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Automatic solar night lamp report

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automatic solar night lamp using ldr

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Automatic solar night lamp report

  1. 1. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 1 AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP A Mini Project Report submitted in partial fulfillment for the Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY By ROHINI S (APAMEEE016) SANJUSH S (APAMEEE017) SUJINI M (APAMEEE019) VISHNU M (APAMEEE021) Pursued in Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering ARYANET INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PALAKKAD ARYANET INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PALAKKAD (Affiliated to Calicut University) MAY 2015
  2. 2. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 2 ARYANET INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PALAKKAD-678592, KERALA DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this is a bonafide record of the Mini-Project entitled AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP submitted by Sanjush.S and his crew to Aryanet Institute of Technology Palakkad, in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING under University of Calicut. Guided by Staff in Charge Head of Department Anju M Kavitha B Chand Dr. Sitalekshmi Amma Asst Prof Asst Prof Head of Dept Dept of Dept of Dept of Electrical & Electronics Electrical & Electronics Electrical & Electronic Engineering Engineering Engineering
  3. 3. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 3 DECLARATION We declare that this project report titled Automatic Solar Night Lamp submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of B-Tech in Electrical & Electronics Engineering is a record of original work carried out by me under the supervision of Asst Prof Anju M , Dept of EEE ,and has not formed the basis for the award of any other degree or diploma in this or any other Institution or University. In keeping with the ethical practice in reporting scientific information, due acknowledgements have been made wherever the findings of others have been cited. Palakad-678592 ROHINI S (APAMEEE016) SANJUSH S (APAMEEE017) SUJINI M (APAMEEE019) VISHNU M (APAMEEE021)
  4. 4. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We take this opportunity to thank our project guide, Anju M ,Asst Prof EEE for her valuable guidance and encouragement which has been absolutely helpful in the successful completion of this project. We would also like to thank our Staff-in-charge, Kavitha B Chand, Asst Prof EEE for her valuable suggestions and support throughout. We wish to extend our sincere gratitude to Dr. Sitalekshmi Amma, HOD EEE for her patience and encouragement. We are indebted to Dr. M.R. Vikraman, Principal, AIT Palakkad for his wholehearted support for the completion of this project. We are also grateful to our Parents, Faculty members, Friends and all our well- wishers for their timely aid without which we wouldn’t be able to finish our project successfully. Last but not least; we would like to thank God Almighty for his blessings which made us confident throughout the project. Rohini S Sanjush S Sujini M Vishnu M
  5. 5. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 5 ABSTRACT Automatic Solar Night Lamp system is simple yet powerful concept which uses transistor as a switch. By using this system manual works can be eliminated upto 90%. The lamp can be automatically ON or OFF which can be controlled by LDR. Like our eyes LDR senses the intensity of light falling on it. In this no need of manual operation like ON time and OFF time setting. By using this system electrical energy consuption can be reduced which is one of the main advantage also. In the basic circuit of this system we are using an LDR, Solar Panel, Battery, Transistor, POT, Capacitor, Resistor and an LED.
  6. 6. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS DESCRIPTION PAGE NO CERTIFICATE 2 DECLARATION 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 4 ABSTRACT 5 LIST OF FIGURES 8 LIST OF TABLES 9 ABBEREVIATION / NOTATIONS / NOMENCLATURE 10 1) INTRODUCTION 11 2) PRINCIPLE 12 3) BLOCK DIAGRAM & CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 13 3.1. Block diagram 13 3.1.1. Block explanation 13 3.1.2. ON OFF Control 13 3.2. Circuit Diagram 14 4) COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION 15 4.1. Diode 15 4.2. LED 19 4.3. LDR 21 4.4. Transistor 23
  7. 7. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 7 5) COMPONENTS USED 25 6) WORKING PRINCIPLE 26 7) USE OF THE PROJECT 27 8) CONCLUSION & SCOPES 28 9) REFRENCES 31 NON-PAPER MATERIAL 1. CD (Automatic solar night lamp) back cover of the report
  8. 8. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 8 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO 3.1 Block diagram of ANL 13 3.2 Circuit diagram 14 4.1 p-n Junction in thermal equilibrium with zero voltage 16 4.2 Conduction in p-n junction 16 4.3 p-n junction in thermal equilibrium with 0 bias 17 4.4 p-n junction under forward and reverse bias 18 4.5 Forward & Reverse bias Characteristic 18 4.6 Different Parts of LED 20 4.7 Raditative recombination 20 4.8 Cartoon showing Radiative Recombination 20 4.9 Schematic diagram LED 21 4.10 Circuit symbol LED 21 4.11 LDR 22 4.12 Circuit symbol LDR 22 4.13 BJT configuration 24 8.1 Harvesting solar energy through Cells 28 8.2 Electric grid 29 8.3 Solar street light- a future Respective 30
  9. 9. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 9 LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE NO 5.1 Components and Specification 25
  10. 10. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 10 ABBREVIATIONS/ NOMENCLATURE/ NOTATIONS The abbreviations should be listed in alphabetical order as shown below. AC Alternating Current ASNL Automatic Solar Night Lamp BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor CB Conduction Band DC Direct Current LDR Light Dependent Resistor LED Light Emitting Diode PCB Power Circuit Board POT Potentiometer VB Valence Band The meaning of special symbols and notations used in the report are shown below. Ω Ohm µA Micro Ampere µF Micro Farad µ Micro Chemical nomenclature used in the report are shown below. CdS Cadnium Sulphide CdSe Cadnium Selenide InSb Indium Antimonide PbS Lead Sulfide
