DEFINITION OF GINGIVITIS
CLASSIFICATION OF GINGIVITIS
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Lat. gingiva = gum
-itis = inflammation
Gingivitis is a reversible oral disease that refers to gingival
inflammation induced by bacterial biofilms, also called
plaque, adherent to tooth surfaces.
Bacterial plaque accumulates in the spaces between the
gums and teeth and in calculus (tartar) that forms on the
If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis,
which is more serious and can eventually lead to loss of
CLASSIFICATION OF GINGIVITIS:
IT IS OF SUDDEN ONSET AND SHORT DURATION AND CAN BE PAINFUL
A LESS SEVERE FORM OF ACUTE CONDITION IS CALLED SUB-ACUTE.
REAPPEARS AFTER ELIMINATED BY A TREATMENT OR DISSAPPEARING SPONTANEOUSLY.
SLOW IN ONSET AND LONG DURATION
INFLAMMATION PERSISTS OR RESOLVES AND NORMAL AREAS BECOME INFLAMMED.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
• bright-red, or purple gums
• shiny gums
• gums that are painless, except when pressure is applied
• gums that easily bleed, even with
and especially when you floss
• receding gumline
• Bad breath (halitosis)
• Inflammation (swollen gums)
• Soft gums
• Build-up of bacterial plaque on the teeth, adjacent gingivae, and pockets between teeth and gums, releasing
toxins that cause an inflammatory response.
• Build-up of calculus contributes to the chronicity of periodontal disease; if plaque is not removed, it forms a
hard mass commonly called 'tartar,' which traps bacteria that cause gingivitis.
• Smoking tobacco
• Faulty dental prosthesis
• Breathing through the mouth
• Local trauma (eg, an overly aggressive toothbrushing technique)
• Dry mouth: because of loss of protective effect of saliva
• Vitamin deficiency, especially of vitamin C
• Changes in hormones - which may occur
during puberty, menopause, the menstrual cycle
The gingiva may become more sensitive,
raising the risk of inflammation.
• Some diseases - such as cancer, diabetes,
and HIV are linked to a
higher risk of developing gingivitis.
• Family history - experts say that people
• whose parent(s) has/had gingivitis,
• have a higher risk of developing it themselves.
•Measuring the gums: A dentist or hygienist will use a periodontal probe to measure the
depths of the pockets around all of the teeth in the mouth generally once per calendar year.
Healthy gums will have pockets 1 mm-3 mm deep. Beyond that, the deeper the pockets, the
more severe the disease.
•Taking X-rays: Dental bitewing X-rays will help
show the level of the underlying bone and
whether any bone has been lost to periodontal disease.
•Examining sensitive teeth: Teeth that have
become sensitive around the gum
line may indicate areas of receding gums.
•Checking the gums: A dentist or hygienist will
• look for red, swollen, or bleeding gums
HOW DOES IS GINGIVITIS DIAGNOSED?
THE DENTISTS WILL DIAGNOSE GINGIVITIS BY FOLLOWING METHODS:
The type of treatment you may require depends on how advanced your particular case is.
Treatment may include any of the following:
1. More frequent cleanings.
2. Scaling, root planning and
curettage of the periodontal pocket
(Basic Periodontal Treatment).
• Scaling is removing the calculus
• deposits from your teeth.
• Root planning is the smoothing of
the root surfaces so that the gum tissue
can reattach to the tooth.
• Curettage is the removal of the
soft tissue lining the periodontal pocket.
This helps the gum tissue to heal.
3. Flap surgery (Advanced Periodontal Treatment) allows us to gain access to the root of
the tooth for removal of calculus, plaque and diseased tissue.
4.Antibacterial mouth rinses or other aids may be also be recommended.
5.Repair of misaligned teeth or replacement of dental and orthodontic appliances may be
6.Any other related illnesses
or conditions should be treated.
What are the possible complications from gingivitis?
if the condition is left untreated, gum disease can spread and affect tissue, teeth and
bones, leading to periodontitis.
Possible complications from gingivitis may include:
• Abscess in the gingiva
• Abscess in the jaw bones
• Infection in the jaw bone or gingiva
• Periodontitis - this is a more serious condition that can lead to loss of teeth
• Recurrent gingivitis
• Trench mouth - ulceration of the gums caused by bacterial infection
What the patient can do at home?
• Brush your teeth at least twice a day
• Floss your teeth at least once a day
• Regularly rinse your mouth with an
• Avoid smoking.
• Avoid refined sugars between meals
• Drink plenty of water: water increases production of saliva, which has a protective effect on teeth and
• Ensure adequate intake of vitamin C.
• Eat a balanced diet (avoid malnutrition)