing, shopping, recreation and relaxation. 5. it features event space and the facilities to accommodate them. The banquet and conference areas in Zone 1 and the annex span 10000 square meters and meet the demands for conferences, forums, exhibitions, art performances, celebrations, fashion shows, parties and the like. Additionally, there is a sky lobby composed of a double curtain wall at the bottom of Zones 2-8. There is a total of 21 full-floor sky lobbies in the building with transparent visions and panoramic city views, providing a safe and comfortable work and social environment. i. Retail and Conference Center ii. Mechanical iii. Atrium iv. Office Space v. Hotel vi. Indoor Observation Desk vii. Outdoor Observation Desk viii. Tuned Mass Damper
  23. 23. DRAWING OF THE SHANGHAI TOWER
  24. 24. DRAWING OF THE SHANGHAI TOWER
  25. 25. REDUCING CORE OF THE STRUTURE
  26. 26. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  27. 27. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED SKETCH OF LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM  The main part of the core-tube is a 30 m by 30 m square RC tube. The thickness of the flange wall of the tube at the bottom is 1.2 m, and the thickness decreases with the height of the tube and reduces to 0.5 m at the top. Similarly, the thickness of the web wall decreases from 0.9 m at the bottom to 0.5 m at the top.  According to the architectural functional requirements, the four corners of the core-tube are gradually removed above Zone 5. Finally, the core-tube becomes X-shaped at the top.  The mega-column system consists of 12 shaped-steel reinforced concrete columns with a maximum cross-sectional dimension of 5,300 mm×3,700 mm.  8 mega-columns extend from the bottom to the top of the building, and the section size gradually reduces to 2,400 mm×1,900 mm at the top.  The remaining 4 columns are located at each corner and only extend from the ground floor to Zone 5.  The outrigger system, located at the mechanical stories, consists of circle trusses and outriggers with a total height of 9.9 m. All of the components of the outriggers are composed of H-shaped steel beams.  Four element types are used in this model: the spatial beam elements used for the external frames and outriggers, the multi-layer shell elements used for the shear walls and the mega-columns, the truss elements used for the rebar and the shaped-steels, and membrane elements for the floor slabs. The details are described in the following subsections.
  28. 28. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED LATERAL SYSTEM FRAME SYSTEM
  29. 29. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED MEGA FRAME AND OUTRIGGER DETAIL Steel I-sections are embedded in concrete, that supports the outrigger trusses. The double belt truss supported through main 8 columns support the curtain walls. The main 8 columns reduces in size as the building grows in height, to complement the reducing volume of building.
  30. 30. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED  Shanghai Tower asymmetry was designed in such way that wind loads were reduced by 24 percent, producing building materials and construction savings. The Tower design features four pairs of super columns organized as nine cylindrical buildings stacked one atop another.  Shanghai Tower inner layer has a triangular exterior layer that constantly shapes the building façade from all directions.  The building contains a double skin façade that creates nine atrium sky gardens, cylindrical buildings stacked one atop the other, that could be used as plazas and reunions. Both skin facades are transparent establishing a connection between the building's interior and Shanghai’s urban fabric.  The tower features a unique “dual-skin” exterior, with the circular building wrapped in a second, exterior skin, which spirals around it. The varying angles of the second skin create 21 landscaped public atriums, each 12 to 14 stories high, which will feature retail and meeting spaces with sweeping views of the city.  The dual-skin feature of the structure is important not only aesthetically but also environmentally and financially.  The outer skin acts like a coat, tempering the space; warm air will be drawn from the occupied spaces into the atrium, where a chimney effect allows the heat to escape. Additionally, the aerodynamics of the spiral shape significantly reduce the wind load on the building, allowing designers to use about one-third less structural steel than in a conventional building.