  11. 11. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Automatic Solar night lamp Control System is a simple and powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch to switch ON and OFF the street light automatically. By using this system manual works are removed. It automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights under illumination by sunlight. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) which senses the light actually like our eyes. By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because now-a-days the manually operated street lights are not switched off properly even the sunlight comes and also not switched on earlier before sunset. In sunny and rainy days, ON time and OFF time differ significantly which is one of the major disadvantage of using timer circuits or manual operation. This project exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to switch ON and switch OFF the lights at appropriate time with the help of an electromagnetically operated switch. Automatic Streetlight needs no manual operation of switching ON and OFF. The system itself detects whether there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically streetlight is switched ON and when there is other source of light, the street light gets OFF. The extent of darkness at which the street light to be switched on can also be tailored using the potentiometer provided in the circuit.
  12. 12. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 12 CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPLE The automatic solar night lamp control system operates on 6 V DC supply. The automatic streetlight controller has a photoconductive device whose resistance changes proportional to the extent of illumination, which switches ON or OFF the LED with the use of transistor as a switch .Light dependent resistor, a photoconductive device has been used as the transducer to convert light energy into electrical energy. The central dogma of the circuit is that the change in voltage drop across the light dependent resistor on illumination or darkness switches the transistor between cut-off region or saturation region and switches OFF or ON the LED.
  13. 13. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 13 CHAPTER 3 BLOCK DIAGRAM AND CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 3.1 Block Diagram Figure 3.1 Block Diagram of Automatic Night Lamp 3.1.1 Block Explanation Light dependent resistor: LDR senses the illumination level and gives the input signal as voltage drop. Street light: Street light is the output of the circuit. In this circuit, it has been replaced by LED 3.1.2 ON OFF control The circuit is switched ON or OFF by the transistor in saturation region or cut off region respectively, which is controlled by the signal from LDR. The collector current from the transistor toggle between ON or OFF modes.
  14. 14. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 14 3.2 Circuit Diagram The circuit diagram of automatic street light controller is given below: Figure 3.2 Circuit Diagram The description of all the components used in this circuit is given in chapter 4.
  15. 15. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 15 CHAPTER 4 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 4.1 Diode A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. A semiconductor diode is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode is a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a plate and a cathode. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction while blocking current in the opposite direction. Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers. When p-type and n-type materials are placed in contact with each other, the junction is depleted of charge carriers and behaves very differently than either type of material. The electrons in n-type material diffuse across the junction and combines with holes in p-type material. The region of the p-type material near the junction takes on a net negative charge because of the electrons attracted. Since electrons departed the N-type region, it takes on a localized positive charge. The thin layer of the crystal lattice between these charges has been depleted of majority carriers, thus, is known as the depletion region.It becomes nonconductive intrinsic semiconductor material. This separation of charges at the p-n junction constitutes a potential barrier, which must be overcome by an external voltage source to make the junction conduct. The electric field created by the space charge region opposes the diffusion process for both electrons and holes. There are two concurrent phenomena: the diffusion process that
  16. 16. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 16 tends to generate more space charge and the electric field generated by the space charge that tends to counteract the diffusion Figure 4.1 p-n junction in thermal equilibrium with zero bias voltage applied Figure 4.2 Equilibrium, forward and reverse biased conditions in a p-n junction When the diode is forward biased, the positive charge applied to the P-type material repels the holes, while the negative charge applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed towards the junction, the width of depletion zone decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential. With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the electric field of the zone can't counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, consequently reducing electrical
  17. 17. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 17 resistance. The electrons which cross the p–n junction into the P-type material will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Figure 4.3 p-n junction in thermal equilibrium with zero bias voltage applied. Under the junction, plots for the charge density, the electric field and the voltage When the diode is forward biased, the positive charge applied to the P-type material repels the holes, while the negative charge applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed towards the junction, the width of depletion zone decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential. With increasing forward-bias voltage, the