  31. 31. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED  The skyscraper comprises nine cylindrical buildings stacked on top of each other, all enclosed by a circular inner curtain wall and a triangular facade enveloping the entire structure.  The tower is supported on 831 reinforced concrete bore piles sunk deep into the ground.  At its heart is a concrete core, of 30 sq. m. This itercts with the 4 super columns. The core acts in concert with an outrigger and ‘super-column’ system, with double-belt trusses that support the base of each of the nine vertical neighbourhoods.  The outrigger trusses and super columns derive stiffness from the concrete inner building, producing an effective system for resisting wind and seismic loads for super tall buildings. This approach has made for an easier and faster construction process, meaning significant cost savings for the client.  The tower’s form was refined using wind tunnel tests, which ultimately reduced building wind loads by 24 per cent. The tests pinpointed a 120- degree rotation as optimal for minimizing the wind loads.  The result is a simpler and lighter structure with unprecedented transparency and a 32 per cent reduction in costly materials
  32. 32. STRUCTURE SYSTEM EMPLOYED  To carry the load of the transparent glass skin, an innovative curtain wall has been designed which is suspended from the mechanical floors above and stabilized by a system of hoop rings and struts.  The laminated glass panels filter the sun, wind and rain, while the inner skin encloses the interior space with a unitized low-E coated insulating glass curtain wall system with integral operable solar control devices.  This double skin wall system takes advantage of the stack effect to provide natural ventilation and cooling.  The buffer areas between the inner and outer skins help to regulate the environment as well as collect and recycle rain water.
  33. 33. MODEL VIEWS
  34. 34. MODEL VIEWS
  35. 35. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UNDERTAKEN The tower’s profound twist expression is the result of its geometry, which can be broken down into three key : 1. Horizontal profile :  The profile shape is based on an equilateral triangle.  Two tangential curves offset at 60 degrees were used to create a smooth shape.  This shape is driven by two variables:  the radius of the large circle and its location relative to the center of the equilateral triangle (profile). It should be noted that the actual shape of the profile is independent of the remaining two key geometric drivers.  As a result, Gensler had the ability to look at the effect of modifying the horizontal profile and the impact such changes had on the tower form at all stages of the design.
  36. 36. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UNDERTAKEN 2. Vertical profile : • The concept of the form is to take the horizontal profile and extrude it vertically and conform to the vertical profile. • From a functional point of view, it was important to maintain a wide footprint for the lower third of the tower, with a slender footprint at the upper third—a reduction of about 55% overall. • This proportional distribution allowed for large lease spans within the office portion of the tower and smaller spans within the upper-level hotel/boutique offices. • Adjusting the two values in the horizontal profile and this third value in the vertical profile, we now have complete control of vertical ratio, gross floor area and building form.
  37. 37. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UNDERTAKEN 3. Rate of twist:  This is a simple linear rotation from base to top.  The fact that this final value can be changed independently allowed for great flexibility in the design stage, especially in selecting the best combined overall building performance.  The Gensler design team had anticipated that significant reduction in both tower structural wind loading and wind cladding pressures could be established if the building further improved its proposed geometry following the variables previously explained.  Several scenarios were proposed involving rotation at 90°, 120°, 150°, 180° and 210° and then scaling off 25%, 40% , 55%, 70% and 85%.  Results acquired through this process have shown that a scaling factor of about 55% and rotation at 120° can account for up to 24% savings in structural wind loading and cladding pressure reduction.  This equates to about $50 million (USD) in savings in the building structure alone. Additionally, it helped optimize and distribute maximum cladding loads on the building while maintaining desired aesthetics. Aesthetic concerns prevented the 180° rotation from being pursued, even though it would reduce loading by an additional 9% .
  38. 38. BUILDING DESIGN : WIND TUNNEL SCALIG & ROTATION MODEL Shanghai tower: wind tunnel study scaling models (left) and wind tunnel study rotation models (right).
  39. 39. SUSTAINABLE HIGHLIGHTS The Shanghai Tower features some extraordinary nature-friendly aspects such as:  The inner glass, part of the buildings façades, uses 14 percent less glass than a building occupying the same area but in a square design.  The glass façade minimizes energy consumption.  By having two skin layers forming the building façade the Tower creates thermal buffer zones, that improves indoor air quality.  Some of the building’s parapets are designed to collect rainwater, used for tower’s heating and AC systems.  Shanghai Tower’s spiral shape creates an asymmetrical surface that reduces wind loads acting on the building.  Water treatment plants recycle grey water and storm water for irrigation and toilet use.  A 38 % water consumption reduction is achieved by having interim water storage tanks distributed within the tower allowing the water pressure to be maintained by gravity.  Shanghai Tower has two chiller plants, strategically located, in the building reducing energy required to pump chilled water.  On-site power is generated by wind turbines located directly beneath the parapet.  Building is designed to save 21.59% in annual energy costs.
  40. 40. THANK YOU

×