  18. 18. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 18 depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the electric field of the zone can't counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, consequently reducing electrical resistance. The electrons which cross the p–n junction into the P-type material will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Figure 4.4 p-n junction under forward and reverse bias When the diode is reverse biased, the holes in the p-type material and the electrons in the n-type material are pulled away from the junction, causing the width of the depletion zone to increase with increase in reverse bias voltage. This increases the voltage barrier causing a high resistance to the flow of charge carriers thus allowing minimal electric current to cross the p–n junction. The increase in resistance of the p-n junction results in the junction to behave as an insulator. The strength of the depletion zone electric field increases as the reverse-bias voltage increases. Once the electric field intensity increases beyond a critical level, the p-n junction depletion zone breaks down and current begins to flow. Figure 4.5 Forward and reverse bias characteristics of a diode a nd it’s circuit symbol
  19. 19. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 19 A Zener diode is a type of p-n junction diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as Zener knee voltage. By contrast with the conventional device, a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode close to the Zener voltage. The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. In the atomic scale, this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of doping on both sides. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. In this project, diode has been as a rectifier in full-wave rectifier circuit. Moreover, it has also been used a safety component to prevent inductive kick back in the reverse bias mode. 4.2 Light Emitting Diode (LED) Light-Emitting Diodes are elements for light signalization in electronics. The basic principle behind the working of LED is electroluminescence. The Light emitting diode should be forward biased to get the light. In Light emitting diodes, electrons are injected from low work function cathode to the conduction band of the n-type semiconducting material and holes are injected from high work function anode to the valence band ot the p- type semiconducting material. When the electron in the conduction band combines with the hole in the valence band, energy is released. In case of indirect band gap semicondutors, phonon will be released to conserve of both energy and momentum. But in case of direct band gap semiconductor, light will be emitted whose wavelength depends on the band gap of the semiconductor.
  20. 20. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 20 Figure 4.6 Different parts of LED Figure 4.7 Radiative recombination in direct and indirect bandgap semiconductor Figure 4.8 Cartoon showing radiative recombination in a direct band-gap semiconductor
  21. 21. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 21 Figure 4.9 Schematic diagram of working of an LED Figure 4.10 Light emitting Diode and its circuit symbol The main advantage of Light emitting diode over other light sources is its increased efficiency. LEDs are available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, blue and white. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colours. We have employed low cost Red LED in our electronic circuit. 4.3 Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) A LDR is a resisitor whose resistance changes with the intensity of incident light. The working principle of light dependent resistor is photoelectric effect. A light dependent resisitor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If the energy of the incident light is greater than the band gap of the semiconductor, electron -hole pairs are generated. The photogenerated electron-hole pair transits the device giving rise to photoconductivity. The essential elements of a photoconductive cell are the ceramic substrate, a layer of photoconductive material, metallic electrodes to connect the device into a circuit and a moisture resistant enclosure. Light sensitive material is arranged in the form of a long strip,
  22. 22. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 22 zig-zagged across a disc shaped base with protective sides. For additional protection, a glass or plastic cover may be included. The two ends of the strip are brought out to connecting pins below the base as shown below. Figure 4.11 Top view and side view of Light Dependent Resisitor The commercial photoconductive materials include cadmium sulphide (CdS), cadmium selenide (CdSe), Lead sulfide (PbS) and Indium antimonide (InSb) etc., There is large change in the resistance of a cadmium selenide cell with changes in ambient temperature, but the resistance of cadmium sulphide remains relatively stable. Moreover, the spectral response of a cadmium sulphide cell closely matches to that of a human eye. Hence, LDR is used in applications where human vision is a factor such as street light control or automatic iris control for cameras. The above mentioned features drive us to opt for CdS based LDR in our electronic circuit for Automatic street light controller. Figure 4.12 Light Dependent Resistor and its circuit symbol Top view Side view
  23. 23. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 23 4.7 Transistors Transistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. The transistor's ability to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: switching or amplification. Then bipolar transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions:  Active Region - the transistor operates as an amplifier and IC = β IB  Saturation - the transistor is fully-ON operating as a switch and IC = Isaturation  Cut-off - the transistor is "fully-OFF" operating as a switch and IC = 0 The word Transistor is an acronym, and is a combination of the words Transfer Varistor used to describe their mode of operation way back in their early days of development. There are two basic types of bipolar transistor construction, NPN and PNP, which basically describes the physical arrangement of the P-type and N-type semiconductor materials from which they are made. A transistor is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. The Bipolar Junction Transistor basic construction consists of two PN-junctions producing three connecting terminals with each terminal being given a name to identify it from the other two. These three terminals are known and labeled as the Emitter (E), the Base (B) and the Collector (C) respectively. Bipolar Transistors are current regulating devices that control the amount of current flowing through them in proportion to the amount of biasing voltage applied to their base terminal acting like a current-controlled switch. The principle of operation of the two transistor types NPN and PNP, is exactly the same the only difference being in their biasing and the polarity of the power supply for each type.
  24. 24. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 24 Figure 4.13 Bipolar Junction Transistor Configurations Since Bipolar Junction Transistor is a three terminal device, there are basically three possible ways to connect it within an electronic circuit with one terminal being common to both the input and output. Each method of connection responding differently to its input signal within a circuit as the static characteristics of the transistor varies with each circuit arrangement.  Common Base Configuration - has Voltage Gain but no Current Gain.  Common Emitter Configuration - has both Current and Voltage Gain.  Common Collector Configuration - has Current Gain but no Voltage Gain.
  25. 25. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 25 CHAPTER 5 COMPONENTS USED IN THE CIRCUITS TABLE 5.1 Components and Specification S.No. Component Nos Used 1 IN4007 1 For rectification 2 8.2K Resistor 2 To offer resistance 3 4.7K Variable Resistor 1 Switch ON point tuning 4 LDR 10 mm 1 Photoconductor 5 470 µF,25V Capacitor 1 To store and supply Steady charge 6 5mm Red LED 1 Indicator 7 SL 100 Transistor 1 Amplifier and switch 8 6V Rechargeable Battery 1 To store Voltage 9 6V 150mA Solar panel 1 Convert light energy to electrical energy 10 03A004 PCB 1 Circuit Board
  26. 26. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 26 CHAPTER 6 WORKING Solar panels positive and negative terminals can be directly connected to the battery. Current from the Solar panel passes through IN 4007 diode which acts as polarity protector as well as rectifier. 470uF capacitor functions as a reservoir to give steady charge to the battery in varying sunlight conditions. Lamp circuit is an automatic switch controlled by an LDR. During day time LDR conducts taking the base voltage of the Driver transistor SL 100 and it will be non conducting to keep the LEDs off. At sunset, resistance of LDR increases and transistor conducts. White LEDs get power and switches on. Use any Medium power NPN transistor like BD139, TIP 122 etc if SL 100 (CL 100, BEL 100) is not available. Placing the LEDs in front of a reflector (or Mirror) will increase the light, Light from the LED should not fall on the LDR. Use 6 volt rechargeable battery. Adjust the POT to set the sensitivity of LDR so that at the required light level, LEDs turn on. Alternately, 4.5 volt battery or mobile battery can be used. Backup time depends on the capacity of the battery since the White LED takes 3 volts and 100-300 mA current.
  27. 27. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 27 CHAPTER 7 USE OF THIS PROJECT By employing this circuit, energy consumption can be reduced considerably as the light switches ON or OFF automatically in appropriate time. Moreover, errors which occur due to manual operation also can be eliminated completely. The Automatic street light controller unit fabrication is cost-effective with good sensitivity and high reproducibility. Moreover, the construction of the circuit is also simple so that it can be done easily as it involves locally available components. The circuit is designed in such a way that the extent of darkness at which the light has to switch ON or OFF also can be tailored whenever it is needed. It can be used for other purposes like garden lighting, balcony lighting etc. Advantages:-  Pollutant free  Works according to the light intensity  Low cost and reliable circuit  Complete elimination of manpower  System can be switched into manual mode whenever required
  28. 28. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 28 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION & SCOPE Application 1: The above circuit can be powered from a battery, which can be charged during day time by harvesting the solar energy through a solar cell as shown below: Figure 8.1 Harvesting the solar energy through a solar cell Battery Solar cell
  29. 29. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 29 Application 2: The solar energy harvested from sunlight can be stored, inverted from DC voltage to AC voltage using sun tie converter. The AC voltage can be stepped up and given to the electric grid. Photovoltaic array Figure 8.2 Electric grid
  30. 30. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 30 The AC voltage from the electric grid can be stepped down, rectified and used for powering the circuit. Meanwhile, the street light can also be powered by the A.C. voltage, which is controlled by a relay switch connected to the switching part of the circuit. The above mentioned strategy will enable us to harvest solar energy in an effective way for the operation of the circuit and for powering the street light also. Figure 8.3 Solar Street light system with Automatic street light controller A Future perspective
  31. 31. Dept Of EEE AUTOMATIC SOLAR NIGHT LAMP AIT, Palakkad 31 CHAPTER 9 REFRENCES 1. S.M. Sze, Y. Wiley, “Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology”, 2nd ed., ISBN 0-471-33372-7, Aug 2001. 2. S. M. Sze, New York: Wiley “Physics of Semiconductor Device”, ISBN 0-471-84290-7. Jul 1989. 3. J.R. Hook, H. E. Hall., “Solid State Physics”, ISBN 0-471-92805-4, Jan 2001. 4. Turley, Jim, “The Essential Guide to Semiconductors”, Prentice Hall PTR ISBN 0-13- 046404-X. , Jun 2002. 5. Y.U Peter, Y. Cardona, “Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties”, Springer, ISBN 3-540-41323-5., Aug 2004.

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